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A. C.

1018. Marries Emma.

1025. His wars in Denmark.

His assassination of Ulfr.
1028. Death of St. Olave of Norway.
Canute's greatness of mind.
His patronage of the Scallds,
1031. His journey to Rome.
His noble feelings.

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CHAPTER XIII.

The Reign of Hardicanute.

Civil factions.
Harold's victories in Wales.

Macbeth defeated by Siward.

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On its structure.

On the verbs. :
On the nouns.

On the Finnish branch of Languages.

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Georgian.
Malay.
Coptic.
Mantchou.
Japanese.

Caribbee.

Turkish.

Susoo.

Angola.
Tonga.
Lapland.

Adultery.

On its affinities and analogies.

Alphabetical catalogue of the affinities of the Anglo-Saxon.
Its affinities with the Persian, Zend, and Pehlvi.

Do. with the Arabic.

Personal injuries.

Theft and robbery.

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Money of the Anglo-Saxons.

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Their borb or sureties.

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Their legal tribunals.

The trial by jury.

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APPENDIX. No. II.

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ANGLO-SAXONS.

CHAPTER I.

Alfred's intellectual Character. State of the Anglo-Saxon Mind.
Clergy. Alfred's Self-education. His subsequent Instructors.
Asser and of Grimbald. His attainment of the Latin Language.
Gregory's Pastorals.

OF THE

BOOK THE FIFTH.

Illiteracy of its His invitation of His Preface to

The incidents which principally contributed to excite Alfred's infant mind into activity (1), and to give it ideas more varied and numerous than childhood usually obtains, have been noticed in the preceding pages; as well as the fact, that he was passing the first twelve years of his life without any education (2). But although thus neglected, his intellectual faculty was too powerful to be indolent, or to be contented with the illiterate pursuits which were the fashion of the day. It turned, from its own energies and sympathies, towards mental cultivation; and attached itself to that species of it which, without the aid of others, it could by its own industry obtain. This was the Saxon popular poetry. In all the nations of the north, whether from the Keltic or Teutonic stock, persons were continually emerging, who pursued the art of arranging words into metrical composition, and of applying this arrangement to express their own feelings, or to perpetuate the favourite subjects of their contemporaries or patrons. By this verbal rhythm, however imperfect; by the emotions which it breathed or caused; or by the themes

(1) Alfred had the felicity of possessing a literary friend, Asser, of Saint David's, who composed some biographical sketches of his great master's life and manners. His work is somewhat rude and incomplete; but it is estimable for its apparent candour and unaffected simplicity. It is the effusion of a sensible, honest, observing mind. The information which it conveys has never been contradicted, and harmonises with every other history or tradition that has been preserved concerning Alfred. The merits of Alfred, therefore, are supported by a degree of evidence which seldom attends the characters of ancient days. But we shall be able to exhibit him still more satisfactorily, in his own words from his own works.

(2) See before, Vol. I. p. 298. Asser, 16. Malmsb. 45. Jam duodenis omnis literaturæ expers fuit.

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