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SHIP from London per P. & O. or Orient Steamer on or about 22nd May, 1898.

MARK AND NUMBER HG 278, over Sydney.



of cases to be marked on cases and stated on Invoices.

in zinc-lined cases.

FREIGHT to be paid in London and charged to us.

SHIP through Messrs. John Penley & Sons, London.

INVOICES AND BILLS OF LADING-Originals by first Overland Mail and Duplicates by the following mail. Also Invoice direct on goods leaving the Factory.

ALL DISCOUNTS AND ALLOWANCES to be shown on invoices to save Duty. Particulars of all charges to accompany invoice. INSURANCE INSTRUCTIONS. Advise Messrs. Hopwood & Co., 29, Gordon Street, London, E.C., as Agents for the Australian Insurance Company, of shipment, declaring invoice value of goods and charges, with 15 per cent. added.

SAMPLES. Three sets of patterns 8×5 and one set 12 × 5, flat between cardboard, per post not later than April 21st. Put number on back of each pattern and enclose list of prices in the packet.

CUT yard of each pattern, and enclose in case with goods.

NOTE.-Quality, Colours, and Weft must be exact to sample ordered, otherwise omit.

GOODS 6 pieces 54 in. Coatings, 65/68 yards at 2/1 per yard.

ASSORTMENT 1 piece each, patterns 3925, 3927, 3930, 3931, 3932, and 3935.

TERMS 60 d/s dft on delivery, less 2 per cent. discount.

No. 715.

5. Order from the Continent.

Order from REUTER & SOHN,


To Messrs. CHARLES STREET & Co.,


5 pieces 56/7 in. Coatings @ 3/6 per yard.

1 piece each pattern, 2430, 2432, 2425, 2431, and 2428. Terms --Cash on delivery, less 33 per cent. discount.

Shipping Instructions.




Invoices in duplicate.

Two sets of 7 x 10 in. patterns of each design, marked with number of piece.

Width in metres and centimetres (list included), and net weight in kilogrammes, of each piece, to be noted on invoice.

4. Marine insurance to be effected by you.

3. To be shipped through Messrs. Thos. Wilson & Sons, Hull, via Stettin.


When indents or orders are received, the first thing to be done is to ascertain whether they can be executed at the limits (i.e., the prices and terms) given. In some cases, such as indents for wellknown brands of biscuits, jams, pickles, tinned meats, soap, &c., no limits are given, it being understood that the makers' prices for the day are to be paid. In such cases orders are sent off at once to, say, Huntley & Palmers, Crosse & Blackwell, and so on. When limits are given, it has to be ascertained whether they are practicable. This necessitates the firm's buyer visiting different manufacturers or agents, seeing the goods or samples of them, and bargaining about the price. This being satisfactorily arranged, a written order is sent to each firm confirming the purchase made verbally. In these orders instructions are given as to the assortment of the goods, tickets (if any), packing, marks and numbers to be put on the packages, and generally the port or dock to which the goods are to be sent, and the name of the vessel and her destination. For example, indent No. 3 given above would be transmitted to the makers of the goods by orders somewhat similar to the following:

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10 Cases Assorted Jams 1 lb. tins (6 dozen) @ 3/9 per dozen.

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To be shipped per steamer "Malay" for Singapore, South West India Dock, sailing 7th October.

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Ship from Antwerp, per steamer for Singapore, not later than 21st inst.

B/L to "order."

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Deliver to South West India Dock, for shipment per steamer "Bookman" for Singapore, sailing 14th inst.

When the order is received by a merchant at the place where the goods are manufactured (for example, London, Manchester, Bradford, Leeds, or Birmingham), the goods are bought direct from the manufacturer, generally by means of a personal interview; but when the order is received by a London firm for goods manufactured elsewhere, copies of the orders are sent to the manufacturers by post, with forwarding instructions, &c., as mentioned above. In the case of piece goods, however, the goods are frequently bought through another merchant at the place of manufacture; for instance, an order for cotton goods received by a London merchant might be forwarded to a merchant in Manchester, an order for woollen or worsted goods might be sent on to a merchant in Bradford. The reason for this is, that the London merchant, being at some distance from the place of production, cannot exercise the same supervision over the goods as a person on the spot. The latter therefore assumes all responsibility as regards the proper execution of the order, for it must be remembered that when once goods are shipped, the exporter (in the absence of special circumstances) loses his right to claim on the manufacturer should any imperfections be found in the goods. In case of such imperfections the local merchant is responsible to the London merchant, who in turn is liable to his foreign customer. The

orders, whether sent direct to the manufacturer or to another merchant, are of course exact copies of those received, except that in some cases the price has to be modified in order that each merchant may secure his commission. Here is a copy of an actual order given to a provincial merchant by a firm of commission agents in London, for the goods specified in Indent No. 1 above :

B 727

To Messrs. HALLINGS & Co.,


LONDON, August 5th, 1898.


4 Cases 54 in. Worsted Tweeds, 30/32 yards, each case containing 8 pieces 32 pieces.

Quality and Finish-same as pattern 276.

Assortment-patterns as A to H. One piece of each pattern per case.
Selvage-same as shown on pattern B.

Parcelling each piece to be rolled on a board, say 8 in. × 27 in., and
wrapped in white cloth.

Ticket-none required.

Samples-as usual.

Price-2/8 net f.o.b. Birkenhead.

Terms-cash on receipt of B/L.

Shipment-per steamer "Devonshire," sailing from Birkenhead, Oct. 3rd.

Marks and Numbers




This order would be acknowledged by filling up a printed form as follows:

Messrs. WM. THURSTON & Co.,




Bradford, 6th August, 1898.

We are in receipt of your Contract, No. B727

dated 5/8/98

4 Cases Worsted Tweeds and hereby confirm the same.

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Yours faithfully,


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