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Quene of comfort and of good companye, harde to thy tendre age of ten yeer to conBeth hevy ageyn, or elles mot I dye!

seyve. This tretis, divided in fyve parties ?

wole 3 I shewe thee under ful lighte 4 rewles 5 Now purs, that be to me my lyves light, 15. and naked wordes in English; for Latin ne And saveour, as doun in this worlde here, canstow 6 yit but smal, my lyte ? sone. But Out of this toune help me through your might, natheles, suffyse to thee thise trewe conSin that ye wole nat ben my tresorere;

clusiouns in English, as wel as suffyseth to For I am shave as nye l as any frere.?

thise noble clerkes Grekes thise same concluBut yit I pray un-to your curtesye:

siouns in Greek, and to Arabiens in Arabik, Beth hevy ageyn, or elles mot I dye !

and to Jewes in Ebrew, and to the Latin folk

in Latin ; whiche Latin folk han 'hem 10 furst LENVOY DE CHAUCER

out of othre diverse langages, and writen in

hir 11 owne tonge, that is to sein,12 in Latin. O conquerour of Brutes Albioun !

And God wot,13 that in alle thise langages, Which that by lyne and free eleccioun

and in many mo, 14 han 9 thise conclusiouns Ben 3 verray king, this song to you I sende; ben 15 suffisantly lerned and taught, and yit And ye, that mowen 4 al myn harm amende, by diverse rewles, right as diverse pathes Have mynde up-on my supplicacioun ! 26 leden diverse folk the righte wey to Rome.

Now wol I prey meekly every discret persone A TREATISE ON THE ASTROLABE 5

that redeth or hereth this litel tretis, to have

my rewde 16 endyting 17 for excused, and my PROLOGUS

supersluite of wordes, for two causes. The

firste cause is, for-that 18 curious 19 endyting i Litel Lowis 6 my sone, I have perceived wel

and hard sentenče 20 is ful hevy 21 atones 22 by certeyne evidences thyn abilite to lerne

for swich 23 a child to lerne. And the seconde sciencez touchinge noumbres and proporciouns; and as wel considere I thy bisy

cause is this, that sothly 24 mesemeth 25 betre

to wryten unto a child twyes a good sentence, preyere 8 in special to lerne the Tretis of the

than he forgete it ones. And, Lowis, yif 28 Astrolabie. Than, for as mechel as a phil

so be that I shewe thee in my lighte 29 English osofre scith,“he wrappeth him in his frend, that condescendeth to the rightful preyers of his

as trewe conclusiouns touching this matere,

and naught 30 only as trewe but as many and frend,” therfor have I yeven 11 thee a suffisaunt

as subtil conclusiouns as ben 31 shewed in Astrolabie as for oure orizonte,12 compowned 13 after the latitude of Oxenford; upon which,

Latin in any commune tretis of the Astrolabie, by mediacion 14 of this litel tretis, I purpose to

con me the more thank ; 32 and preye God save

the king, that is lord of this langage, and alle teche thec a certein nombre of conclusions 15

that him feyth bereth 33 and obeyeth, everech 34 to the same instrument. I seye apertening

in his degree, the more 35 and the lasse. 36 But a certein of conclusiouns, for three causes.

considere wel, that I ne usurpe nat to have The furste cause is this: truste wel that alle

founde this werk of my labour or of myn the conclusiouns that han 17 ben founde, or elles 18 possibly mighten be founde in so noble

engin.3? I nam 38 but a lewd 39 compilatour 40

of the labour of olde Astrologiens, and have hit an instrument as an Astrolabie, ben 3 un

translated in myn English only for thy docknowe perhitly to any mortal man in this regioun, as I suppose. Another cause is this:

trine; and with this swerd 41 shal I sleen 42

envye. that sothly, 19 in any tretis of the Astrolabie that I have seyn,20 there ben 3 some conclusions that wole 21 nat in alle thinges performen

I understand ? parts 3 will * easy 5 rules 6 knowhir 22 bihestes ; 23 and some of hem ben 3 to 24

est thou

8 nevertheless ' have 10 them ll their 12

say
13 knows 14

15 been 16 rude 1 shaven as close 2 friar 3 are 4 may

composition because elaborate 20

meaning, nomical instrument; consult the dictionary • Lewis

21 difficult 22 at once

such

truly 25 it eager Sprayer, request then 10 much given seems to me 26 twice 27 & if

easy

not 12 horizon composed means problems and

con thank means thank, be grateful their solutions 16 pertaining 17 have 18 else 19 truly every one greater less 37 ingenuity am not will promises

ignorant compiler sword slay

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JOHN DE TREVISA (1326–1412).

9

HIGDEN'S POLYCHRONICON

BOOK I. CHAPTER LIX

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This apayrynge1 of the burthe of the tunge is bycause of tweie thinges; oon is for children in scole ayenst the usage and manere of alle othere naciouns beeth compelled for to leve 2 hire 3owne langage, and for to construe hir3 lessouns and here thynges in Frensche, and so they haveth seth 5 the Normans come first in-to Engelond. Also gentil-men children beeth i-taught to speke Frensche from the tyme that they beeth i-rokked in here cradel, and kunneth 7 speke and playe with a childes broche; and uplondisshe men wil likne hym-self to gentil-men, and fondeth 10 with greet besynesse for to speke Frensce, for to be i-tolde of. Trevisa.12 This manere was moche i-used to-for 13 [the] Firste Deth 14 and is siththe 15 sumdel 15 i-chaunged; for John Cornwaile, a maister of grammer, chaunged the lore in gramer scole and construccioun of 16 Frensche in-to Englische; and Richard Pencriche lerned the manere 17 techynge of hym and othere men of Pencrich; so that now, the yere of oure Lorde a thowsand thre hundred and foure score and fyve, and of the secounde kyng Richard after the Conquest nyne, in alle the gramere scoles of Engelond, children leveth Frensche and construeth and lerneth an 18 4 Englische, and haveth therby avauntage in oon side and disavauntage in another side; here3 avauntage is, that they lerneth her gramer in lasse 19 tyme than children were i-woned 20 to doo; disavauntage is that now children of gramer scole conneth 21 na more Frensche than can 22 hir 3 lift 23 heele, and that is harme for hem 24 and 25 they schulle passe the see and travaille in straunge landes and in many other places. Also gentil-men haveth now moche i-left 26 for to teche here 3 children Frensche.

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1 deterioration 2 leave, give up

can

3 their 4 have

5 since 6 came 7 8 brooch (ornament in gen12 accounted attempt What

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This deterioration of the birth of the tongue is because of two things: one is because children in school, against the usage and custom of all other nations, are compelled to give up their own language and to construe their lessons and their exercises in French, and so they have since the Normans came first into England. Also gentlemen's children are taught to speak French from the time that they are rocked in their cradles and can talk and play with a baby's brooch; and countrymen wish to be like gentlemen and attempt with great effort to speak French, in order to be highly regarded.

Trevisa: This custom was much used before the first plague and has since been somewhat changed; for John Cornwaile, master of grammar, changed the teaching in grammar school and the translation of French into English; and Richard Pencriche learned this sort of teaching from him, and other men from Pencriche, so that now, the year of Our Lord 1385 and of the second King Richard after the Conquest nine, in all the grammar schools of England, children give up French and construe and learn in English, and have thereby advantage on one side and disadvantage on another side; their advantage is that they learn their grammar in less time than children were accustomed to do; the disadvantage is that now children in grammar school know no more French than does their left heel; and that is harm for them if they shall pass the sea and travel in strange lands and in many other places. Also gentlemen have now in general ceased to teach their children French.

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THE END OF THE MIDDLE AGES

THOMAS HOCCLEVE

(1370?-1450?)

From DE REGIMINE PRINCIPUM

ON CHAUCER
O maister deere and fadir reverent, 1961

Ni maister Chaucer, flour of eloquence,
Mirour of fructuous entendement,

O universel fadir in science,
Allas, that thou thyn excellent prudence
In thi bed mortel mightist noght by-

quethe!
What eiled Deth allas ! why wold he sle

the?

7

The steppes of Virgile in poesie

Thow folwedist eeke, men wot wel ynow.
That combre-world ’ that the, my maistir,

slow,
Would I slayne were ! Deth was to

hastyf,

To rene 3 on the, and reve 4 the thi lyf.
Deth hath but smal consideracion 2094

Unto the vertuous, I have espied,
No more, as shewith the probacion,

Than to a vicious maister losel“ tried ;
Among an heep' every man is maistried 8
With' hire, as wel the porre

10 as is the
riche;
Lerede 11 and lewde 12 eeke standen al

yliche. 13 She mighte han taryed hir vengeance a while

Til that some man had egal to the be.14 2102
Nay, lat be that! sche knew wel that this yle

May never man forth brynge lyk to the,
And hir office 15 nedes do mot
God bad hir do so, I truste as for the

beste;
O maister, maister, God thi soule reste!

O Deth, thou didest naght harme singuleer? In slaughtere of him, but al this land it smertith.

1969 But nathelees yit hast thou no power

His name sle; his hy vertu astertith 3
Unslayn fro the, whiche ay us lyfly hertyth

With bookes of his ornat endytyng,
That is to al this land enlumynyng. 1974

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she;

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The firste fyndere of our faire langage 4978 My dere maistir (God his soule quyte !) 2077

Hath seyde in caas semblable, 17 and othir And fadir Chaucer fayn wolde han me

moo," taght,

So hyly wel, that it is my dotage But I was dul, and lerned lite or naght. For to expresse or touche any of thoo.19

Alasse ! my fadir fro the worlde is goo, Allas! my worthi maister honorable,

My worthi maister Chaucer, hym I mene:

2080 This landes verray tresor and richesse !

Be thou advoket 20 for hym, Hevenes Dethe, by thi deth, hath harme irreparable

Quene! Unto us doon; hir vengeable duresse 5

As thou wel knowest, O Blissid Virgyne, 4985 Despoiled hath this land of the swetnesse

With lovyng hert and hye devocion Of rethorik, for unto Tullius

In thyne honour he wroot ful many a lyne; Was never man so lyk 6 amonges us. 2086

O now thine helpe and thi promocion ! Also who was hier 7 in philosophie 2087 world-cumberer

4 bereave To Aristotle in our tonge but thow?

perience 6 rascal'in a crowd overcome by

poor 11 learned 12 ignorant 13 alike 14 had been 1 fruitful understanding 2 affecting only one equal to thee 15 duty must

like cases

others escapes 4 heartens 5 cruel affliction 6 like 7 heir also 19 those 20 advocate

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To God thi Sone make a mocion

How he thi servaunt was, Mayden Marie,
And lat his love floure and fructifie! 4991

Al-thogh his lyfe be queynt, the resemblaunce

Of him hath in me so fressh lyflynesse, That, to putte othir men in rémembraunce

Of his persone, I have heere his lyknesse Do make, to this ende, in sothfastnesse, That thei that have of him lest thought and mynde,

4997 By this peynture may ageyn him fynde.

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But wel assured in his manly herte,
List 1 nat onys a-syde to dyverte, 1130
But kepte his way, his sheld upon his brest,
And cast his spere manly in the rest,
And the first platly ? that he mette
Thorgh the body proudely he hym smette,
That he fille ded, chief mayster of hem alle ;
And than at onys they upon hym falle
On every part, be 3 compas envyroun.
But Tydeus, thorgh his hegh renoun,
His blody swerde lete about hym glyde,
Sleth and kylleth upon every side 1140
In his ire and his mortal tene; 4
That mervaile was he myght so sustene
Ageyn hem alle, in every half besette; 5
But his swerde was so sharpe whette
That his foomen founde ful unsoote.6
But he, allas ! was mad light a foote,
Be force grounded,s in ful gret distresse;
But of knyghthod and of gret prouesse
Up he roos, maugre 10 alle his foon, 11
And as they cam, he slogh

hem oon be oon,
Lik a lyoun rampaunt in his rage, 1151
And on this hille he fond a narow passage,
Which that he took of ful high prudence;
And liche 13 a boor, stondyng at his diffence,
As his foomen proudly hym assaylle,
Upon the pleyn he made her blode to raylle 14
Al enviroun, that the soyl wex rede,
Now her, now ther, as they fille dede,
That her lay on, and ther lay two or thre,
So mercyles, in his cruelte,

1160 Thilke day he was upon hem founde; And, attonys 15 his enemyes to confounde, Wher-as he stood, this myghty champioun, Be-side he saugh, with water turned doun, An huge stoon large, rounde, and squar; And sodeynly, er that thei wer war, As 16 it hadde leyn ther for the nonys,17 Upon his foon he rolled it at onys, That ten of hem 18 wenten unto wrak, And the remnaunt amased drogh 19 a-bak; For on by on they wente to meschaunce.2 And fynaly he broght to outraunce 1172 Hem everychoon, Tydeus, as blyve, 22 That non but on left 23 of ham 18 alyve: Hym-silf yhurt, and ywounded kene, Thurgh his harneys bledyng on the grene; I wished ? absolutely 3 by pain 5 beset on unsweet, bitter

made to alight on foot 8 brought to ground prowess 10 in spite of foes slew like

as if 17 for the purpose

them 19 drew 20 defeat destruction quickly remained sorely

6

IIIO

JOHN LYDGATE (1370 ?-1451?)

From THE STORY OF THEBES HOW FALSLY ETHYOCLES LEYDE A BUSSHEMENT IN THE WAY TO

HAVE SLAYN TYDEUS At a posterne forth they gan to ryde By a geyn path, that ley oute a-side, Secrely, that no man hem espie, Only of 5 tresoun and of felonye. They haste hem forth al the longe day, Of cruel malys, forto stoppe his way, Thorgh a forest, alle of oon assent, Ful covartly to leyn a busshement Under an hille, at a streite passage, To falle on hym at mor ayantage, The same way that Tydeus gan drawe At thylke ? mount wher that Spynx was slawe.8 He, nothing war in his opynyoun Of this compassed to conspiracioun, But innocent and lich 11 a gentyl knyght, Rood ay forth to 12 that it drowe 13 to nyght, Sool by hym-silf, with-oute companye, Havyng no man to wisse 14 hym or to gye.15

But at the last, lifting up his hede, Toward eve, he gan taken hede; Mid of his waye, right as eny lyne, Thoght he saugh, ageyn the mone shyne, Sheldes fresshe and plates borned 16 bright, The which environ 17 casten a gret lyght; Ymagynyng in his fantasye Ther was treson and conspiracye Wrought by the kyng, his journe 18 forto lette. 19 And of al that he no-thyng ne sette,20

quenched ? had made 3 ambush 4 convenient Spurely because of 6 greater advantage the same

7 slain not at all aware in his thought 10 arranged, formed 11 like 12 till 13 drew 14 direct 15 guide 16 burnished 17 around 18 journey 19 hinder 20 he cared nothing for all that

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