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12. All taps and stop-cocks are to be of approved pattern. There should be a good stop-cock within every house on the communicating pipe near where it enters the premises. None but taps incapable of being too suddenly closed shall be fixed on pipes connected with the mains.

13. Taps to courts or blocks of houses, and all taps outside of buildings, must be self-closing or of some other approved wastepreventing character.

14. No communicating or other pipe shall be laid through or into any sewer, ashpit, sink, manure hole, or any other place where the water conveyed by such pipe might be liable to draw in foul air through a faulty joint or an open tap.

15. All draw taps to water troughs and fountains used in any public place must be of a waste-preventing kind, approved by the authority, and must be only fixed in such places as shall be at all times subject to inspection.

16. A supply of water for domestic purposes does not include a supply of water for any trade or business whatever, or for watering roads, or for use in gardens or greenhouses, or for fountains or any ornamental purposes.

Where such supplies are required, the premises must be supplied by meter. The water supplied in any case must not be allowed to run to waste, either wilfully or by neglect, even though it be measured and paid for, nor must it be used for any purpose not agreed for.

17. The authority will provide and fix all meters and will also lay the service pipe to the inlet of the meter, and fix the stop-cock thereon. A rent will be charged for such meters.

18. All works of plumbing and laying service pipes and fixing fittings connected therewith, are to be done by tradesmen certified by the authority, who will be held responsible for the soundness of their work. The names and addresses of such tradesmen so certified will be published by the authority on their water rent papers, or in such other manner as they may consider necessary.

19. Two days' notice must be sent to the Borough Surveyor’s office, on forms which will be supplied to certified tradesmen on application, before any alteration or addition is made to any existing pipes and fittings, or when any connection is required to be made with the mains of the authority, and all pipes and apparatus to be laid or fixed for the use of the consumer must be inspected by an officer of the authority before such connection is made.

20. All parties applying for a supply of water, having complied with these requirements, will nevertheless understand that the authority hold themselves free from any liability for damages that may in any way arise in houses or premises by the bursting of pipes or the overflowing of cisterns by reason of frost or from any other cause.

GEORGE WINSHIP,

Borough Surveyor and Waterworks Manager. BOROUGH SURVEYOR'S OFFICE.

hereby agree to conform to the above regulations, and to do the work in a workmanlike manner to the satisfaction of the Borough Surveyor. Dated this

18

day of

ABINGDON URBAN SANITARY AUTHORITY WATER

WORKS.
APPLICATION FOR WATER SUPPLY.
I,
of

do hereby agree with the Urban Sanitary Authority for the Borough of Abingdon, to take and receive from them a supply of water by meter, for the undermentioned premises, viz. from

for the term of one whole year, and such further term as the said urban sanitary authority shall think fit, until I give three calendar months' notice in writing, to be addressed to the manager of the said waterworks, and to be delivered at his office in Abingdon, of my intention to discontinue such supply, and I hereby further agree to pay for such supply at the rate of one shilling and sixpence per thousand gallons, and a further quarterly rent of shillings and pence for the meter, the amount to be paid to the collector for the time being of the said urban sanitary authority, by quarterly payments on Lady-day, Midsummer day, Michaelmas-day, and Christmas-day, in every year, the first quarterly payment thereof to be made on next, subject nevertheless to any further resolutions or regulations of the said urban sanitary authority.

And I further agree that nothing in this agreement shall in any way bind the urban sanitary authority to keep at all times, charged with water, the pipes, or any fire cocks, hydrants, or other apparatus for extinguishing fire, which are now or may hereafter be attached to any pipes on the said premises in connection with water supplied by the urban sanitary authority, and I hereby declare that the urban sanitary authority shall not incur any liability consequent thereon or incidental thereto, in the event of the said premises being destroyed or damaged by fire, nor any addition to the obligations under which the urban sanitary authority are bound to

as consumer of the water. As witness my hand this day of of our Lord 18.

in the year

Accepted and ordered to be supplied accordingly.

Waterworks Manager.

DISCUSSION.

The Members assembled on Saturday morning, June 30th, and proceeded at once to the Abingdon Waterworks, where they were met by Mr. George Winship, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., the Borough Surveyor, and conducted over the works.

Mr. WINSHIP said : Commencing with the first portion of the idea, so to speak, a bore-hole was made about the centre of the reservoir in which we are standing, and carried to a depth of about 70 feet until clay was reached, believed to be Kimmeridge or Oxford clay, and the work at that time was therefore abandoned. Some time after, and during the period Mr. J. T. Maland was mayor, and the drainage works being stopped on account of floods, he (Mr. Maland) got the foreman to come up here, and the result was that, instead of continuing the boring, a shaft was sunk, and when a depth of 26 feet was reached, they found an enormous quantity of water. An engine and chain pump were used to pump it up, and the quantity of water was gauged, and just at that time I came to Abingdon. I cannot tell the exact quantity that was found, but there was more than sufficient to supply the town at that depth. Mr. Bailey Denton then recommended a reservoir to be constructed nearer the town, with a fall from the bore-hole into it, so that the water should run into the reservoir by gravitation. At the inquiry the Government Inspector (Mr. J. T. Harrison) thought it was foolish to have a reservoir, as the ground itself was a natural one, and he asked, “ Why not syphon the water out ? " therefore the idea of a syphon was really first suggested by Mr. Harrison. The

result was that they excavated the rock, and made these concrete blocks with the material in the proportion of one part Portland cement to four parts of broken material and sand, and constructed this small service reservoir. While they were excavating in the centre of the reservoir a portion of the rock gave in, and no doubt this was caused by the previous excavations, as they sometimes used dynamite and sometimes powder, and probably the dynamite caused the rock to split. Cylinders had to be sunk in consequence on either side of the reservoir, and longitudinal arches constructed, and the side walls built upon them. Mr. Denton suggested that we should have a trench cut from the bore-hole, commencing at 15 feet below the surface, in the direction of Abingdon, with just a little fall, and pot-pipes put in, and a gauge-board fixed at the outlet. About 50,000 gallons per day was the minimum gauging, and the maximum quantity was 300,000 gallons during a period of about two years. I suggested another gauge-board should be fixed about 200 yards from here, the total length of the cutting being just over a quarter of a mile, and as that board showed a less quantity by about one-eighth of an inch over a 12-inch gauge-board, that quantity was afterwards picked up and conveyed back here for the purpose of filling the syphon if it should fail. We have at the other end of the syphon a valve, and by closing it and opening this tap in connection with the water picked up, we can fill the syphon. If we get air into the syphon and the water in the reservoir is above the landing on which we are standing, we have simply to open the tap connected to the top of the syphon, and the air will rapidly escape and recharge the syphon. We have no air pump, but simply fill it with water. During the winter the water is generally above the syphon. We are rapidly extending our mains, and we have had several severe tests on the works. We have run for a month below this level to test it, and the result shows that we can work with any level. It has been about a week at this level. We had out in one day last week 149,000 gallons, and should not have known it, but we had one of our engines out of repair upon the sewage farm, and it caused me to examine and ascertain the quantity passing into the town. The next day it was 49,000 gallons. We open the air valve about once a week, but we can always find air in it, however short the time it may be in action. You must understand the syphon is capable of discharging upwards of 300 gallons per minute, but as our draught is nothing approaching that quantity, we have never felt the slightest inconvenience from the use of the syphon. I think that proves you should always have a syphon large enough to exceed the maximum draught. The spring we met with is sufficient to fill the syphon, and it has now been in action about two years, during which time we have never had to charge it. We have not had any long period of dry weather since these works started, and I should think our greatest draught upon it has been this year. We gauged it for three months last year specially and continuously.

Mr. COULTHURST : With regard to the commercial part. You supply by meter solely, and you cannot collect the water rents until you have registered the meters. Supposing in the interim anybody was to fail

, how would you recover ? You have to give a quarter's credit.

Mr. WINSHIP: In that case we should have to lose it, but we have no difficulty in collecting the rents.

The Members then returned to Oxford, and a discussion on the works took place in the Council Chamber.

Mr. LEMON said: I think the works we have seen this morning are very interesting. I always consider these small works are perhaps in one sense more interesting than larger ones, because the great difficulty we, as engineers, feel, is how to supply a small town with water at a reasonable cost, and of course with regard to the rateable value of the population. In this case it seems to have been done very successfully. There are some observations I should like to make with reference to the scheme generally. If I understand the paper rightly, the main from the reservoir to the town is also used in some part of it for supplying the town. I think in that case it would be better if there had been an inverted syphon, because it would have checked the air occasionally found in the pipe. As regards the supply of water, I notice that it is extraordinarily small-only six gallons per head—and that the meter system is adopted throughout, not only for trade, but for domestic purposes. We know that is a very unusual circumstance—the introduction of meters in all cases—and I think it is open to some objection. I consider six gallons per head is too small an amount for sanitary purposes. I think a minimum consumption should have been fixed; that is to say, each person should be charged for a certain number of gallons per head, and over and above that amount, so as to check waste, they should be charged by meter. If that were done there would not be the tendency, as there is at the present time in the town of Abingdon, to use such a small proportion

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