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VII. Graphis, seu positura, secunda pic

turæ pars.

VIII. Varietas in figuris.


Figura sit

una cum membris et vestibus.

Horum igitur vera ad normam Pos-
itura legetur:

Grandia, inæqualis, formosaque par-
tibus amplis

105. Anteriora dabit membra, in contraria


Achetypis; queis posterior nil protu-
lit ætas

X. Mutorum actiones imitanda.

Condignum, et non inferius longè,
arte, modoque.

Diverso variata, suo librataque centro.
Membrorumque sinus ignis flam-
mantis ad instar,
Serpenti undantes flexu; sed lævia,
Magnaque signa, quasi sine tubere
subdita tactu,

Ex longo deducta fluant, non secta
110. Insertisque toris sint nota ligamina,
Compagem anatomes, et membrifica-

tio Græco
Deformata modo, paucisque expressa

Qualis apud veteres; totoque Eu-
rythmia partes

Componat; genitumque suo gene-
rante sequenti

115. Sit minus, et puncto videantur cuncta
sub uno.
Regula certa licet nequeat pro-
spectica dici,
Aut complementum graphidos; sed
in arte juvamen,

Let the part which produces 115.
another part, be more strong than
that which it produces; and let the
whole be seen by one point of sight.
*Though perspective cannot be
called a perfect ruler "for design-
ing," yet it is a great succour to art,
and facilitates the "despatch of the
work:" though frequently falling into 120.
error, it makes us behold things un-

Et modus accelerans operandi: at
corpora falso

Sub visu in multis referens, mendosa der a false aspect; for bodies are not
120. Nam geometralem nunquam sunt
corpora juxtà
Mensuram depicta oculis, sed qualia

always represented according to the
geometrical plane, but such as they
appear to the sight.


Non eadem formæ species, non
omnibus ætas
Equalis, similisque color, crinesque
figuris :

Neither the shape of faces, nor the Variety in
age, nor the colour, ought to be alike the figures
in all figures, any more than the hair; 125.
because men are as different from
each other, as the regions in which
they are born are different.

125. Nam variis velut orta plagis gens
dispare vultu est.
Singula membra, suo capiti con-
formia, fiant

cient statues, which are the rule of
beauty and gracefulness; and to
which succeeding ages have produced
nothing that is equal; "or indeed
that is not very much inferior, both in
science, and in the manner of its ex-

Unum idemque simul corpus cum
vestibus ipsis ;
Mutorumque silens positura imita-
bitur actus.


* An attitude therefore must be Design, the
second part
chosen, according to their taste:
of painting.
* the parts of it must be great * and
large,*"contrasted by contrary mo- 105.
tions; the most noble parts foremost
in sight, and each figure carefully
poised on its own centre.

* “The parts must be drawn with
flowing, gliding outlines, large and
smooth, rising gradually, not swelling
suddenly, but which may be just felt
in the statues, or cause a little re
lievo in painting. Let the muscles 110.
have their origin and insertion, * ac-
cording to the rules of anatomy; let
them not be subdivided into small
sections, but kept as entire as pos-
sible, in imitation of the Greek
forms, and expressing only the prin-
cipal muscles." In fine, let there
be a perfect relation betwixt the
parts and the whole, that they may
be entirely of a piece.



bers and

to be

* Let every member be made for The memits own head, and agree with it; drapery of and let all together compose but one every figure body, with the draperies which are to it. proper and suitable to it. And, above all, let the figures to which art cannot give a voice, imitate the mutes in The actions their actions.



of mutes to be imitated.

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* Let the principal figure of the Of the prinsubject appear in the middle of the cipal figure piece, under the strongest light, that of the subit may have somewhat to make it 130. more remarkable than the rest; and that the figures which accompany it may not steal it from our sight.



Let the "parts be brought to- Groups of gether, and the figures disposed in' groups" and let those groups be separated by a void space, to avoid a con- 135. fused heap; which proceeding from parts that are dispersed without any regularity, and entangled one within another, divides the sight into many rays, and causes a disagreeable confusion.


tudes in the

* The figures in the groups ought The diver not to "have the same inflections of of atti the body, nor the same motions; nor groups. should they lean all one way, but 140. break the symmetry, by proper oppositions and contrasts.

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"Many dispersed objects breed confusion, and take away from the picture that solemn majesty, and agreeable repose, which give beauty to the piece, and satisfaction to the sight. But if you are constrained by the subject to admit of many figures, you must then make the whole 160. to be seen together, and the effect of the work at one view; and not every thing separately, and in particular."

XVI. *The extremities of the joints of the must be seldom hidden; and the ex-joints and tremities or end of the feet never.


XVII. The figures which are behind oth- The motions of the hands ers, have neither grace nor vigour, and head unless the motions of the hands ac- must agree. company those of the head.



Avoid "all odd aspects or posi- What must tions, and all ungraceful or forced be avoided in the distriactions and motions." Show no bution of the parts which are unpleasing to the figures. sight, as all foreshortenings usually


*Avoid all those lines and outlines which are equal; which make parallels, or other sharp-pointed and geometrical figures; such as are 170. squares and triangles: all which, by being too exact, give to the eye a certain displeasing symmetry, which produces no good effect. But, as I have already told you, the principal lines ought to contrast each other: for which reason, in these outlines, you ought to have a special regard 175. to the whole together: for it is from thence that the beauty and force of the parts proceed.


ourselves to


* Be not so strictly tied to nature, That we that you allow nothing to study, and must not tie the bent of your own genius. But nature; but on the other side, believe not that date her to your genius alone, and the remem- our genius. brance of those things which you have seen, can afford you wherewithal to furnish out a beautiful piece, without the succour of that incomparable schoolmistress, Nature; * whom 180. you must have always present as a witness to the truth. "Errors are infinite," and amongst many ways

XX. Signa antiqua natura modum constituunt.

Multiplicesque viæ, bene agendi
terminus unus;

Linea recta velut sola est, et mille


185. Sed juxta antiquos naturam imita-
bere pulchram,

Qualem forma rei propria, objectum-
que requirit.

Non te igitur lateant antiqua nu-
mismata, gemmæ,

Vasa, typi, statuæ, cælataque mar-
mora signis,

Quodque refert specio veterum post
sæcula mentem ;

190. Splendidior quippe ex illis assurgit

Magnaque se rerum facies aperit

Tunc nostri tenuem sæcli misere-
bere sortem,

Cùm spes nulla siet redituræ æqua- present age, without hope of ever
lis in ævum.
arriving at so high a point of perfec-

XXII. Quid in pan. nis observandum.



Sola figura, Exquisita siet formâ, dum sola figura tractanda. Pingitur; et multis variata coloribus


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Membra sinus; non contiguos, ip-
sisque figuræ
200. Partibus impressos, quasi pannus
adhæreat illis;
Sed modicè expressos cum lumine
servet et umbris.
Quæque intermissis passim sunt
dissita vanis,
Copulet, inductis subtérve, supérve

Et membra, ut magnis, paucisque
expressa lacertis,

which mislead a traveller, there is
but one true one, which conducts him
surely to his journey's end; as also
there are many several sorts of
crooked lines, but there is one only
which is straight.

205. Majestate aliis præstant, forma, at-
que decore:

Haud secus in pannis, quos supra
optavimus amplos,
Perpaucos sinuum flexus, rugasque,
Membra super, versu faciles, indu-
cere præstat.

ures the


Our business is to imitate the beau- 185. ties of nature, as the ancients have done before us, and as the object and nature of the thing require from us. XX. And for this reason, we must be care- Ancient fig. ful in the search of ancient medals, rules of imistatues, gems, vases, paintings, and tating nabasso relievos; * and of all other things which discover to us the thoughts and inventions of the Grecians; because they furnish us with great ideas, and make our productions wholly beautiful. And in truth, 190. after having well examined them, we shall therein find so many charms, that we shall pity the destiny of our


ure how

* If you have but one single figure A single figto work upon, you ought to make it be treated. perfectly finished, and diversified with many colours.


* Let the draperies be nobly spread of the draperies. upon the body; let the folds be large, * and let them follow the order of the parts, that they may be seen under- 195. neath, by means of the lights and shadows; notwithstanding that the parts should be often traversed (or crossed) by the flowing of the folds, which loosely encompass them, * without sitting too straight upon them; but let them mark the parts 200. which are under them, so as in some manner to distinguish them, by the judicious ordering of the lights and shadows. And if the parts be too much distant from each other, so that there be void spaces, which are deeply shadowed, we are then to take occasion to place in those voids some fold to make a joining of the parts. "And as those limbs and members 205. which are expressed by few and large muscles, excel in majesty and beauty," in the same manner the beauty of the draperies consists not in the multitude of the folds, but in their natural order, and plain simplicity. The quality of the persons is also to

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be considered in the drapery. As supposing them to be magistrates, their draperies ought to be large and 210. sample; if country clowns, or slaves, they ought to be coarse and short; * if ladies, or damsels, light and soft It is sometimes requisite to draw out, as it were from the hollows and deep shadows, some fold, and give it a swelling, that so receiving the light, it may contribute to extend the clearness to those places where the body requires it; and by this means we shall disburden the piece of those hard shadowings, which are always ungraceful.


contribute to

* The marks or ensigns of virtues XXIII. contribute not a little, by their noble- What things ness, to the ornament of the figures. adorn the Such, for example, as are the deco- picture. rations belonging to the liberal arts, to war, or sacrifices.

XXIV. * But let not the work be too much of precious enriched with gold or jewels; "for stones and pearl for orthe abundance or them makes them naments. look cheap, their value arising from the scarcity."


*It is very expedient to make a The model. model of those things, which we have not in our sight, and whose nature 220. is difficult to be retained in the mem



*We are to consider the places The scene of where we lay the scene of the pic- the picture. ture; the countries where they were born, whom we represent; the manner of their actions, their laws, and customs, and all that is properly belonging to them.


*Let a nobleness and grace be The graces remarkable through all your work. and the noBut, to confess the truth, this is a most difficult undertaking, and a very rare present, which the artist receives rather from the hand of Heaven, than from his own industry and studies.


in its proper

In all things you are to follow the Let every order of nature; for which reason thing be set you must beware of drawing or place." painting clouds, winds, and thunder, towards the bottom of your piece, and hell, and waters, in the uppermost 225. parts of it; you are not to place a stone column on a foundation of reeds, but let every thing be set in its proper place.

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