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XLI. Contraria extrema fugienda.

XLU. Tonus et color varii.

365. XLIII.

Luminis delectus.

XLIV. Quædam circa prax. im.

XLV. Campus tabula.

Extrema extremis contraria jungere

Sed medio sint usque gradu sociata

Corporum erit tonus atque color va-
riatus ubique;

Quærat amicitiam retro; ferus emi

cet ante.

370. Seu nebulis fultam accipient, toni-
truque rubentem.

Supremum in tabulis lumen cap-
tare diei.

Insanus labor artificum; cùm attin-
gere tantùm

Non pigmenta queant: auream
sed vespere luceml;
Seu modicùm mane albentem; sive evening, with which the fields are

ætheris actam

gilded by the sun; or a morning light,
whose whiteness is allayed; or that
which appears after a shower of rain,
which the sun gives us through the
breaking of a cloud; or during thun- 370.
der, when the clouds hide him from
our view, and make the light of a
fiery colour.

Post hyemem nimbis transfuso sole

Lævia quæ lucent, veluti crystalla,

Ligna, ossa, et lapides; villosa, ut
vellera, pelles,
Barbæ, aqueique oculi, crines, holo-
serica, pluma;

Et liquida, ut stagnans aqua, reflex-
æque sub undis
375. Corporeæ species, et aquis conter-
mina cuncta,
Subter ad extremum liquidè sint pic
ta, superque
Luminibus percussa suis, signisque


be done by a small and pleasing dif- which are
* Let two contrary extremities Contrary
never touch each other, either in col- to be avoid-
our or in light; but let there always ed.
be a medium partaking both of the
one and of the other.



Let the bodies everywhere be of Diversity of different tints and colours; that those tints, and colwhich are behind may be tied in friendship together; and that those which are foremost may be strong and lively.

*It is labour in vain to paint a 365. XLIII. high-noon, or mid-day light, your The choice picture; because we have no colours of light. which can sufficiently express it: but it is better counsel to choose a weaker light; such as is that of the

Area, vel campus tabulæ vagus
esto, levisque
Abscedat latus, liquidèque bene unc-

tus amicis

880. Tota ex mole coloribus, unâ sive
patellâ ;
Quæque cadunt retro in campum,
.confinia campo.


Smooth bodies, such as crystals, of certain polished metals, wood, bones, and things relating to the stones; those which are covered practical with hair, as skins, the beard, or the part. hair of the head; as also feathers, silks, and the eyes, which are of a watery nature; and those which are liquid, as waters, and those corpo- 375. real species, which we see reflected by them; and in fine, all that which touches them, or is near them, ought to be "carefully painted flat, in flowing colours; then touched up with sprightly lights, and the true lines of the drawing restored, which were lost, or confused, in working the colours together.


Let the field, or ground of the The field or picture, be pleasant, free, transient, ground of the picture. light, and well united with colours, which are of a friendly nature to each other: and of such a mixture, 380. as there may be something in it of every colour that composes your work, as it were the contents of your palette. "And let those bodies that are back in the ground be painted with colours allied to those of the ground itself."

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XLVI. Of the viva

* Let your colours be lively, and yet not look (according to the city of colpainters' proverb) as if they had been ours. rubbed or sprinkled with meal; that is to say, let them not be pale.

* Let the parts which are nearest to us, and most raised, be strongly coloured, and as it were sparkling; and let those parts which are more remote from sight, and towards the borders, be more faintly touched.


* Let there be so much harmony, 985. or consent, in the masses of the pic of shadows. ture, that all the shadowings may appear as if they were but one.


"Let the whole picture be of one The picture piece, as if it were painted from one to be of one palette."

piece. XLIX.

The looking-glass will instruct The lookingyou in many beauties, which you may glass the observe from nature; so will also painter's those objects which are seen in an evening in a large prospect.

best master.



If there be a half figure, or a whole L. A half figone, to be set before the other fig- ure, or a ures, and placed nearer to the view, whore oth and next the light; or if it is to be ers. painted in a great place, though at a distance from the eye; be sure on these occasions not to be sparing of great lights, the most lively colours, nor the strongest shadows.


*As for a portrait, or pictures by A portrait. the life, you are to work precisely after nature, and to express what she shows you, working at the same time on those parts which are resembling to each other: as for example, the eyes, the cheeks, the nostrils, and the lips; so that you are to touch the one, as soon as you have given a stroke of the pencil to the other, lest the interruption of time cause you to lose the idea of one part, which nature has produced to resemble the other; and thus imitating feature for feature, with a just and harmonious composition of the lights and shadow and of the colours; and giving to the picture that liveliness, which the freedom and force of the pencil make appear, it may seem, the living hand

of nature.



The works which are painted to The place of be seen near, in little or narrow' the picture. places, must be very tender and well united with tints and colours; "let

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LV. Errores et vitia pictura.

LVI. Prudentia in pictore.

Dumque fugis vitiosa, cave in
contraria labi

415. Damna mali; vitium extremis nam
semper inhæret.

Pulchra gradu summo, graphidos
stabilita vetuste
Nobilibus signis, sunt grandia, dis-
sita, pura,
Tersa, velut minimè confusa, labore

Partibus ex magnis paucisque efficta,

LVII. Elegantium idea tabula


420. Corporibus distincta feris, sed sem-
per amicis.

LVIII. Pictor tyro.

those which are to be seen at a dis- 400.
tance, be varied with fiercer colours
and stronger tints.

Quæ vacuis divisa cavis, vitare

Trita, minuta, simul quæ non sti-
pata dehiscunt;
Barbara, cruda oculis, rugis fucata
Luminis umbrarumque tonis æqua-
lia cuncta;
410. Fœda, cruenta,
cruces, obscoena,
ingrata, chimeras,
Sordidaque et misera, et vel acuta,
vel aspera tactu;

uæque dabunt formæ, temerè con-
gesta, ruinam,
Implicitas aliis confundent mixtaque entangled in each other: "For the

eyes have a horror for those things,
which the hands will not condescend
to touch."

"Very large figures must have room enough, and strong, or rather fierce colouring."


* You are to "take the utmost Large
care, that broad lights may be joined
to a like breadth of shadows."

Qui bene cœpit, uti facti jam fer-
tur habere
Dimidium; picturam ita nil, sub
limine primo
Ingrediens, puer, offendit damnosius



If the picture be set in a place What lights which receives but little light, the are requi colours must be very clear; as, on the contrary, very brown, if the 405. place be strongly enlightened, or in the open air.


which are

Remember to avoid objects which Things are full of hollows, broken in pieces, vicious in little, and which are separated, or in painting to be avoided. parcels; shun also those things which are barbarous, shocking to the eye, and party-coloured, and which are all of an equal force of light and shadow; as also all things which are 410. obscene, impudent, filthy, unseemly, cruel, fantastical, poor, and wretched; and those things which are sharp to the feeling; in short, all things which corrupt their natural forms, by a confusion of their parts which are


tial part of a

But while you endeavour to avoid The prudenone vice, be cautious lest you fall painter. into another; for "extremes are al- 415. ways vicious."


a beautiful

Those things which are beautiful The idea of in the utmost degree of perfection, piece. according to the axiom of ancient painters, ought to have somewhat of greatness in them, and their outlines to be noble; they must be disentangled, pure, and without alteration, clean, and knit together; composed of great parts, yet those but few in number. In fine, distinguished by bold colours; but of such as are related and friendly to each 420. other. And as it is a common say Advice to a ing, that "he who has begun well, young painthas already performed half his work ;" er.



so there is nothing more pernicious
to a youth who is yet in the elements
of painting, than to engage himself
Quàm varia errorum genera, igno- under the discipline of an ignorant
rante magistro,
master; who depraves his taste, by

425. Ex pravis libare Typis, mentemque


Inficere in toto quod non abstergitur


Nec graphidos rudis artis adhuc citò qualiacunque Corpora viva super, studium meditabitur, ante

Illorum quam symmetriam, internodia, formam 430.,Noverit, inspectis, docto evolvente magistro, Archetypis; dulcesque dolos præsen serit artis. Plusque manu ante oculos quam voce docebitur usus.

LIX. Ars debet

servire pictori, non pictor arti.

LX. Oculos recreant diversitas et

operis facilitas, quæ speciatim

ars dicitur.

· LXII. Circinus in oculis.

Quære artem quæcumque juvant; uge quæque repugnant.

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440. Nec prius inducas tabulæ pigmenta colorum,

Archetypus in mente,

Expensi quàm signa typi stabilita apographum nitescant,

in tela.

Et menti præsens operis sit pegma
Prævaleat sensus rationi, quæ
officit arti
Conspicua; inque oculis tantum-
modo circinus esto.

an infinite number of mistakes, of which his wretched works are full, 425. and thereby makes him drink the poison which infects him through all his future life.

Let him who is yet but a beginner, not make so much haste to study after nature every thing which he intends to imitate, as not in the mean time to learn proportions, the connexion of the joints, and their outlines: and let him first have well examined the 430. excellent originals, and have thoroughly studied all the pleasing deceptions of his art; which he must be rather taught by a knowing master, than by practice; and by seeing him perform, without being contented only to hear him speak.


*Search whatsoever is aiding to Art must be your art, and convenient; and avoid subservient to the paintthose things which are repugnant er. to it.


* Bodies of divers natures, which Diversity are aggrouped (or combined) toand facility gether, are agreeable and pleasant to are pleasing. the sight; * as also those things which seem to be slightly touched, and performed with ease; because 435 they are ever full of spirit, and appear to be animated with a kind of celestial fire. But we are not able to compass these things with facility, till we have for a long time weighed them in our judgment, and thoroughly considered them: by this means the painter shall be enabled to conceal the pains and study which his art and work have cost him, under a pleasing sort of deceit; for the greatest secret which belongs to art, is to hide it from the discovery of specta



Never give the least touch with 440. your pencil, till you have well exam- The original ined your design, and have settled must be in your outlines; nor till you have and the copy the head, present in your mind a perfect idea on the cloth. of your work.


the eyes.

Let the eye be satisfied in the The comfirst place, even against and above pass to be in all other reasons, which beget difficulties in your art, which of itself suffers none; and let the compass be rather in your eyes, than in your


445. LXIII. Superbia

Utera doctorum monitis, nec
sperne superbus

pictori nocet Discere, quæ de te fucrit sententia

455. LXIV.




Est cæcus nam quisque suis in re-
bus, et expers
Judicii, prolemque suam miratur

Ast ubi consilium deerit sapientis

450. Id tempus dabit, atque mora inter-
missa labori.

Non facilis tamen ad nutus, et ina-
nia vulgi

Dicta, levis mutabis opus, genium- faults and beauties. Yet suffer not

LXV. Quod men. te conceperis manu comproba.

que relinques :

Nam qui parte sua sperat bene posse

tempus labori ap


Multivaga de plebe, nocet sibi, nec
placet ulli.


Ut data quæ genio colat, abstineat
que negatis.

Fructibus utque suus nunquam est
sapor, atque venustas

460. Floribus, insueto in fundo, præcoce
sub anni

Tempore, quos cultus violentus et ig-
nis adegit:
Sic nunquam, nimio quæ sunt extorta

LXVI. Matutinum

Cumque opere in proprio soleat se
pingere pictor,

(Prolem adeo sibi ferre parem natu-
ra suevit,)
Proderit imprimis pictori γνῶθι σεαυ-

Vera super meditando, manûs labor
improbus adsit.

465. Nec tamen obtundat genium, men

tisque vigorem.

Et picta invito genio, nunquam illa


* Profit yourself by the counsels of 445. the knowing; and do not arrogantly Pride an endisdain to learn the opinion of every emy to good man concerning your work. All men are blind as to their own productions, and no man is capable of judging in his own cause. *But if you have no knowing friend to assist you with his advice, yet length of time will 450 never fail; it is but letting some weeks pass over your head, or at least some days, without looking on your work; and that intermission will faithfully discover to you the

Optima nostrorum pars matutina

yourself to be carried away by the
opinions of the vulgar, who often
speak without knowledge; neither
give up yourself altogether to them,
and abandon wholly your own ge-
nius, so as lightly to change that
which you have made; for he who
has a windy head, and flatters him-
self with the empty hope of deserv-
ing the praise of the common people,
(whose opinions are inconsiderate
and changeable,) does but injure him-
self, and pleases no man.


Since every painter paints himself 455. in his own works, (so much is na- Know ture accustomed to produce her own yourself. likeness,) it is advantageous to him to know himself, to the end that he may cultivate those talents which make his genius, and not unprofitably lose his time, in endeavouring to gain that which she has refused him. As neither fruits have the taste, nor 460. flowers the beauty which is natural to them, when they are transplanted into an unkindly or foreign soil, and are forced to bear before their season, by an artificial heat; so it is in vain for the painter to sweat over his works, spite of nature and of genius; for without them it is impossible for him to succeed.


have con

* While you meditate on these Perpetually practise, truths, and observe them diligently, and do easily by making necessary reflections on what you them, let the labour of the hand ac- ceived. company the study of the brain; let the former second and support the latter; yet without blunting the sharpness of your genius, and abating 465. of its vigour by too much assiduity. LXVI.

*The morning is the best and The morning most proper part of the day for your for work

most proper

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