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hard aboard the shore, and lay quiet all night, tainly, his resolution and unconquerable paintending to attempt the town in the dawning tience deserved much praise, to adventure on of the day.

such a design, which had in it just no more But he was forced to alter his resolution, and probability than what was enough to keep it assault it sooner; for he heard his men mut- from being impossible. Yet I admire not so tering amongst themselves of the strength much at all the treasure he took, as at the rich and greatness of the town: and when men's and deep mine of God's providence. heads are once fly-blown with buzzes of sus- Having now full freighted himself with picion, the vermin multiply instantly, and one wcalth, and burnt at the House of Crosses ? jealousyl begets another. Wherefore, he raised above two hundred thousand pounds' worth them from their nest before they had hatched of Spanish merchandise, he returned with their fears; and, to put away those conceits, honour and safety into England, and, some he persuaded them it was day-dawning when years after (December 13th, 1577), undertook the moon rose, and instantly set on the town, that his famous voyage about the world, most and won it, being unwalled. In the market- accurately described by our English authors: place the Spaniards saluted them with a volley and yet a word or two thereof will not be of shot; Drake returned their greeting with a amiss. flight of arrows, the best and ancient English Setting forward from Plymouth, he bore compliment, which drave their enemies away. up for Cabo-verd,whcre, near to the island of Here Drake received a dangerous wound, St. Jago," he took prisoner Nuno de Silva, an though he valiantly concealed it a long time; experienced Spanish pilot, whose direction he knowing if his heart stooped, his men's would used in the coasts of Brazil and Magellan fall, and loath to leave off the action, wherein Straits, and afterwards safely landed him at if so bright an opportunity once setteth, it Guatulco in New Spain. Hence they took seldom riseth again. But at length his men their course to the Island of Brava; and hereforced him to return to his ship, that his abouts they met with those tempestuous winds wound might be dressed; and this unhappy whose only praise is, that they continue not an accident defeated the whole design. Thus hour, in which time they change all the points victory sometimes slips through their fingers of the compass. Here they had great plenty who have caught it in their hands.

of rain, poured (not, as in other places, as it But his valour would not let him give over were out of sieves, but) as out of spouts, so the project as long as there was either life or that a butt of water falls down in a place; warmth in it; and therefore, having received which, notwithstanding, is but a courteous intelligence from the Negroes called Symerons,3 injury in that hot climate far from land, and of many mules'-lading of gold and silver, which where otherwise fresh water cannot be prowas to be brought from Panama, he, leaving vided. Then cutting the Line, they saw the competent numbers to man his ships, went on face of that heaven which earth hideth from land with the rest, and bestowed himself in the us, but therein only three stars of the first woods by the way as they were to pass, and so greatness, the rest few and small compared intercepted and carried away an infinite mass to our hemisphere; as if God, on purpose, of gold. As for the silver, which was not had set up the best and biggest candles in portable over the mountains, they digged that room wherein his civilest guests are holes in the ground and hid it therein.

entertained. There want not those who love to beat down Sailing the south of Brazil, he afterwards the price of every honourable action, though passed the Magellan Straits (August 20th, they themselves never mean to be chapmen. 1578), and then entered Mare Pacificum, These cry up Drake's fortune herein to cry came to the southernmost land at the height down his valour; as if this his performance of 551 latitudes; thence directing his course were nothing, wherein a golden opportunity northward, he pillaged many Spanish towns, ran "his head, with his long forelock, into and took rich prizes of high value in the kingDrake's hands beyond expectation. But, cer- doms of Chili, Peru, and New Spain. Then,


1 fear 2 ideas 3 Cimarrones, a band of fugitive negroes who gathered on the Isthmus of Panama in the sixteenth century

I wonder 2 a Spanish town in Panama 3 Cape Verde Santiago of the Cape Verde Islands 5 Mexico 6 the equator

bending eastwards, he coasted China, and the queen in his ship at Dartford," who knighted Moluccas, where, by the king of Terrenate, a him for his service. Yet it grieved him not a true gentleman Pagan, he was most honour- little, that some prime courtiers refused the ably entertained. The king told them, they gold he offered them, as gotten by piracy. and he were all of one religion in this respect, Some of them would have been loath to have – that they believed not in gods made of been told, that they had aurum Tholosanum 2 stocks and stones, as did the Portugals. He in their own purses. Some think, that they furnished them also with all necessaries that did it to show that their envious pride was they wanted.

above their covetousness, who of set purpose On January 9th following (1579), his ship, did blur the fair copy of his performance, having a large wind and a smooth sea, ran because they would not take pains to write aground on a dangerous shoal, and struck after it. twice on it; knocking twice at the door of I pass by his next West-Indian voyage death, which, no doubt, had opened the third (1585), wherein he took the cities of St. time. Here they stuck, from eight o'clock at Jago, St. Domingo, Carthagena, and St. night till four the next afternoon, having Augustine in Florida; as also his service ground too much, and yet too little to land performed in 1588, wherein he, with many on; and water too much, and yet too little others, helped to the waning of that halfto sail in. Had God (who, as the wise man moon,which sought to govern all the motion saith, “holdeth the winds in his fist,” Prov. of our sea.

I haste to his last voyage. XXX. 4) but opened his little finger, and let Queen Elizabeth, in 1595, perceiving that out the smallest blast, they had undoubtedly the only way to make the Spaniard a cripple been cast away; but there blew not any wind forever, was to cut his sinews of war in the all the while. Then they, conceiving aright West Indies, furnished Sir Francis Drake, that the best way to lighten the ship was, and Sir John Hawkins, with six of her own first, to ease it of the burden of their sins by ships, besides twenty-one ships and barks of true repentance, humbled themselves, by their own providing, containing in all two fasting, under the hand of God. Afterwards thousand five hundred men and boys, for they received the communion, dining on some service on America. But, alas! this Christ in the sacrament, expecting no other voyage was marred before begun. For, so than to sup with him in heaven. Then they great preparations being too big for a cover, cast out of their ship six great pieces of the king of Spain knew of it, and sent a ordnance, threw overboard as much wealth caraval of adviso 4 to the West Indies; so as would break the heart of a miser to think that they had intelligence three weeks before on it, with much sugar, and packs of spices, the fleet set forth of England, either to making a caudle of the sea round about. fortify or remove their treasure; whereas, in Then they betook themselves to their prayers, other of Drake's voyages, not two of his own the best lever at such a dead lift indeed; men knew whither he went; and managing and it pleased God, that the wind, formerly such a design is like carrying a mine in war, their mortal enemy, became their friend; if it hath any vent, all is spoiled. Besides, which, changing from the starboard to the Drake and Hawkins, being in joint commislarboard of the ship, and rising by degrees, sion, hindered each other. The latter took cleared them off to the sea again, for which himself to be inferior rather in success than they returned unfeigned thanks to Almighty skill; and the action was unlike to prosper

when neither would follow, and both could By the Cape of Good Hope and west of not handsomely go abreast. It vexed old Africa, he returned safe into England, and Hawkins, that his counsel was not followed, (November 3rd, 1580) landed at Plymouth, in present sailing to America, but that they (being almost the first of those that made a spent time in vain in assaulting the Canaries; thorough light through the world) having, in and the grief that his advice was slighted, his whole voyage, though a curious searcher say some, was the cause of his death. Others after the time, lost one day through the variation of several climates. He feasted the 1 Deptford 2 Spanish gold, as bribes 3 The

Armada was drawn up in crescent form. 4 ship I would have

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impute it to the sorrow he took for the taking the fighting for it. Whilst the king of Spain of his bark called “the Francis,” which five guarded the head and heart of his dominions Spanish frigates had intercepted. But when in Europe, he left his long legs in America open the same heart hath two mortal wounds given to blows; till, finding them to smart, being it together, it is hard to say which of them beaten black and blue by the English, he killeth.

learned to arm them at last, fortifying the Drake continued his course for Porto Rico; most important of them to make them imand, riding within the road, a shot from the pregnable. . Castle entered the steerage of the ship, took Now began Sir Francis's discontent to feed away the stool from under him as he sate at upon him. He conceived, that expectation, supper, wounded Sir Nicholas Clifford, and a merciless usurer, computing each day since Brute Brown to death. “Ah, dear Brute !” his departure, exacted an interest and return said Drake, “I could grieve for thee, but now of honour and profit proportionable to his is no time for me to let down my spirits.” great preparations, and transcending his forAnd, indeed, a soldier's most proper bemoan- mer achievements. He saw that all the good ing a friend's death in war, is in revenging it. which he had done in this voyage, consisted And, sure, as if grief had made the English in the evil he had done to the Spaniards afar furious, they soon after fired five Spanish off, whereof he could present but small visible ships of two hundred tons apiece, in despite fruits in England. These apprehensions, acof the Castle.

companying, if not causing, the disease of the America is not unfitly resembled to an hour- flux,' wrought his sudden death, January 28th, glass, which hath a narrow neck of land (sup- 1595. And sickness did not so much untie pose it the hole where the sand passeth) be- his clothes, as sorrow did rend at once the twixt the parts thereof, Mexicana and robe of his mortality asunder. He lived by Peruana. Now the English had a design to the sea, died on it, and was buried in it. march by land over this Isthmus, from Porto Thus an extempore performance (scarce Rico to Panama, where the Spanish treasure heard to be begun, before we hear it is ended !) was laid up. Sir Thomas Baskervile, general comes off with better applause, or miscarries of the land-forces, undertook the service with with less disgrace, than a long-studied and seven hundred and fifty armed men. They openly-premeditated action. Besides, we see marched through deep ways, the Spaniards how great spirits, having mounted to the much annoying them with shot out of the highest pitch of performance, afterwards woods. One fort in the passage they as- strain and break their credits in striving to saulted in vain, and heard two others were go beyond it. Lastly, God oftentimes leaves built to stop them, besides Panama itself. the brightest men in an eclipse, to show that They had so much of this breakfast they they do but borrow their lustre from his thought they should surfeit of a dinner and reflexion. We will not justify all the actions supper of the same. No hope of conquest, of any man, though of a tamer profession except with cloying the jaws of death, and than a sea-captain, in whom civility is often thrusting men on the mouth of the cannon. counted preciseness. For the main, we say Wherefore, fearing to find the proverb true, that this our captain was a religious man that “gold may be bought too dear," they towards God and his houses (generally sparing returned to their ships. Drake afterwards churches where he came), chaste in his life, fired Nombre de Dios, and many other petty just in his dealings, true of his word, and mertowns (whose treasure the Spaniards had ciful to those that were under him, hating . conveyed away), burning the empty casks, nothing so much as idleness: and therefore, when their precious liquor was run out before,

lest his soul should rest in peace, at spare and then prepared for their returning home. hours he brought fresh water to Plymouth.

Great was the difference betwixt the Indian Careful he was for posterity (though men of cities now, from what they were when Drake his profession have as well an ebb of riot, as first haunted these coasts. At first, the Span- a float of fortune) and providently raised a iards here were safe and secure, counting their treasure sufficient to defend itself, the remote- 1 He was a member of the parliamentary comness thereof being the greatest (almost only) mission for establishing a system of water-works resistance, and the fetching of it more than there.


worshipful family of his kindred. In a word: should those that speak against him fast till they fetch their bread where he did his, they would have a good stomach to eat it.

JOHN MILTON (1608-1674)



It was the winter wild,
While the heaven-born child

All meanly wrapt in the rude manger lies;
Nature, in awe to him,
Had doffed her gaudy trim,

With her great Master so to sympathize : It was no season then for her

35 To wanton l with the sun, her lusty paramour.? Only with speeches fair She woos the gentle air

To hide her guilty front with innocent snow, And on her naked shame,

40 Pollute 3 with sinful blame,

The saintly veil of maiden white to throw; Confounded, that her Maker's eyes Should look so near upon her foul deformities.

(Composed 1029)

This is the month, and this the happy morn,
Wherein the Son of Heaven's eternal King,
Of wedded maid and virgin mother born,
Our great redemption from above did bring;
For so the holy sages once did sing,

5 That he our deadly forfeit should release, And with his father work us a perpetual


But he, her fears to cease,

45 Sent down the meek-eyed Peace: She, crowned with olive green, came softly

sliding Down through the turning sphere, His ready harbinger, With turtle 4 wing the amorous clouds dividing;

50 And waving wide her myrtle wand, She strikes a universal peace through sea and


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No war, or battle's sound,
Was heard the world around;
The idle spear and shield were high up-

55 The hooked 5 chariot stood Unstained with hostile blood;

The trumpet spake not to the armed throng; And kings sat still with awful eye, As if they surely knew their sovran Lord was by.




See how from far upon the eastern road
The star-led wizards a haste with odours sweet !
O run, prevent 3 them with thy humble ode,
And lay it lowly at his blessed feet ; 25
Have thou the honour first thy Lord to greet,

And join thy voice unto the angel quire, From out his secret altar touched with hal

lowed fire.

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Ring out, ye crystal spheres !

I 25 Once bless our human ears

(If ye have power to touch our senses so), And let your silver chime Move in melodious time; And let the bass of heaven's deep organ

blow; And with your ninefold harmony

131 Make up full consort to the angelic symphony. For if such holy song Enwrap our fancy long,. Time will run back and fetch the age of

gold; And speckled Vanity Will sicken soon and die, And leprous Sin will melt from earthly

mould ; And Hell itself will pass away, And leave her dolorous mansions to the peering day.



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Nature, that heard such sound
Beneath the hollow round

Of Cynthia's * seat the airy region thrilling,
Now was almost won
To think her part was done,

105 And that her reign had here its last fulfill

ing: She knew such harmony alone Could hold all heaven and earth in happier

Yea, Truth and Justice then
Will down return to men,
Orbed in a rainbow; and, like glories

Mercy will sit between,
Throned in celestial sheen,

145 With radiant feet the tissued' clouds down



las if ? then 3 conclusion of a musical strain

4 the moon

1 inexpressible ? cf. Job xxxviii: 7 3 rich, as if woven with threads of silver and gold

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