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schools, and the poor. For the ministers, which the vicious obtain easy admission they required, that such “honest pro- into the company of the virtuous. vision" should be made as would give There is one almost casual expression “ neither occasion of solicitude, neither in that part of the Book of discipline yet of insolencie and wantonnesse.” The which treats of Church censures, of too stipends of ministers were to be collected much importance to be passed by withby the deacons from the tithes; but all out notice, tending, ao it does, to throw a illegal exactions were to be previously flood of light on the character of the age, abolished, and measures taken to relieve and to vindicate the reformers from one the cultivators of the ground from the of the heaviest of the accusations brought oppressive manner in which the tithes against them,-“correcting of the faults had been gathered by the clergy, or by which either the civil sword doth neglect those to whom they had farmed them. or may not punish." Every person at The revenues of bishoprics, and of cathe- all acquainted with the history of inose dral and collegiate churches, with the tịmes will see the deep meaning of these rents arising from the endowments of very pregnant words. Rent as the kingmonasteries and other religious founda- dom had long been into feudal factions tions, were to be divided, and appropri- there was scarcely anything in it deservated to the support of the universities, or ing the name of public justice. Every of the churches within their bounds. ambitious nobleman was ready to defend

The reformers were well aware of the the most notorious criminals, for the purneces

essity of establishing and maintaining pose of strengthening his “following," a systematic course of discipline. “ As by the accession of fierce, lawless, and no commonwealth can flourish or long unscrupulous adherents. Impartiality endure without good laws, and sharp exe- in the administration of justice, and the cution of the same, so neither can the suppression of crime, neither did exist, Kirk of God be brought to purity, neither nor was possible in such a state of matyet be retained in the same, without the ters; and the popish clergy, being themorder of ecclesiastical discipline, which selves as licentious and unjust as either stands in reproving and correcting of the people or nobles, were not disposed to atfaults which the civil sword either doth tempt enacting or enforcing laws by neglect or may not punish. “ To dis- which they might themselves be concipline must all the estates within the demned and punished. realm be subject, as well as the rulers as therefore, an absolute necessity that the they that are ruled; yea, and the preach-reformed Church of Scotland should ers themselves, as well as the poorest take decided measures, not only for the within the Kirk." These quotations may teaching of truth, but also for the supalone serve to show, that there was no- pression of vice and immorality, as far thing in which the Scottish reformers ap- as its authority could possibly reach, and proached nearer to the primitive Church, much farther than in a better state of than in the rigorous and impartial exer- society would have been either necescise of ecclesiastical discipline, the relaxa- sary or desirable. Yet, even when imtion of which, under the papacy, they pelled by these urgent considerations, justly regarded as one great cause of the the Church of Scotland never attempted universal corruption of religion. “ In to dictate in civil matters, nor even called some instances they might carry their upon the secular authorities to inflict rigour against offenders to an extreme, civil penalties for the purpose of enforcbut it was a virtuous extreme, compared ing discipline purely ecclesiastical. That with the dangerous laxity, or rather total the Church called upon the parliament disuse, of discipline which has gradually to suppress idolalry, and to abolish the crept into almost all the churches that re- papal jurisdiction in the kingdom, is adtain the name of reformed; even as the mitted; but this cannot justly be regardscrupulous delicacy with which our fore- ed as any thing more than the public fathers shunned the society of those who voice of the Church calling upon the had transgressed the rules of morality, is civil magistrate to do his own duty in to be preferred to modern manners, by his own province, as idolatry is a viola

17*

There was,

* First Book of Discipline, chap. ix.

M'Crie's Life of Knox, p. 251.

trate. *

tion of natural religion, and even of of Faith, and the First Book of Discipreason itself, and the papal jurisdiction line, of the Church of Scotland, were involves the national crime of allegiance disliked, opposed, repressed, and turned to a foreign secular power, which no aside by the worldly-wise statesmen of well-governed country can safely tolerate. that day, as they have often been in subA slight apparent confusion between the sequent times; but they took up their secular and the ecclesiastical jurisdictions abiding residence in the mind and heart arose from the fact that the parliament, of Scotland, --in the deliberate judgment or the magistracy of particular burghs, and conviction of its intellect, and the had enacted punishments of a corporal fervent regard of its affection; and the kind, against certain crimes which were struggle then begun will continue, till, ordinarily tried in the church courts; sooner or later, they be completely but the infliction, as well as the enacting realized. of them, pertained to the civil magis- It has been already stated, that the

Protestant nobility readily enough conSuch were the fundamental principles, sented to the suppression of the papal and the chief points of the government jurisdiction, and the public sanctioning and discipline of the Church of Scotland of the reformed doctrines, especially as as stated in the Book of Discipline, these measures were understood to imply drawn up by John Knox and the most a prospective confiscation of the exorbieminent of the Scottish reformers; ap- tant wealth of the Romish clergy. But proved by the General Assembly; and they were by no means equally satisfied subscribed by the majority of the nobles, with the remaining main propositions of and inferior barons, and gentry, com- the reformers,-the regulations of disposing the privy council of the kingdom. cipline, and especially the appropriation Had it obtained the complete sanction of of the patrimony of the suppressed the civil government, and its principles Church to the purposes, ministerial, eduand arrangements thereby been brought cational, and charitable, of the new eccleinto full operation, many, if not all of the siastical establishment. They had for calamities which speedily fell upon the some time cast a covetous eye on the rich kingdom, might have been averted. revenues of the popish clergy. Some of But statesmen had not then learned, them had seized upon church lands, or neither indeed have they yet, the impor- retained the tithes in their own hands. tant difference between principles, which Others had taken long leases of them have in them the energy of imperishable from the clergy for small sums of money, vital

powers, and external arrangements, and were anxious to have these private which are either the results of the opera- bargains legalized.

From this arose tion of principles, or are the mere mounds one great cause of their aversion to have by which short-sighted men attempt to the Book of Discipline ratified, lest they modify and restrain the aspect and should be obliged to surrender the spoil growth of the internal agency, which they had unjustly obtained.

The plan they understand not, but wish to coerce of the Church was, they said, a

66 devout Arrangements may be altered almost at imagination," a mere visionary scheme, will; but principles, when once fully which showed indeed the goodness of stated, can never be destroyed. They their intentions, but which it was imposmay be repressed, fettered, turned awry sible to carry into practical effect. In in their operations; but they continue to short, they determined to retain by force operate powerfully even when unseen, the greater part of the Church revenues, causing convulsion after convulsion as thus fraudfully seized upon, for their own they rend asunder and throw off the un- advantage. comforting external moulds into which Several public events of great importhey have been forced; and must inevit- tance occurred about this time, by which ably continue thus to act, till they obtain the affairs of the Church were not a little a free and unconstrained developement, influenced, and which, therefore, must be congenial to their own nature. The briefly stated. Francis

, the young king principles stated in the First Confession of France, and in virtue of the matrimo Baillie's Vindication, p. 17.

nial crown as husband of Mary, king of

Nor was

Scotland also, died in December 1560. that they would not only support her in Mary immediately lost all power at the chastising her rebellious subjects, but French court, and indicated her willing- would assist her also to prosecute her ness to return to Scotland. Her natural claims to the English crown Mary brother, Lord James Stewart, was sent by brought with her to Scotland these prethe Scottish parliament to France, in the possessions and schemes; and she adexpectation that he might induce her to hered to them throughout her life with be favourable to the reformed Church; the most determined pertinacity. She and Lesly, afterwards bishop of Ross, did, indeed, temporise for a time, as the was deputed by the Romish party to pro- Protestants were in the possession of all mote their interests. Mary manifested power in the kingdom; but she resolved no disposition to favour the Reforma- to withhold her ratification of the late tion ; but seemed disposed to place much proceedings, and to embrace the first favconfidence in the political sagacity of her ourable opportunity to overturn them, brother, endeavouring, at the same time, and re-establish the ancient system.* to draw him aside from his adherence to The Protestants, on the other hand, the reformed Church, in which she was remembering well the deep dissimulation partially successful.

of her mother, and aware of the Serce Previous to the return of Mary, the bigotry of the Guisan family, were jea. second General Assembly was held at lous of their young queen, and had Edinburgh, on the 27th of May 1561. strictly prohibited the deputies sent to Its proceedings were chiefly directed to France from promising her more than the object of obtaining a specific ratifi- the private exercise of her religion,--if, cation of certain topics contained in the indeed, even that could be tolerated. BeBook of Discipline, respecting the sup- tween such conflicting principles and pression of idolatry, and the providing of aims, it was impossible but that a colmaintenance for the reformed preachers, lision should speedily ensue. which the privy council thought proper occasion long wanting for the exhibition to grant.

of that hostility which was so deeply On the 19th of August, in the same entertained by both parties. As if to year, Queen Mary landed at Leith, and seize the earliest opportunity of proving was conducted to Holyrood-house, in the her attachment to her own faith, Mary midst of great demonstrations of joy at gave orders for the celebration of a soi. her safe arrival, by a people predisposed emn mass in the chapel of Holyroodto the most devoted loyalty, provided their house, on the first Sabbath after her arallegiance to an earthly sovereign was rival.' This service, it will be rememnot strained to the violation of the infi- bered, had been prohibited by an act or nitely higher allegiance which they owed the late parliament, and had not beeir to the King of kings. There was but publicly performed since the conciusion too much certainty, that they would soon of the civil war. This most unwise be put to choose whether they would step of the queen gave such offence to violate their conscience or offend their the people, that it was with the utmost queen. Mary had unfortunately been difficulty they were prevented from trained up from her infancy in a blind breaking into an open tumult, and inflictattachment to the tenets and observances ing punishment on the perpetrators of of Popery; and, before she left France, what they regarded as a direct violation her uncles of the house of Guise or Lor- at once of the laws of God and of the raine had used every means to strengthen nation. An act of the privy council this prejudice, and to inspire her with was framed, prohibiting all innovations hatred to the religion which had been in the religion found by the queen on embraced by her people. She was her arrival; but, at the same time, protaught that it would be the glory of her hibiting all tumultuary interference with reign to bring back her kingdom to its the French attendants “for any cause former obedience to the påpal sway, and whatsoever," by which they were proto co-operate with the popish princes on tected in their religious usages, despite the Continent in extirpating heresy. To the known hostility of her Protestant this was added as a strong inducement,

See M'Crie's Life of Knox, note UU.

subjects. Against this act of council the withdraw that aid --whether by direct Earl of Arran alone of the nobility pro- violation of His commandments, or by tested briefly; but a more full and for- such temporizing conduct as implies dismal protest was made by the Protestant trust of His all-sufficient support,---must ministers

. John Knox took occasion to lead infallibly to their own punishment, deliver his mind fully and openly on the in the overthrow of their undertaking, subject in a sermon preached by him on or the indefinite postponement of its sucthe following Sabbath ; in which he de- cess. So thought and believed John clared, “ That one mass was more fear- Knox; and hence his dread of one perful unto him than if ten thousand armed mitted mass, as tending to cause God to enemies were landed in any part of the withdraw his support, and to leave them realm, of purpose to suppress the whole to the punishment which their faithless religion : for, said he, in our God there and temporizing devices had deserved. is strength to resist and confound multi- Such opinions and rules of action, we tudes, if we unfeignedly depend upon well know, are termed fanatical by sages Him, of which we have had experience; and the learned, by the philosophers and but when we join hands with idolatry, it statesmen of the world; but the Christian is no doubt but both God's presence and knows their truth, and the reflecting hisdefence will leave us; and what shall torian may learn and mark their reality then become of us 3*

and their value. We shall have repeated Let the Christian reader note well the occasion to trace them, and to note their reasoning on which Knox founds his importance, in our subsequent pages. dread of the mass; and let him put to The report of Knox's animadverhimself this question, and ponder well sions upon her conduct was speedily what answer must be returned to it:-conveyed to the queen. She seems to “Can religion be reformed really and have resolved to try the possible amount successfully without the direct aid of of that personal influence with him which God, and can it be defended in any other she had found so effectual with a great manner ?" The man of the world may number of the Protestant lords; of imagine that it can; but he will not

pro

whom it was customary to say, that they duce one instance that it ever came to court. very zealous defenders of Neither will it be possible to produce the true religion, but, after a few days' one instance of a great and real refor- residence there, the fire-edge wore off mation of religion taking place, without them, and they became as temperate as the the chief human agents being themselves rest. If such were her expectations, she fully persuaded that they are enjoying was completely disappointed; and findthe direct aid of God, and, in the strength ing that she had now to deal with a man of that belief, proceeding confidently for- who could neither be flattered nor overward with measures the success of which, awed, she seems to have ever afterwards according to every merely human calcu- regarded him with mingled feelings of lation, is absolutely hopeless. For the respect, terror, and hatred. Knox had, same reason they will be found rejecting on his part, made it his study to avail those schemes which human prudence himself of such an opportunity to discovand political sagacity would most recom-er the real character of the queen; and mend; and expressing their dread of no- when some of his friends asked his opinthing so much as of the unhallowed in- ion of her, he answered, “ If there he termixture of worldly wisdom in their not in her a proud mind, a crafty wit

, sacred welfare, especially when that in and an indurate heart against God and termixture involves the crime of conniv- his truth, my judgment faileth me."* ing at what they believe to be direct or Few will now deny that his judgment implicit violation of the laws of Him proved to be but too accurate. The estiwho alone can give the victory. For mate which he formed of the queen's they well know, that as their enterprise character, and the coldness which he can be brought to a successful issue perceived spreading among the Protestthrough the aid of God alone, so, what- ant lords, had no other effect upon him ever has the tendency to cause Him to than to make him the more watchful

was.

* Knox, p. 287.

* Knox, p. 292.

77*

over public procedure, and the more de- ment in settling the provision for the termined in the defence of the Church. ministers of the Church Hitherto they

A meeting of the General Assembly had lived chiefly on the benevolence of was held in December, the same year, their hearers, and many of them had 1561, of which the Booke of the Univer- scarcely the means of subsistence, but sall Kirk gives no account, probably be repeated complaints having obliged the cause its time was spent in disputations, privy council to take up the affair, they without producing any direct result. came at last to a determination, that the These disputations, however, have been ecclesiastical revenues should be divided recorded by Knox himself; and a brief into three parts; that two of these should account of them is necessary, as showing be given to the ejected popish clergy, the altered sentiments of some of the and that the third part should be divided Protestant lords. A considerable num- between the court and the protestant ber of them at first absented themselves ministry! Well might Knox exclaim, from the meeting of the Assembly; and when he heard of this disgraceful arwhen reproved, they retorted by disput- rangement, “ If the end of this order, ing the propriety of such conventions pretended to be taken for the sustentation without her majesty's pleasure. Mait- of the ministers, be happy, my judgment land of Lethington, now made secretary fails me! I see two parts freely given of state, took upon him to encounter the to the devil, and the third part must be reasoning of Knox. 66 Take from us divided betwixt God and the devil." the liberty of assemblies, and take from us Even the lords of the privy council seem the gospel," said the reformer. " If the to have felt that their own nefarious deed liberty of the Church must depend upon was little better than a mockery ; for her allowance or disallowance, we shall when the scheme was proposed among want not only assemblies, but the preach- them, the Earl of Huntly, himself a ing of the gospel." It was then proposed popish nobleman, addressed the others that the Book of Discipline should be jestingly, by “Good morrow, my lord: ratified by the queen; but this was of the two parts. The privy council pointedly opposed by the secretary appointed certain persons to fix the suma Ĉ How many of those that subscribed which were to be appropriated to the that book will be subject to it ?" said he court and to the ministry, and also the scoffing!y. It was answered, “ All the particular salaries which were to be algodly." “ Will the Duke ?" said Leth-lotted to individual ministers, according ington. “If he will not,” replied Lord to the circumstances in which they were Ochiltree, “ I wish that his name were placed. The officers for this purpose scraped, not only out of that book, but composed a board under the privy counalso out of our number and company; for cil, which was called the Court of to what end shall men subscribe, and Modification." The persons thus apnever mind to keep word of that which pointed to “modify the stipends," were they promise ?" Lethington answered, disposed to gratify the queen, and her that many subscribed it, in fide parentum, demands were readily answered; while as children are baptized. Knox replied, the sums allotted to the ministers were that “the scoff was as untrue as it was as ill paid as they were inadequate. unbecoming; for the book was publicly Lethington again displayed his sneering read, and its different heads discussed, and bitter nature, asserting that “ if the for a number of days, and no man was ministers were sustained, the queen required to subscribe what he did not would not get, at the year's end, to buy understand.” “Stand content," said one her a pair of new shoes.”

66 To these of the courtiers : " that book will not be dumb dogs the bishops," answered Knox, obtained." “Let God," replied Knox, “ten thousand was not enough; but to

require the injury which the common- the servants of Christ, that painfully wealth shall sustain, at the hands of those preach the Gospel, an hundred merkst who hinder it."

must suffice! How can that be susAnother subject which caused keen tained ?!' and protracted altercation between Knox The preceding particulars have been and the court party, was their manage- Knox, pp. 296-300. + 100 merks Scots=£5, 11s. 13-4d.

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