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Lucan fyl in a sowne 1 wyth the lyfte, that the saw no thynge but the waters wappe 1 and parte of his guttes fyl oute of his bodye. And

"A, traytour, untrewe,”. therwyth the noble knyghtes herte braste.2 sayd kyng Arthur, “now hast thou betrayed And whan the kyng awake, he behelde Syr me twyse. Who wold have wente 3 that thou Lucan how he laye foomyng at the mowth, that hast been to me so leef 4 and dere, and and parte of his guttes laye at his feet. thou arte named a noble knyghte, and wold “Alas !” sayd the kyng, “thys is to me a ful betraye me for the richesse of the swerde? hevy syght to see thys noble duke so deye But now goo ageyn lyghtly, for thy longe for my sake, for he wold have holpen me that taryeng putteth me in grete jeopardye of my had more nede of helpe than I. Alas! he lyf, for I have taken colde; and but-yf - thou wold not complayne hym, hys herte was so do now as I byd the, yf ever I may see the I sette to helpe me. Now Jhesu have mercy shal slee : the ? myn owne handes, for thou upon hys soule.” Than Syr Bedwere wepte woldest for my ryche swerde see me dede.” for the deth of his brother. “Leve thys Thenne Syr Bedwere departed, and wente to mornyng and wepyng," sayd the kyng, "for the swerde, and lyghtly took hit up, and wente al this wyl not avaylle me; for wyte 3 thou to the water syde, and there he bounde the wel, and * I myght lyve my self, the deth of gyrdyl aboute the hyltes, and thenne he Syr Lucan wolde greve me ever more, but my threwe the swerde as farre in to the water as tyme hyeth • fast,” sayd the kyng. "Ther- he myght. And there cam an arme and an fore," sayd Arthur unto Syr Bedwere, “take hande above the water and mette it, and thou Excalybur, my good swerde, and goo caught it, and so shoke it thryse and braunwith it to yonder water syde, and whan thou dysshed; and than vanysshed awaye the hande comest there, I charge the 6 throwe my swerde wyth the swerde in the water. So Syr Bedin that water, and come ageyn and telle me were came ageyn to the kyng and tolde hym what thou there seest." “My lord,” sayd what he sawe. Bedwere, “your commaundement shal be “Alas !” sayd the kyng, “helpe me hens, doon, and lyghtly brynge you worde ageyn.” for I drede 10 me I have taryed over longe.”

So Syr Bedwere departed, and by the waye Than Syr Bedwere toke the kyng upon his he behelde that noble swerde, that the pomel backe, and so wente wyth hym to that water and the hafte was al of precyous stones; and syde, and whan they were at the water syde, thenne he sayd to hym self, “Yf I throwe this evyn fast 11 by the banke hoved 12 a lytyl barge ryche swerde in the water, therof shal never wyth many fayr ladyes in hit, and emonge come good, but harme and losse.” And hem al was a quene, and al they had blacke thenne Syr Bedwere hydde Excalybur under hoodes, and al they wepte and shryked 13 a tree. And so as sone as he myght he came whan they sawe kyng Arthur. “Now put me ageyn unto the kyng, and sayd he had ben at in to the barge,” sayd the kyng; and so he the water, and had throwen the swerde in to dyd softelye. And there receyved hym thre the water. “What sawe thou there?” sayd quenes wyth grete mornyng, and soo they the kyng. "Syr," he sayd, "I sawe no thynge sette hem doun, and in one of their lappes but wawes? and wyndes.

“That is un

kyng Arthur layed hys heed, and than that trewly sayd of the,” 6 sayd the kynge. quene says, “A, dere broder, why have ye “Therfore goo thou lyghtelye 8 ageyn, and taryed so longe from me? Alas! this wounde do my commaundemente; as thou arte to on your heed hath caught overmoche colde.” me leef' and dere, spare not but throwe it And soo than they rowed from the londe, and in." Than Syr Bedwere retorned ageyn, and Syr Bedwere behelde all tho 14 ladyes goo from took the swerde in hys hande, and than hym hym.15 Than Syr Bedwere cryed, "A, my thought synne and shame to throwe awaye lord Arthur, what shal become of me, now ye that nobyl swerde; and so efte 10 he hydde the goo from me and leve me here allone emonge swerde, and retorned ageyn and tolde to the myn enemyes?"

Comfort thy self,” sayd kyng that he had ben at the water, and done the kyng, "and doo as wel as thou mayst, for his commaundemente. “What sawe thou in me is no truste for to truste in. For I wyl there?” sayd the kyng. “Syr,” he sayd, “I

1 lap, beat 2 grow dark 3 thought "beloved “unless swoon ? burst 3 know 4 if 6 hastens thee 6 slay 7 thee 8 dead hence 10 fear 11 close 12 hovered, ? waves 8 quickly 9 beloved 10 again

floated 13 shrieked 14 those 15 i.e. Bedwere



in to the vale of Avylyon, to hele me of my have sayled over the see into Zelande, and grevous wounde. And yf thou here never for lacke of wynde, thei taryed atte i Forlond, more of me, praye for my soule.” But ever and wente to lande for to refreshe them. And the quenes and ladyes wepte and shryched, one of theym named Sheffelde, a mercer, cam that hit was pyte ? to here. And assone as Syr in to an hows and axed for mete and specyaly Bedwere had loste the syght of the baarge, he he axyed after eggys, and the goode wyf wepte and waylled, and so took the foreste; 3 answerde that she could speke no Frenshe. and so he wente al that nyght, and in the And the marchaunt was angry, for he also mornyng he was ware 4 betwyxte two holtes coude speke no Frenshe, but wolde have hadde hore 5 of a chapel and an ermytage.

egges; and she understode hym not. And

thenne at laste a-nother sayd that he wolde WILLIAM CAXTON (1422?-1491)

have eyren. Then the good wyf sayd that

she understod hym wel. Loo, what sholde PREFACE TO THE BOOKE OF

a man in thyse dayes now wryte, egges, or

eyren? Certaynly it is hard to playse every ENEYDOS

man, by-cause of dyversite and chaunge of And whan I had advysed me in this sayd langage; for in these dayes every man that is boke, I delybered ? and concluded to trans- in ony reputacyon in his countre wyll utter late it in to Englysshe, and forthwyth toke his commynycacyon and maters in suche a penne and ynke and wrote a leef or tweyne,

maners and termes that fewe men shall underwhyche I oversawe agayn to corecte it; and

stonde theym. And som honest and grete whan I sawe the fayr and straunge termes

clerkes have ben wyth me and desired me to therein, I doubted that it sholde not please

wryte the moste curyous 4 termes that I some gentylmen whiche late blamed me,

coude fynde. And thus, betwene playn, sayeng that in my translacyons I had over rude, and curyous, I stande abasshed. But in curyous' termes, which coude not be under- my judgemente the comyn termes that be stande 19 of comyn peple, and desired me to use

dayly used ben lyghter to be understonde olde and homely termes in my translacyons.

than the olde and auncyent Englysshe. And, And fayn wolde I satysfye every man; and,

foras-moche as this present booke is not for so to doo, toke an olde boke and redde therin;

a rude uplondyssh man to laboure therein and certaynly the Englysshe was so rude and

ne rede it, but onely for a clerke and a noble brood 11 that I coude not wele understande it; gentylman that feleth and understondeth in and also my lorde abbot of Westmynster ded

faytes of armes, in love, and in noble chyvso shewe to me late certayn evydences 12

alrye, therfor in a meane bytwene bothe I wryton in olde Englysshe for to reduce it in have reduced and translated this sayd booke to our Englysshe now used, and certaynly it

in our Englysshe, not over rude ne curyous, was wreton in suche wyse that it was more

but in suche termes as shall be understanden, lyke to Dutche than Englysshe; I coude not

by Goddys grace, accordynge to my copye. reduce ne brynge it to be understonden. And certaynly our ngage now used varyeth STEPHEN HAWES (d. 1523) ferre 13 from that whiche was used and spoken whan I was borne. For we Englysshe men

THE PASTIME OF PLEASURE ben borne under the domynacyon of the mone, whiche is never stedfaste but ever OF THE GREAT MARIAGE BETWENE waverynge, wexynge one season and waneth

GRAUNDE AMOUR AND LABELL and dyscreaseth 14 another season. And that

PUCELL comyn 15 Englysshe that is spoken in one shyre varyeth from a-nother, in so moche

FROM CAPIT. XXXIX that in my dayes happened that certayn Then Perceveraunce in all goodly haste marchauntes were in a ship in Tamyse for to Unto the stewarde called Liberalitie 1 shrieked ? pity 3 forest 4 he perceived 5 hoary

Gave warnyng for to make ready fast forests hermitage ? deliberated 8 feared 'curi

Agaynst this tyme of great solemnitie ous, ornate 10 understood 11 broad 12 legal docu- 1 at the ? eggs 3 lo 4 ornate, artificial 5 country ments







6 deeds

That on the morowe halowed shoulde be. She warned the cooke called Temperaunce And after that the ewres, Observaunce,

And Nature Naturyng waxt retrograde,
By strength my youthe so far to exclude,
As was ever her olde consuetude
First to augment and then to abate,
This is the custome of her hye estate.


JOHN SKELTON (1460 ?-1529)


With Pleasaunce, the panter, and dame

The gentle butler, with the ladyes all.
Eche in her office was prepared shortly
Agaynst this feast so muche triumphall;
And La Bell Pucell then in speciall
Was up by time in the morowe graye;
Right so was I when I sawe the daye.




And right anone La Bell Pucell me sent, Agaynst my weddyng, of the saten fyne, White as the mylke, a goodly garment Braudred 3 with pearle that clearely dyd

shine. And so, the mariage for to determine, Venus me brought to a royal chapell, Whiche of fine golde was wrought everydell.



And after that the gay and glorious La Bell Pucell to the chapell was leade In a white vesture fayre and precious, With a golden chaplet on her yelowe heade; And Lex Ecclesie did me to her wedde. After whiche weddyng then was a great feast; Nothing we lacked, but had of the best.


What 4 shoulde tary by longe continuance Of the fest? for of my joy and pleasure 30 Wisdome can judge, without variaunce, That nougt I lacked, as ye may be sure, Paiyng the swete due deite of nature. Thus with my lady, that was sayre and

cleare, In joy I lived full ryght, many a yere.

Do mi nus,"
Helpe nowe, swete Jesus !
Levavi oculos meos in montes:
Wolde God I had Zenophontes,
Or Socrates the wyse,
To shew me their devyse,
Moderatly to take
This sorrow that I make
For Phyllip Sparowes sake!
So fervently I shake,
I fele my body quake;
So urgently I am brought
Into carefull thought.
Like Andromach, Hectors wyfe,
Was wery of her lyfe,
Whan she had lost her joye,
Noble Hector of Troye;
In lyke manner also
Encreaseth my dedly wo,
For my sparowe is go.

It was so prety a fole,3
It wold syt on a stole,
And lerned after


scole For to kepe his cut," With, “Phyllyp, kepe your cut !”

It had a velvet cap,
And wold syt upon my lap,
And seke after small wormes,
And somtyme white-bred crommes;
And many tymes and ofte
Betwene my brestes softe
It wolde lye and rest ;
It was propre and prest.5

Somtyme he wolde gaspe
Whan he sawe a waspe;
A fly or a gnat,
He wolde flye at that;
And prytely he wold pant
Whan he saw an ant;

I 20

O lusty youth and yong tender hart, The true companion of my lady bryght!. God let us never from other astart," But all in joye to live bothe daye and nyght. Thus after sorowe joye arived aryght;

40 After my payne I had sport and playe; Full litle thought I that it shoulde decaye, Tyll that Dame Nature Naturynge had

made All thinges to growe unto their fortitude; ?

eweress, servant in charge of ewers, napkins, etc. 2 servant in charge of pantry 3 broidered * why 5 start away 6 Natura naturans, Nature as a creative being strength



1 Lord ? I have lifted up mine eyes to the mountains. ' fool to act shy, to keep his distance 'ready


To catche the forked cap. Forsothe they are to lewd To say so, all beshrewd !


Lord, how he wolde pry
After the butterfly !
Lorde, how he wolde hop
After the gressop!"
And whan I sayd, “Phyp ! Phyp!”
Than he wold lepe and skyp,
And take me by the lyp.

140 Alas, it wyll me slo,2 That Phillyp is gone me fro!


(c. 1500)

(Unknown Author) “Be it right or wrong, these men among 'on

women do complaine, Asiermyng this, how that it is a labour spent

in vaine To love them wele, for never a dele they love a

man agayne; For lete a man do what he can ther favor to

attayne, Yet yf a newe to them pursue, ther furst

trew lover than 2 Laboureth for nought, and from her thought

he is a bannisshed man."




FROM COLYN CLOUTE My name is Colyn Cloute. I purpose to shake oute All my connyng bagge, Lyke a clerkely hagge; For though my ryme be ragged, Tattered and jagged, Rudely rayne beaten, Rusty and moughte-eaten, If ye take well therwith, It hath in it some pyth. For, as farre as I can se, It is wronge with eche degre; For the temporalte Accuseth the spiritualte; The spirituall agayne Dothe grudge and complayne Upon the temporall men : Thus eche of other blother 4 The tone 5 agayng the tother. Alas, they make me shoder ! For in hoder moder 6 The Churche is put in faute.? The prelates ben so haut, They say, and loke so hy, As though they wolde fly Above the sterry skye. Laye-men say indede How they take no hede Theyr sely shepe to fede, But plucke away and pull The ileces of theyr wull; Unethes' they leve a locke Of wull amonges theyr flocke. And as for theyr connynge, A glommynge and a mummynge, And make therof a jape; They gaspe and they gape, All to have promocyon; There is theyr hole devoçyon, With money, if it wyll hap,

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