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ing from the decomposition of animal or vegetable substances in solution or suspension in the atmosphere, by means of heat and moisture : the circumscribed insiu. ence of this poison giving rise to local or endemic diseases, while the same morbific principle, disengaged by grand atmospheric changes over a large extent of coun. try, produces extensive epidemic disorders. The malarious virus being extricated from the sources above described, and beld in solution by the combined influence of humidity and high temperature, are stated to become precipitated on the earth, wben there is such decrease of temperature during the night, as diminishes the sulvent power of the atmosphere, and when we find that Malaria produces its de. leterious effects. The Author ascribes a certain influence in the production of Malaria to the respiration of plants, which he supposes consume oxygen, and evolve nitrogen. In pursuing these ideas, he suggests that nitrogen may be a compound of oxygen and hydrogen, and when in excess, may be thrown to the earth in the íorm of rain, by means of electricity; this opinion he considers to be supported by the observations of medical writers, regarding the increase and de. crease of epidemic maladies. Mr. Hutchinson supposes the productions of the earth consume the atmospheric air ; and that the aunosphere is regenerated from the decompesition of the earth, or of water. The Author savs, let us proceed one step farther, anıl suppose that the ocean the atmosphere, the habitable globe, and every thing on its surface, may, perhaps, be ultimately resolvable into these two gases, oxygen and hydrogen, which, in certain proportions, combine so firmly, as to be unaffected by artificial chemical processes, : that such compounds unit with other bodies, or with additional proportions of either of the original gases, forming ternary and quaternary compounds, &c. The earth, air, water, and every thing which inhabits them, may be thus of the same original constitution, and each may possess a species of vitality peculiar to itself.
Epidemic maladies, and their causes, are next adverted to. The Author says, it is not improbable, that the cause of all diseases of this nature is the same ; vary. ing in the effects which it produces, according to the predisposition to disease which may exist, and the particular constitutions of individuals. The production and progress of Epidemic Cholera are then noticed ; but the Author does not be. lieve in the influence of bad rice, or any other unwholesome article of food, in caus. ing that disease, seeing that multitudes use the saine sort of food, for a long time before the appearance of Cholera at a station, and continue the same diet for months, after the cessation of the disease, without any ill effects. Reflection has long since satisfied the Author, that there is an essential difference in the consti. tution of the atmosphere of this country, and that of our own; and he thinks it not improbable, that thie state of the atmosphere is modified in every different situation on the surface of the globe. The effects of Malaria, on the human constitution, are stated to be of a sedative or debilitating nature ; and the poison is supposed to be introduced into the system through the medium of the lungs.
The nature of the Endemic fever of Bengal is then consid under three distinct heads, viz. simple idiopathic fever ; 2d, the same disease complicated with local inflammation ; and 3d, the congestive which has hitherto been denominated the bilious, or jungle fever. The ordinary symptoms of an incipient attack of the Bengal fever, are then minutely described, as it is stated to occur in its idiopathic form ; after which, the various complications, with inflammation, are voticed, and their symptoms pointed out. The nature of these two forms of fever are then fol. lowed up, and described as much of the game general character, during the first six or seven days of their progress ; after which period, those patients who survive, but are not convalescent, have lapsed into the secondary or typhoid stage, in which their differences are lost, or marked only by their comparative mildness or severity. The complications of fever, with hepatic inflammation, are then more particularly alluded to, and the symptoms pointed out. Affections of the spleen are stated to be unknown, or very uncommon, in the commencement of fevers, but frequently to arise in the course of the secondary or typhoid stage. Affections of the head are next mentioned, and described as of four different sorts. 1st. The comatose state, at the commencement of sever, arising from congestion of the vessels
of the head. 2d. The sthenic, or ardent inflammation, 3d. The typhoid variety, attending the early stage of congestive fevers, and liable to terminate in coma; and 4th, a species of delirium, supposed to arise from passive arterial urgescence, or from some slight effusion in the brain. Besides these affections of the head, he also mentions a state that resembles coma, which commences about the 4th, or Eth day of fever ; being attended with dilated pupils and every symptom of op; pression of the brain ; this state is said to depend on inflammation of the small intestines.
In the treatment of the 1st species of fever, the Author has generally found the following remedies successful ; 16 or 20 leeches to the head, or the region of liver ; 8 grains of Calornel, with 12 of Colocynth, at bed time, and a dose of infusion of Senna with Salts, the next morning ; and to be repeated every 3 hours, till 5 or 6 stools are produced. In the afternoon of the 2nd day, if symptoms of local inflammation appear, recourse is had to V. S. once, or oftener; at any rate, 4 grains of Calomel are advised to be given at 4 p. 01. and the Calomel and Colocynth again at bed time, as before ; infusion of Senna being repeated next day, so as to purge 6, 7, or 8 times. This course is pursued until Ptyalism appears, with which occurrence, in a great majority of cases, the fever is found to cease. However, should the exhibition of the above remedies not produce the desired effect in 5 or 6 days, the ferer degenerates into the secondary, or typhoid stage.
The 3rd species of fever, or the congestive, shews itself in a manner somewhat similar to the other species just described; but with the difference of being attended with greater irritability of stomach; prostration of strength is complete from the beginning, and the patient is nervous and irritable, with constant jactitution, and occasional deep sighing; and the symptoms indicate that the balance of the circulation is deeply disordered, and the great venous trui ks, gorged with blood indifferently oxygenized. This fever will generally run on to the typhoid stage, and in its progress, a sudden collapse is very liable to take place. The features becoming pinched and sharp ; countenance anxious, dark and chilled : fingers and hands cold; pulse small; and respiration embarrassed : 9 out of 10, 80 affected, die within 24 hours. In the congestive form of fever, the Author proposes to bleed cautiously, bearing in mind that the effect of any V. S. is not to be ascertained in less than 8 or 10 hours. The use of purgatives is also advised with Binilar caution, as these medicines, it is said, may likewise be carried to a pernicious extent.
The Author next takes a view of the statement requisite in the stage of collapse, in whica he says, there is a striking analogy with the cold stage of intermittent. In the treatment of this stage, the Author is inclined to adopt the stimulant plan of treatment as the best.
The severity of fevers is ascribed to the concentration of the Malaria, hy which they were produced ; and their continuance is supposed frequently to depend on remaining within the range of the exciting cause ; and this, in the Anthor's opinion, is one principal reason of the fortunate tendency to terminate in the secondary or typhoid stage. The Author also asserts, that trusting too much to the use of 'Calomel, is a frequent cause of such changes taking place; and he declares that be has recently seen repeated instances of locked jaw, and exfoliation of the alveolar processes, from the undue use of mercury. For the purpose of illustration, the following imaginary case is stated. The treatment of fever is said to commence with Calomel, which is continued in considerable doses, perhaps every 3 hours ; the stvols becoming black, blue, or green, which appearances are ascribed to bad bile, and the medicine is continued. Should the mouth become affected, the remedy is still repeated for the purpose of producing free Ptyalism; the administratiun of pargatives being avoided, lest the effects of the mercury should thereby be carried off. The fever increases, and any symptoms of incipient Ptyalism disap. pearing, the patient, if young, is liable to fall into a comatose state, or the disease takes on the typhoid appearance, between the 6th and 10th day. The heat of sur. face is decreased, and the pulse becomes rapid, with prostration of strength. There is occasionally some remission in the morning, with disposition to coma in the day,
and delirium towards night. During all this time, the stools are black and hilious, in consequence of the Calomel : but if that medicine be omitted and a dose of Rhurbarb and blue Pill, or a dose of Castor Oil, be substituted, the stools will almost immediately assume a healthy aspect. Instead of this change in the treatment, the practitioner is imagined to be persevering in ordering repeated doses of mercury until the action of the heart becomes quite irregular, and the patient is lost. The tepid bath and mild purgatives are advised, when this state commences; and if the patient be very low, he is directed to liave occasionally a light cordial, such as clarei and water, Camphor mixture, and so forth. The Author furtber states, that quantities of mercury, accumulated in the system, occasionally break out suddenly, affecting the constitution in the most severe and unfavorable manner. The purgatives most relied on, are the compound Senna mixture, or Pulv. Jalap. C. administered in Saline mixture, with antimonial wine ; and in the advanced stages of fever, the warm purgatives are considered mere advisable. The efficacy of Emetics is most highly spoken of, especially among natives : but the Author en. tertains a strong prejudice against the free and continued exhibition of Antimonial Powder ; conjecturing that he has observed it to induce hickup, with gradually increasing coldness of the surface ; copious watery perspirations, and ultimately death, as if from the effects of a mineral poison. Mr. H.is averse to the use of opium in the early stages of fever ; in the typhoid stage, however, and when the heat of surface is reduced, he asserts this medicine may be beneficial in procuring rest. In cases where a remission or interinission of the fever is observed, the time. ly exhibition of Quinine is recommended; and a combination of that medicine with calomel, is proposed, for the purpose of bringing the specific powers of calo. mel more quickly into operation.
In every species of fever, and during its whole continuance, a drink made of 259. of Aitric Acid, mixed with lb.iss of water, is most highly spoken of. Du. ring the first period of fever, the Author is not solicitous about the patient's eating, but after the 3d day, a basia of chicken soup, gruel, or some article of the sort, is ordered to be taken daily.
In the secondary stage of Adynamic fever, a glessy gwelling of the cheek is described, which gradually increases, till, at last, an extensive slough is thrown out from the centre of the cheek, leaving a large aperture into the fauces; the dis. ease extenuing very deeply, and affecting the bones of the face. Formerly, this affection was attributed to mercury, but more recently the Author has found it ia patients who had not used mercury. When the lever is unusually protracted, and there is morning remission, and a severe exacerbation towards evening, with unusual heat of suriace, and odema of the feet, Mr. fl. states that an affection of the spleen is indicated: in other cases be says the continuance of fever is owing to hepatic affections of an obscure kind, which are apt to terminate in abscess. Fourteen cases are given in illustration of the Author's opinions, and in support of the doctrines he inculcates.
AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.
At a Special Meeting of the Society held on the 23d Instant, the President, Sir Edward Ryan, in the Chair : Mr. W. Bird was elected a member. Read the fol. lowing letters; viz. one from the Deputy Secretary to the Government, sending for distribution seven bags of Tenasserim cotton--one from the same, placing at the Society's disposal, twelve casks of New Orleans cotton seed, and a box of Maryland tobacco seed, both of the growth of 1829--which have been sent out by the Hon'ble the Court of Directors by the slips Lady Melville and Thames, and requesting a report ou last year's supply of seed. The Secretary informed the Meeting how the cotton seed had been made trial of at Akra farm, and was found to vegetatc very freely. It was then resolved, that the six casks be sent to Akra, and the other six be reserved for distribution to members and others, not
exceeding thirty seers to each applicant. Read a letter from Captain Cowles, at Diamond Harbour, dated 21th ultimo, with the result of his experiments on the cotton and tobacco seeds furnished to him by the Society in July last, avd presenting bottles of Persian, Maryland, and Virginiau tobacco seed, the produce of the same, also two specimens of cotton-one, the produce of the Upland Georgia seed furnished to him, and the other, of a sort which is unknown to bim. Read letters, subunitting specimens of tobacco from seed furnished by the Society, from Mr. Chew, Seebpore, and Captain Pogson, Barrackpore. Also one from Mr. Kyd, presenting, in the name of Capt. Patrick, of the ship Nerbudda, five botiles of Seychelles cotton sped. just brought by him from the Mauritius. The Secretary was requested to send three of these to Akra farm, and to retain three for distribu. tion among the Members. A letter was read from Mr. B. Hodgson, dated Nipaul 29th ultimo, presenting specimens of the seeds of wheat grown there, and ofiering to furnish details of their cultivation. Also one from the Commander of the ship Childe Harold, presenting some St. Ubec's onion seed, lately brought by him frora Lishon, which was directed to be made over to the Garden Committee for experi
Read a letter from Mr. Hurry, presenting some tine ears of Indian corn grown by hin from seed brought from N. S. Wales, which were made over to the Garden Committee. Read a letter from Mr. Bell, presenting his two books on the Commercial Exporis and Imports of Calcutta. Sir Edward Ryan, in the name of Sir Charles Grey, presented a quantity of various seeds received by him from Captain Kennedy, of 'Silah. Read a letter from Mr. W. Scott, dated Singapore 8th Vay last, presenting specimen of cotton grown at Malacca from Pernambucco seed; together with some of the seeds from Nankin seed of China. Mr. Parker, on the part of the Committee appointed on the 9th March last, presented the following Report on the prizes and medals to be given in future for the several kinds of fruit and vegetables, the cultivation and improvement of which are encouraged by the Society :
The annexed statement* shews the number and amount of prizes which have been distributed among Native Gardeners, from the commencement of such distributions.
There is, at the end of the list, an abstract of its contents.
As this system is considered to have operated beneficially in the general im. provement of our market supplies, the Sub-Committee recommended iis continuance, with the modifications hereinafter proposed.
But as the vhject is not merely, or indeed principally, intended to reward the casual productions of good vegetables, but to introduce a better system of Horti. culture, the Society may perlaps make it bear more directly on that point than it now does, and siuce the yiring second prizes for the same kind of vegetable bas, there is great reasou to believe, been abused by individuals dividing the produce of their own gardens among two or three, and obtaining prizes accordingly-we should endeavour to guard against it as far as practicable.
JANUARY SHEW. 1. The Sub-Committee recommend that prizes of one gold mohur (sixteen rupees) each be given for the best exhibition of the following products, on the 1st of January
Potatoes. Peas, Cauliflowers, Cabbages, Red Cabbages, Brocoli, Knole Cole, Turnips, Carrots, Beet, Celery, Lettucc--the quantity being not less than ten seers of things sold by weight, and of those sold by tale, twelve of the cabbage tribe, and six of all the others.
2. That prizes of eight rupees each be given for the best of the following productions, provided quantities are not less than in the preceding proposition :
Jerusalem Artichokes, Bombay Yams, Onions and Windsor Beans.
3. That prizes of ten rupees each be given for the best exhibition of the Na. tive vegetables and fruits as follows: in quantities of not less than ten seers of things sold by weight, and not less than twenty-four in number of those sold by tale:
* This, on account of its great length, is omitted.Ed.
in each year:
each year :
Pulwul, Brinjals, Pumpkins, Sweet Potatoes, Raddishes, Cucumbers, Sagg, Plao. tains, and Byars or Kool.
4. That sinall suins from two to four rupees be given to a limited number of persous shewilg baskets of good miscellaneous assortments, whether vegetables not enumerated above, or of such descriptions, or of country fruits or flowers, as an encouragement to attempts, and attendance. 5. No second prizes to be given.
To be held on the 1st of March. 1. That a prize of forty rupees and a medal be given for the best shew of Asparagus, not less than two hundred. Artichokes, not less than twelve.
Strawberries, not less than one seer; and that any man gaining the prizes for two out of the three, shall receive a further donation of ten rupees; the things to have been seen growing by any Member of the Horticultural Society.
2. That prizes of ieu rupees be given to a limited number exhibiting country fruits, vegetables, or flowers, or collections of such, to the extent of ten candidates. 3. No second prizes to be given.
JUNE SHEW OF FRUIT. That prizes to the following extent be given for fruit only, on the 1st of June
Sa. Rs. The best Mangoes, not less than 50 in number,
50 The best Oranges, not less than 20 in number,..
50 The best Leerhees, not less than 50 in number,.
30 The best Peeches, in number not less than 25,.
30 The best Pine Apples, not less than 10,....
20 I'he best Gnavas, not less than 50...
20 Golaub Jaums, Black Jaums,..
8 Pomegranates, not less than 20,.
16 SEPTEMBER SHEW. In order to encourage cultivators to produce good vegetables, both European and Natire, at the period of the year where the deficiency is now very severely felt, and as a stimulus to the efforts of the Native Gardeners at that season might possibly, and in time, remove the dearth either partially or entirely, the Committee propose Ist, that prices of twenty rupees be distributed on the 1st day of September in each year, for the best exhibition of any of the following English vegetables:
Potatoes, Peas, Cauliflowers, Cabbages, Brocoii, Knole Cole, Turnips, Carrots, Beet, Celery, Lettuce and Onions; and that prizes of ten rupees each be given for the best exhibitions of the following Native fruits :
Custard Apples, Country Almonds, Pappias, Pumplenose.
The Committee are of opinion that, for the first year of exhibition, it will be judicious not to fix any high standard as to quantity at the September exhibition, they therefore propose that the exhibitor shall not be called upon to produce more than two seers of vegetables or fruits sold by weight, and six in number of those sold by tale.
2. In the event of the following prize vegetables exceeding the prescribed weight or number, the Committee would then recommend an additional prize of eight annas per seer to be given, (to the extent of 20 seers) on the excess in such things as are sold by weight, and four annas each for the excess in such vegetables or fruits as are sold by tale, to the extent of twenty :
Peas, Potatoes, Cabbages, Cauliflowers, Celery, Lettuce, Brocoli, Turnips, Knole Cole and Carrots.
Your Committee also propose, for the first shew, only to give silver medals in additton to the money prize to the gainers of that prize, on the following articles:
Potatoes, Carrots, Kuole Cole, Peas, Cabbages, and Cauliflowers.