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and justly admired, are the famous lines the "butterbump” (dialect for bittern), so full of music:

the "yaffingale," and other birds.

*Many references are commonplaces in The moan of doves in immemorial elms,

poetry, such as twenty or more to the And murmuring of innumerable bees

"matin cock;" others, such as that in doubtless a reminiscence of Virgil's “The Daydream” to “long-tailed birds “nec gemere aeria cessabit turtur ab of Paradise," are too trivial to be ulmo," in itself derived from Theocritus. noticed. The one weak point in TennyThe white plumage of the dove shining son is his humor. Fitzgerald, his intiagainst the thatch or the dusk is noted mate friend, thought “Alfred's smile twice in “The Princess" by an eye ever was a little grim," and we must admit eager for color contrasts.

that the humorous poem of “The Goose" The carrier-pigeon is naturally and is distinctly poor and below the poet's forcibly introduced in "Harold.” He usual level, while a passage of similar says to the Thane from Pevensey:- tone about the hern in the “Idylls,"

rather fails of its mark. And thou, my carrier-pigeon of black

But these points may be safely left for news, Cram thy crop full but come when thou readers of Tennyson themselves to disart call'd.

cover in order to give room in a paper

already lengthy for some display of the The curlews of "Locksley Hall,” the

many metaphors and similes besides plover, whose “human whistle amazed”

those already quoted, which the poet Enid's heart, and must seem full of a

has so often and so successfully intromore than birdlike plaintiveness to all

duced into his work. who hear it, fit for the dirge—“There

His fondness for classical reminislet the wind sleep and the plover cry,"

cence has been touched on occasionally the “dropping" snipe—all these are here above. “The Princess" (iii., 81) supplies hastily passed over for a more detailed

an elaborate instance of this. The pasmention of a few of the passages con

sage:cerning sea-birds.

The "sea-blue bird of March" has The crane, I said, may chatter of the been mentioned above as a classical reminiscence. “In Memoriam” supplies The dove may murmur of the dove, but I another picturesque reference in:

An eagle clang an eagle to the sphere. Where now the sea mew pipes, or dives

is clearly modelled on Theocritus (Idyll In yonder greening gleam.

ix., 31):Wulfnoth in "Harold" complains in

Τέττιξ μέν τέττιγι φίλος, μύρμακι δε μύρμαξ, exile that he will not see England again,

"Ιρηκες δ' έρηξιν έμίν δ' ά Μωσα και ωδά. “Nor mark the sea-bird rouse himself

In "Pelleas and Ettarre" all talk dies and hover above the windy ripple, and away “As in a grove all song beneath fill the sky with free sea-laughter.” the shadow of some bird of prey;" this Enoch Arden, on his solitary island, might be paralleled from the "Ajax" “Could not see the kindly human face, of Sophocles (168 foll.), but so natural nor ever hear a kindly voice, but heard a metaphor need not be derived from the myriad shriek of wheeling ocean

any special source, except by the vamfowl.” In “The Captain” the moulder- pires, who hunt for coincidences. ing vessel, sunk with its crew beneath Again, in the “Idylls," Arthur's words the waves, is only marked by “the shriek round Lancelot "like birds of lonely sea-bird” crossing "with one prey.” Scandal in “Merlin and Vivien" waft of wing."

is a “foul bird of rapine." Death in "In The list of birds already enumerated does not anything like exhaust Tenny- amangst us, editors of booklets, bookworms, in

1 "There is, I fear, a prosaio set growing up son's aviary. He mentions also the dex hunters, or men of great memories and no lintwhite, the marsh diver, the redcap, imagination. ."-Letter of Tennyson.


Memorian" (canto 34) suggests the vivid the true sense of the word, could not say image:

as Tennyson does, "sing like a bird and

be happy," or maké his heroine do any"Twere best at once to sink to peace,

thing so simple as fly "light as the Like birds the charming serpent draws,

shadow of a bird." To drop head-foremost in the jaws Of vacant darkness and to cease.

Two more instances where the felicity

of the image strikes one as much as its The exquisite swallow image in the absolute truth and naturalness will same poem has been noticed. There

serve to conclude this paper. In “The are others marked with the same rare Gardener's Daughter,” surely the progift of expression, which distinguishes genitor of many delightful books, which every page of this fine elegy, such as:

have recently brought back some of the My fancies tune to rise on wing

charm of the “happy Garden-state" to And glance about the approaching sails

a busy world, one of the bridal party

says:and:In that solace can I sing,

We listen'd; with the time we play'd, Till out of painful phases wrought

We spoke of other things; we coursed There flutters up a happy thought,

about Self-balanced on a lightsome wing.

The subject most at heart more near and

near, The natural magic, which is the gift Like doves about a dovecote wheeling of few poets-Coleridge and Keats per

round haps more than others-appears in the The central wish, until we settled there. Passing of Arthur," where the ghost

And in "The Princess" the man of Gawain, to the echo of “hollow, masked as woman must hollow all delight,” is wonderfully portrayed:

Abate the stride which speaks of man, and

loose And fainter onward, like wild birds that A flying charm of blushes o'er this cheek, range

Where they, like swallows coming out of Their season in the night, and wail their time, way

Will wonder why they came. From cloud to cloud, down the long wind the dream

Tennyson may be limited in range, a Shrilled.

Callimachus rather than a Homer, at

times over-elaborate in expression and The common herd of men are “wild nowadays roughness is often mistaken hearts and feeble wings that every for strength), but such passages as sophister can lime.” In “Harold” (Act these show him a true poet, no weaver i., Scene 2), in a passage too long to of artificial and artistic word-mosaic, quote, Edith and Harold play on the and safely grapple him to the hearts of lovelorn nightingale. The gentle and English men and women as the laureate simple maid Elaine:

of our English familiar birds. murmur'd “Vain, in vain: it cannot

EDGAR VALDES. be. He will not love me: how then? must I

die?" Then as a little helpless innocent bird, That has but one plain passage of few

notes, Will sing the simple passage o'er and o'er

From The Fortnightly Review. For all an April morning, till the ear

THE TWENTIETH ITALIAN PARLIAMENT. Wearies to hear it, so the simple maid If Romeo, instead of seeking death Went half the night repeating, "Must I with Juliet, shook hands with all the die?"

Capulets over her grave, and if Hamlet, The modern elaborate bard and imi- instead of avenging his father, said, "all tator, who is not a “poet" or maker, in that is is best," and hobnobbed with his

uncle, the impression produced on play be frequent, is always interfered with goers would be akin to that which ob- and prohibited by government as the servers must feel at seeing the results meetings "pro Candia” are being forof the Italian elections after the trage- bidden and hindered in this current dies and national furies of last spring. month. For all these reasons parliaThe disinterested spectator is divided mentary returns in Italy are not, and between his sense of disappointment, never can be as long as the present and his irritation at bathos, and at the régime lasts, even approximate indicainability of a nation to rise to the height tions of popular feeling, without here of a strong situation. It is true that at speaking of that interference by the no time is a general election in Italy any Palazzo Braschi and its prefects, which assured indication of national senti- will never cease so long as the present ment, that at no time is it a thing which forms of monarchical government enwidely and profoundly moves popular dure. feeling; the people have as a whole the There is also another weight which habit of standing aloof from it and leav- lies like lead on popular opinion, and ing it to the wire-pullers. The populace, pushes it out of its straight course as as a whole, mistrust the urns and view the internal organs of a body may be them much as the rabbit views the pushed out of place by a tumor growing trap. When I urged one of my servants upon one of them,,the franchise perthe other day to use his vote, he stub- mitted to be exercised by the bureaubornly replied, “I have never done any- cracy, by all impiegati (Civil servants), thing to compromise myself yet, and from the greatest to the lowest. The now I am fifty years old I shall not be- bureaucracy votes to a man for the gin;" and I may remark that he is what government, and causes that invariable we call in polite modern phrase "edu majority of government which so astoncated;" he reads many newspapers and ishes English writers for the press at knows French enough to think Bourget every general election in Italy. The dull. His view of political duty is one Italian populace has a saying that "for which is very general in Italy; the every man there are five impiegati," and franchise is regarded either with con- it is the fact. The enormous, odious tempt as a fiction or with suspicion as, and almost entirely useless Civil Serin some indescribable manner, a trick vice is kept up at its present ruinous of the police to get people into trouble; proportions for the sake of the instruthe latter is a very common idea, espe- ment which lies at hand in it for the cially amongst rustic populations. government to use at election time all With such an impression as this general over the country; and, whatever this amongst many classes, we shall soon

government may be, it does and it will see that the proportion of those who so use it. It will, therefore, be seen, vote is, compared to the population, by mere reflection on these facts, that very small indeed, when we remember an election must ever be, under the the many tens of thousands forbidden present régime, a most doubtful and by the Church to vote at political elec- partial representation of Italian nations, and the many other millions ex- tional feeling, and it is, perhaps, woncluded from the franchise by not know- derful that under such conditions even ing their alphabet, and the many so much free choice has been successpersons of all grades who voluntarily fully exercised as the late election has abstain from voting on account of their allowed. Still, recalling the emotion conviction that "plus ce change plus which the country felt only one year c'est la même chose.” Italian elections ago, its disgust, its wrath, its humiliacannot, therefore, be considered in any tion, one would have hoped that it way indicative of national feeling; the would have burst its bonds on this occagreat majority of the nation is dumb, sion, and sent up a very different choice and does not even make a sign. Public of men as its representatives to Montemeeting, which is understood and would citorio. It is true that the Crispini have

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been defeated and consigned to the the fray. But it can scarcely be dungeon of private life. But there is no doubted that there will be a strong assurance that Crispinism (or some- effort of the majority at reactionism; thing very like it) will not be developed and reaction, however personally Crispi in the many gentlemen of the majority may be disgraced or set aside, will be of whom the vague description given to Crispinism. their electors is that they are “monarchi- Those who are the best judges of the cal,” an elastic term which generally direction of the political currents of means in them a lively sense of the side Montecitorio are, it is true, of opinion on which their bread is buttered.

that, despite the nominal Conservative Five men were responsible for the majority, the temper of the Chamber madness and carnage and ruin in will be strongly and chiefly democratic. Erythrea.

Those five were Crispi, I should be disposed to doubt this; it is, Baratieri, Mocenni, Sonnino, and the however, quite certain that if the Marking. Of these, Crispi, Mocenni, and quis di Rudini wishes not to forfeit the Sonnino keep their seats; Baratieri re- reputation he has hitherto borne as a ceives a pension (exactly calculated galantuomo, he must, to be true to the with graceful gratitude to give him a faith which was reposed in him a year franc per head for every soldier who since, cease to dally with the Crispini, fell in the campaign he conducted), and and turn for his allies rather to that the king—the king, of course, dwells in Extreme Left without whose support the white tent of royal intangibility and he would not now be in office. must not be arraigned. All the authors, Throughout the past year Crispi has therefore, of the late senseless and been eclipsed, but Crispinism has been wicked war, with its irreparable waste rife; the hand has been the hand of of life and treasure and national honor, Esau, but the voice the voice of Jacobgo scot-free, and one at least of them at least, in internal policy. The boys (Sonnino) will certainly, if he live and are arrested in the fields and streets for the present institutions last, be first singing the hymn of labor; the clubs minister of Italy some time or other. are closed, the societies are dissolved, Now, what is the lesson taught to the the newspapers are sequestered, the people by such immunity in high editors are imprisoned; a soldier venplaces? It is a lesson which the lowest tures to beg redress for injustice of the can understand, and which is of the monarch, he is seized, put under arrest, worst kind.

declared afflicted with the mania of perAnd it was the general sense that it secution; it is all pure Crispinism; it was wholly useless to try and seek to may be called something else, but its chastise those in alto for the misery essence is Crispinism. Nor do I believe they had brought on Italy which has that the present régime will ever be caused so much apathy in the public at anything else de facto, whatever it may large at the recent elections. The most be de jure. courageous man gets tired of straining If Rudini had consented to the imat a rope which is fastened to an im- peachment and trial of Crispi and his movable rock. It is impossible, as I colleagues a year ago, Crispinism might have said, to tell what the Chamber have been destroyed; at all events, the may prove to be; candidates call them- present year would have been spared the selves Monarchists to get.governmental present renewal and recrudescence of support in their election, and, when scandal in the Favilla trial, in the retheir seats are safe, may show them- newed patronage of the Quirinal, at selves something quite different to their such a juncture, of Crispi, in Crispi's previous professions; as a Republican “defence,” that he took the moneys but or Radical may, on the other hand, be spent them on the elections, and in the tempted to join in the scramble for the interposition of the highest influence to loaves and fishes, and may throw off his save him from public exposure and jacket of Liberalism to get foremost in formal examination. For whole


twelvemonth and more this scandal has cept empty vanities of personal pomp been the common gossip in every which suggest, as some one said at market-place, wine-house, gambling den, Montecitorio, that it was written for us piazza, and cattle show. The imagina by friend William at Potsdam. The tion of the public runs riot over it. The most common tact should have preeffect on public morality is a million vented such a speech being put into the times worse than any open trial, than mouth of an Italian sovereign, who is any blunt exposures, would have been, almost as much a monarch by election no matter whom those might have com- as were the kings of Poland, and who promised. The people see the smoke, should be bidden to recall that fact himand see the efforts made to extinguish self to avert having it rudely recalled it; their fancy conjures up ten devils to him. dancing in the smothered flames, where Il regno d'Italia," says an Italian perhaps only one may be. The Marquis political writer, “venne Constituito dai di Rudini was entreated by his warmest plebisciti che furono un contratto fra la well-wishers to cause those scandals to nazione e il principato, e il rapporto fra be fully investigated, which only the im- i due Contraenti è la rapresentazione peachment of the outgoing ministry nazionale. Il governo è quello, dell' could have done. He preferred to Italia, e in Italia vi sono non i sudditi smother them, or did so in deference to ma i cittadini dei plebisciti." a will which he considered he was Italians are not "subjects,” they are bound to obey. They have smouldered citizens who gave a free vote for a on all through these twelve months, monarchy. It is an insult to the nation and have now burst out afresh, perhaps and an ill service to the sovereign to put to be afresh forcibly smothered. His into his mouth dictatorial, pompous, administration may, perhaps, have been and autocratic phrases unjustified by prolonged in duration by this leniency history and constitutional law. and complacency; it has certainly been equal bad taste and incorrect measure weakened in character. It has become are the allusions to the “valor" of the Crispiniate—tainted with the taint of an army and the "unity" of the nation! incorrect indulgence.

Indeed, the whole discourse resembles The populace roughly reads the lesson more an elaborate satire than anything set before it when it sees or hears of else, and its omissions are as remarkFrancesco Crispi, still wearing his able as its assertions. The defeat of collar of the Santissima Annunziata, Abba Carima seems already wiped from taking his accustomed seat at the open- the slate. The army, we are told, is the ing of the twentieth legislative assem- pride and the safety of the people! It bly, allowed to kiss the hand of the was painful to hear this preposterous queen in the face of the senators and piece of bombast spoken in that city deputies, and permitted to lead her to where Scipio Africanus once silenced the tribune.

his foes with the one word “Zama!" With the lamentable weakness and re- The twentieth Parliament was also on actionism of which the past twelve its opening day made painfully conmonths, in utterance and action, have spicuous by the evidence of the Marbeen full, the royal speech was a docu- . quis di Rudini's desire to be on cordial ment which might have been penned terms with Sonnino, and to give him a for a Neapolitan Bourbon or a Lorraine seat on the ministerial bench. It is Hapsburg. It leaves on the mind of surely clear that if the nation wanted any unbiassed hearer or reader of it the Sonnino it would have kept him when it same sense of bathos, and of painfully had him, and if a year ago Rudini was visible inability to even vaguely com- called to turn him and his colleagues prehend the dangers and necessities of out of office, it was not to copy their adthe times, which we feel before the re- ministration and enlist their services in sults of the elections. There is nothing his own. It would seem as if twelve in it from the first phrase to the last ex- months had been a term long enough to


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