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Mieris firft he took his subjects from private life, in the man- born at Troyes in 1610 ; and acquired so much of the Mignon,

ner of Francis ; such as tradesmen in their shops, or a taste of the Italian school, as to be known by the name Migratiost. Mignard.

peasant selling vegetables and fruit, and sometimes a of the Roman. He was generally allowed to have a
woman looking out at a window ; all which he copied superior genius to his brother Nicholas ; and had the

minutely after nature, nor did he paint a single object honour of painting the popes Alexander VII. and
without his model. As Mieris had obferved the come Urban VIII. besides many of the nobility at Rome,
positions of Gerard Lairesse, and other great historical and several of the Italian princes : his patron, Louis,
painters, with singular delight, he attempted to design fat ten times to him for his portrait, and respected his
subjects in that style ; and began with the story of Ri- talents so much as to ennoble him, make him his princi.
naldo sleeping on the lap of Armida, surrounded with pal painter after the death of Le Brun, and appoint
the loves and graces, the fore-ground being enriched him director of the manufactories. He died in 1695,
with plants and flowers ; a work which added greatly and many of his pieces are to be seen at St Cloud.
to his fame, and was sold for a very high price. This MIGNON, or MINJON, (Abraham), a celebrated
mafter also painted landscapes and animals with equal painter of lowers and still life, was born at Franckfort
truth and neatness; and modelled in clay and wax, in in 1639; and his father having been deprived of the
so sharp and accurate a manner, that he might justly greatest part of his substance by a series of losses in
be ranked among the most eminent sculptors. In the trade, left him in very necesitous circumstances when
delicate finishing of his works, he imitated his father; he was only seven years of age. From that melan.
as he likewise did in the luftre, harmony, and truth, choly situation he was rescued by the friendship of
of his paintings, which makes them to be almost as James Murel, a flower-painter in that city ; who took
highly prized; but they are not equal in respect of Mignon into his own house, and instructed hiin in
design, or of the striking effect, nor is his touch fo the art, till he was 17 years old. Murel had often
very exquisite as that of the father. The works of observed an uncommon genius in Mignon : he there-
the old Mieris are better composed, the figures are bet- fore took him along with him to Holland, where he
ter grouped, and they have lefs confusion; yet the placed him as a disciple with David de Heem; and
younger Mieris is acknowledged to be an artist of ex- while he was under the direction of that master he la.
traordinary merit, although inferior to him, who had boured with incessant application to imitate the man-
scarcely his equal. He died in 1747.

ner of De Heem, and ever afterwards adhered to it;
MIERIS (Francis), called the roung Francis, was only adding daily to his improvement, by ftudying
the son of William, and the grandson of the celebrated nature with a moit exact and curious obfervation.
Francis Mieris; and was born at Leyden in 1680). He “ When we consider the paintings of Mignon, one is
learned the art of painting from his father, whole at a loss (Mr Pilkington observes) whether most to
manner and style he always imitated; he chose the admire the freshness and beauty of his colouring, the
same subjects, and endeavoured to resemble him in his truth in every part, the bloom on his objects, or the
colouring and pencil. But with all his induitry he perfect resemblance of nature visible in all his perform-
proved far inferior to him: and most of those pictures ances. He always shows a beautiful choice in those
which at the public fales are taid to be of the young fowers and fruits from which his tubjects are compo•
Micris, and many also in private collections ascribed fed : and he groups them with uncommon elegance.
to the eider Francis, or William, are perhaps origi- His touch is exquisitely neat, though apparently easy
nally painted by this master, who was far in erior to and unlaboured ; and he was fond of introducing in-
both ; or are only his copies after the works of those fects among the fruits and flowers, wonderfully finished,
excellent painters, as he spent abundance of his time so that even the drops of dew appear as round and as
in copying their performances.

translucent as nature itself.He had the good forMILZA, (anc. geog.), a town of Macedonia, tune to be highly paid for his works in his lifetime ; which was anciently called Strymonium, situated near and he certainly would have been accounted the best Stagira. Here, Plutarch informs us, the stone feats in his profellion even to this day, if John Van Huyand Nady walks of ristotle were Mown. Of this sum had not appeared. Weyerman, who had seen place was Peuceitas, one of Alexander's generals, and many admired pictures of Mignon, mentions one of a therefore furnamed Mizaus, (Arrian.)

most capital kind. The subject of it is a cat, which
MIGDOL, or Magdol, (anc. geog.), a place in had thrown down a pot of flowers and they lie scat-
the Lower Egypt, on this fide Pihahiroth, or between tered on a marble table. That picture is in every re-
it and the Red Sea, towards its extremity. The term spect so wonderfully natural, that the spectator can
denotes a tower or fortress. It is probably the Mag. scarce persuade himself that the water which is spilled
dolum of Herodotus, seeing the Septuagint render it by from the vessel is not really running down from the
th: fime name.

marble. This picture is diftinguished by the title of
MIGNARD (Nicholas), a very ingenious French Mignon's Cat. This painter died in 1679, aged only 40.
painter, born at Troyes in 1628 ; but, settling at A. MIGRATION, the passage or removal of a thing
vignon, is generally dittinguished from his brother Pe- out of one place into another.
ter by the appellation of Mignard of Avignon. He MIGRATION of Birds.-It has been generally be.
was afterwards enployed at court and at Paris, where lieved, that many different kinds of birds annually pass
he became rector of the rayal academy of painting. from one country to another, and spend the summer or
There are a great number of his historical pieces and the winter where it is most agreeable to them; and
portraits it the palace of the Thuilleries. He died in that even the birds of our own island will seek the most

distant fouthern regions of Africa, when directed by
MIGNARD (Peter), the brother of Nicbolas, was a peculiar instinct to leave their own country. It has

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Migration. long been an opinion pretty generally received, that gularly and constantly migrate into England, and do Migration.

swallows reside during the winter-season in the warm not breed here. The hawonch and crossbill come here
southern regions ; and Mr Adanfon particularly relates at such uncertain times as not to deserve the name of
his having seen them at Senegal when they were obli- birds of passage.
ged to leave this country. But besides the swallow, 9. Chatterer. The chatterer appears annually about
Mr Pennant enumerates many other birds which mi- Edinburgh in flocks during winter; and feeds on the
grate from Britain at different times of the year, and berries of the mountain-ash. In South Britain it is
are then to be found in other countries ; after which an accidental visitant.
they again leave these countries, and return to Bri- 10. Grofbeaks. The grosbeak and crossbill come
tain. The reason of these migrations he supposes to here but seldom ; they breed in Austria. The pine
be a defect of food at certain seasons of the year, or grosbeak probably breeds in the forests of the High-
the want of a secure asylum from the persecution of lands of Scotland.
man during the time of courtship, incubation, and 11. Buntings. All the genus inhabits England
nutrition. The following is his litt of the migrating throughout the year ; except the greater brambling,

which is forced here from the north in very severe
1. Crows. Of this genus, the hooded crow migrates seasons.
regularly with the woodcock. It inhabits North Bri- 12. Finches.

All continue in some parts of these
tain the whole year: a few are said annually to breed kingdoms, except the lifkin, which is an irregular vi-
on Dartmoor, in Devonshire. It breeds also in Swe. fitant, said to come from Russia. The linnets fhift
den and Austria : in some of the Swedish provinces it their quarters, breeding in one part of this island, and
only shifts its quarters, in others it resides throughout remove with their young to others. All finches feed
the year. Our author is at a loss for the summer re- on the seeds of plants.
treat of those which visit us in such numbers in win- 13. Larks, fly-catchers, wagtails, and warblers.
ter, and quit our country in the spring ; and for the All of these feed on insects and worms; yet only part
reason why a bird, whose food is such that it may be of them quit these kingdoms; though the reason of
found at all seasons in this country, Mould leave us. migration is the same to all. The nightingale, black-

2. Cuckoo. Disappears early in autumn; the retreat cap, fly-cateher, willow-wren, wheat-ear, and white.
of this and the following bird is quite unknown to us. throat, leave us before winter, while the small and de-

3. Wryneck. Is a bird that leaves us in the winter. licate golden-crested wren braves our feverest frosts.
If its diet be ants alone, as several assert, the cause of The migrants of this genus continue longest in Great
its migration is very evident. This bird disappears be- Britain in the southern counties, the winter in those
fore winter, and revisits us in the spring a little earlier parts being later than in those of the north ; Mr
than the cuckoo.

Stillingfieet having observed several wheat-ears in the
4. Huopoe. Comes to England but by accident : ille of Purbeck on the 18th of November. As
Mr Pennant once indeed heard of a pair that attempt these birds are incapable of very diftant fights,
ed to make their rest in a meadow at Selborne, Hamp- Spain, or the south of France, is probaby their
shire, but were frighted away by the curiosity of people. winter-asylum.
It breeds in Germany.

14. Swallows and goat-fucker. Every species dis-
5. Grous. The whole tribe, except the quail, lives appears at the approach of winter.
here all the year round: that bird either leaves us, or

elle retires towards the sea.coalts.

Of the vast variety of water-fowl that frequent 6. Pigeons. Some few of the ring-doves breed Great Britain, it is amazing to reflect how few are here, but the multitude that appears in the winter is known to breed here : the cause that principally urges so disproportioned to what continue here the whole them to leave this country, seems to be not merely the year, as to make it certain that the greatest part quit want of food, but the desire of a secure retreat. Our the country in the spring. It is most probable they country is too populous for birds so shy and timid as go to Sweden to breed, and return from thence in au, the bulk of these are: when great part of our illand tumn; as Mr Ekmark informs us they entirely quit was a mere waste, a tract of woods and fen, doubt. that country before winter. Multitudes of the com- less many species of birds (which at this time mis mon wild pigeons also make the northern retreat, and grate) remained in fecurity throughout the year.visit us in winter ; not but numbers breed in the high Egrets, a species of heron now scarce kuown in cliffs in all parts of this island. The turtle also pro- this island, were in former times in prodigious plenbably leaves us in the winter, at least changes its place, ty; and the crane, that has totally forsaken this counremoving to the southern counties.

try, bred familiarly in our marhes: their place of
7. Sture. Breeds here. Poslibly several remove to incubation, as well as of all other cloven-footed wa-
other countries for that purpose, since the produce of ter-fowl (the heron excepted), being on the ground,
those that continue here seems unequal to the clouds and exposed to every one. As rural economy increa-
of them that appear in winter. It is not unlikely that sed in this country, these animals were more and more
many migrate into Sweden, where Mr Berger observes disturbed ; at length, by a series of alarins, they were
they return in spring.

neceffitated to seck, during the summer, fume lunely
8. Tbrufocs. The fieldfare and the redwing breed safe habitation.
and pass their summers in Norway and other cold coun- On the contrary, those that build or lay in the al.
tries; their food is berries, which abounding in our most inaccessible rocks that impend over the British
kingdoms, tempts them here in the winter. These two seas, breed there still in valt numbers, havingʻlitite to
and the Royston crow are the only land-birds that re- fear from the approach of mankind : the only difturb-

A 2


15. Herons.


Migration ance they meet with in general being from the despe. but quit their quarters in winter. They are then shot Migration. rate attempts of some few to get their eggs.

in different parts of the kingdom, which they visit, not

regularly, but accidentally.
The white heron is an uncommon 24. Auks and guillemots. The great auk or pinguin
bird, and visits us at uncertain seasons; the common sometimes breeds in St Kilda. The auk, the guillemot,
kind and the bittein never leave us.

and puffin, inhabit most of the maritime cliffs of Great
16. Curlews. The curlew breeds sometimes on our Britain, in amazing numbers, during summer. The
mountains; but, confidering the vast flights that ap- black guillemot breeds in the Bass Ine, and in St Kilda,
pear in winter, it is probable that the greater part and sometimes in Llandid no rocks. We are at a loss
retire to other countries : the whimbrel breeds on for the breeding place of the other species ; neither
the Grampian hills, in the neighbourhood of Inver. can we be very certain of the winter residence of any

of them, excepting of the leffer guillemot and black-
57. Snipes. The woodcock breeds in the moist billed auk, which, during winter, visit in vaft Alocks
woods of Sweden, and other cold countries. Some the Frith of Forth.
snipes breed here, but the greatest part retire else- 25. Dizers. These chiefly breed in the lakes of
where ; as do every other species of this genus. Sweden and Lapland, and in some countries near the

18. Sandpipers. The lapwing continues here the pole ; but some of the red-throated divers, the northern
whole year ; the ruff breeds here, but retires in win- and the imber, may breed in the north of Scotland
ter; the redshank and sandpiper breed in this country, and its illes.
and reside here. All the others abfent themselves du. 26. Terns. Every species breeds here ; but leaves
ring summer.

us in the winter.
19. Plovers and oyster-catcher. The long legged 27. Petrels. The fulmar breeds in the Ifle of St
plover and fanderling visit us only in winter ; the dot. Kilda, and continues there the whole year except Sep-
trel appears in spring and in autumn; yet, what is very tember and part of O&tober : the shearwater visits the
fingular, we do not find it breeds in south Britain. Ine of Man in April ; breeds there ; and, leaving it in
The oyster-catcher lives with us the whole year. The August or the beginning of September, disperles over
Norfolk plover and sea-lark breed in England. The all parts of the Atlantic ocean. The stormfinch is
green plover breeds on the mountains of the north of feen at all distances from land on the same valt watery
England, and on the Grampian hills.

tract ; nor is ever found near the shore except by some
We must here remark, that every species of the very rare accident, unless in the breeding season. Mr
nera of curlews, woodcocks, sandpipers, and plovers, Pennant found it on some little rocky ifles, off the north
that forsake us in the spring, retire to Sweden, Po- of Skic. It also breeds in St Kilda. He also suspects
land, Prussia, Norway, and Lapland, to breed: as soon that it nestles on the Blasquet Illes off Kerry, and that

as the young can fly, they return to us again, because it is the gourder of Mr Smith.
the frosts which set in early in those countries totally 28. Mergansers. This whole genus is mentioned
deprive them of the means of fublifting, as the dry among the birds that fill the Lapland lakes during
ness and hardness of the ground, in general, during summer. Mr Pennant has seen the young of the red.
our summer, prevent them from penetrating the earth breafted in the north of Scotland: a few of these, and
with their bills, in search of worms, which are the na- perhaps of the goofanders, may breed there.
tural food of these birds. Mr Ekmark speaks thus of 29. Ducks. Of the numerous species that form this
the retreat of the whole tribe of cloven-footed water genus, we know of few that breed here: The swan and
fowl out of his country (Sweden) at the approach of goose, the shield-duck, the eider-duck, a few shovelers,
winter; and Mr Klein gives much the same account of garganies, and teals, and a very small portion of the
those of Poland and Prussia.

wild ducks.
20. Rails and gallinules. Every species of these two The reft contribute to form that amazing multi-
genera continue with us the whole year; the land-rail tude of water-fowl that annually repair from most parts
excepted, which is not seen here in winter. It likewise of Europe to the woods and lakes of Lapland and
continues in Ireland only during the summer-months, other arctic regions, there to perform the functions of
when they are very numerous, as Mr Smith tells us in incubation and nutrition in full security. They and
the Hift ry of Waterford, p. 336. Great numbers ap- their young quit their retreat in September, and dis.
pear in Anglesea the latter end of May; it is supposed perse themselves over Europe. With us they make
that they pass over from Ireland, the passage between their appearance the beginning of October ; circulate
the two inands being but small. As we have initances first round our shores; and, when compelled by severe
of these birds lighting on ships in the channel and the frost, betake themselves to our lakes and rivers. Of
Bay of Biscay, we may conjecture their winter-quar- the web-footed fowl there are some of hardier confti.
lers to be in Spain.

tutions than others: these endure the ordinary winters

of the more northern countries ; but when the cold 21. Phalaropes. Vifit us but feldom; their breed- reigns there with more than common rigour, they repair ing place is Lapland, and other arctic regions. for shelter to these kingdoms : this regulates the ap.

22. Grebes. The great-crested grebe, the black and pearance of fome of the diver kind, as also of the wild white grebe, and little grebe, breed with us, and never swans, the swallow-tailed field-duck, and the different migrate ; the others visit us accidentally, and breed in sorts of goosanders which then vifit our coafts. Barentz Lapland.

found the barnacles with their nefts in great numbers WEB-FOOTED Birds.

in Nova Zembla. (Colle&. Voy. Dutch East India Com23. Avofet. Breed near Fossdike in Lincolnshire; pany, 8vo. 1703, p. 19.) Clufius, in his Exot. 368.



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Migration. also obferves, that the Dutch discovered them on the gration ; which, he thinks, if there were any such perio- Migration,

rocks of that conntry and in Waygate Straits. They, dical fight, could not posibiy have escaped the frequent
as well as the other species of wild-geefe, go very far observation of seamen. It has indeed been alerted
north to breed, as appears from the histories of Green- that birds of passage become invifi'»le in their flight,
land and Spitzbergen, by Egede and Crantz These because they rise too high in the air to be perceived,
birds seem to make Iceland a resting place, as Horre- and because they choole the night for their patlage.
bow observes : few continue there to breed, but only "The author, however, expresses his doubts “ whether
vitit that island in the fpring, and after a short stay any bird was ever seen to rise to a greater height than
retire ftill further north.

perhaps twice that of St Paul's crois;" and he further
30. Corvorants. The corvorant and shag breed on endeavours to show, that the extent of some of these
most of our high rocks : the gannet in some of the supposed migrations (from the northern parts of Eu-
Scotch isles, and on the coast of Kerry: the two first rope, for initance, to the line) is too great to be ac-
continue on our shores the whole year. The gannet counted for, by having recourse to the arguinent found.
disperses itself all round the seas of Great Britain, in ed on a nocturnal passage.
pursuit of the herring and pilchard, and even as far as The author next recites, in a chronological order,
the Tagus to prey on the fardina.

all the instances that he has been able to collect, of
But of the numerous species of fowl here enumera- birds having been actually seen by mariners when they
ted, it may be observed how very few intrust them- were crossing a large extent of sea ; and he endeavours
felves to us in the breeding season, and what a distant to show that no stress can be laid on the few casual
fight they make to perform the first great dictate of observations of this kind that have been produced in

support of the doctrine of a regular and periodical mi-
There seems to be scarcely any but what we have gration.
traced to Lapland, a country of lakes, rivers, swamps, Mr Barrington afterwards proceeds to invalidate
and alps, covered with thick and gloomy foretts, that M. Adanson's celebrated observation with respect to
afford fhelter during summer to these fowls, which in the migration of the swallow in particular, and which
winter disperse over the greatest part of Europe. In has been confidered by many as perfectly decisive of
those arctic regions, by reason of the thickness of the the present question. He endeavours to show that the
woods, the ground remains moift and penetrable to the four swallows which that naturalist caught, on their
woodcocks, and other slender-billed fowl : and for the settling upon his ship, on the 6th of October at about
web-footed birds, the waters afford larvæ innumerable the distance of so leagues from the coast of Senegal,
of the tormenting knat. The days there are long; and which he supposes to have been then proceeding
and the beautiful meteorous nights indulge them with from Europe to pass the winter in Africa, could not
every opportunity of collecting fo minute a food: whilft be true European swallows ; or, if they were, could
mapkind is very sparingly scattered over that vast nor- not have been on their return from Europe to Africa.
thern waste.

His objections are founded principally on some proofs
Why then should Linnæus, the great explorer of which he produces of M. Adanson's want of accuracy
these rude desarts, be amazed at the myriads of water. on this subject, which has led him, in the present in.
fowl that migrated with him out of Lapland ? which stance, to mistake two African species of the swallow-
exceeded in multitude the army of Xerxes; covering, tribe, described and engraved by Briffon, for Euro-
for eight whole days and nights, the surface of the river pean swallows, to which they bear a general refem-
Calix ! His partial observation as a botanist, would blance; or granting even that they were European
confine their food to the vegetable kingdom, almoft swallows, he contends, that they were fitting from the
denied to the Lapland waters ; inattentive to a more Cape de Verd Islands to the coat of Africa ; " to
plenteous table of infect food, which the all-bountiful which short flight, however, they were unequal, and
Creator had spread for them is the wilderness. It may accordingly fell into the failor's hands." See the ar-
be remarked, that the lakes of mountainous rocký ticle SWALLOW.-We shall here only add, in oppofi-
countries in general are destitute of plants : few or tion to the remarks of Mr Barrington; "the following * Natural
none are seen on those of Switzerland; and Linnæus observations of the Rev. Mr White * in a bejter to Hißory of
makes the same observation in respect to those of Lap- Mr Pennant on this subject.

Selborne, land; having, during his whole tour, discovered only “ We must not (says he) deny amigration itrigene Helter is, a single specimen of a lemma trisulca, or “ ivy-leaved ral; because migration certainly does fubfiit in: fome P* duck's meat,Flora Lap. n° 470.; a few of the feir- places, as my brother in Andalusia has fully informed pus lacustris, or “ bullrush," no 18.; the alopecurus me. Of the motions of these birds he has ocular de geniculatus, or “ fote foxtail grass,” n° 38.; and the monstration, for many weeks together, both spring ranunculus aquatilis, n° 234. ; which are all he enu. and fall : during which periods myriads of the swallow merates in his Prolegomena to that excellent per- kind traverse the Straits from north to fouth, and formance.

from south to north, according to the season. And Under the article Swallow will be found the prin- thefe vast migrations consist not only of hirundines, cipal arguments for and againft the migration of swal- but of bee-birds, hoopoes, oro pendolos, or golden lows. Here we shall give a short abftract of the ar- thrushes, &c. &c. and also of many of our soft-billed guments used by the Hon. Daines Barrington against summer birds of passage; and moreover of birds which the migration of birds in general, from a paper pub. never leave us, such as all the various forts of hawks lished by him in the 62d volume of the Philosophical and kites. Old Belon, 200 years ago, gives a curious Transactions. This gentleman denies that any well. account of the incredible armies of hawks and kites attefted instances can be produced of this supposed mis which he saw in the spring-time traversing the Thra



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Migration. cian Bosphorus from Asia to Europe. Befides the land and Scotland, but also, as I have been always told, S: Migwi

above mentioned, he remarks, that the procession is Devonshire and Cornwall. In those two lait counties
swelled by whole troops of eagles and vultures. we cannot attribute the tailure of them to the want

“ Now it is no wonder that birds residing in Afri- of warmth: the defect in the west is rather a presump-
ca should retreat before the sun as it advances, and re- tive argument that these birds come over to us from
tire to milder regions, and especially birds of prey, the continent at the narrowest passage, and do not
whose blood being heated with hot animal food, are ftroll so far westward."
more impatient of a sultry climate : but then I cannot MIGRATION of Fishes. See CLUPEA.
help wondering why kites and hawks, and such hardy St MIGUEL, one of the Azore islands, situated
birds as are known to defy all the severity of England, in W. Long. 22. 4.5. N. Lat. 38. 10. This island
and even of Sweden and all north Europe, should want appears to be entirely volcanic. The best account we
to migrate from the south of Europe, and be disfatis. have of it hath been published in the 68th volume of
fied with the winters of Andalusia.

the Philosophical Transactions by Mr Francis Maffon.
“ It does not appear to me that much stress may According to him, the productions differ greatly from
.be laid on the difficulty and hazard that birds mult those of Madeira, insomuch that none of the trees of
run in their migrations, by reason of valt oceans, cross the latter are found here, except the faya : it has a
winds, &c. ; because, if we reflect, a bird may travel nearer affinity to Europe than Africa. The moun-
from England to the equator without launching out tains are covered with the erica vulgaris, and an ele-
and expofing itself to boundless feas, and that by cros- gant ever-green shrub very like a phillyrea, which gives
fing the water at Dover and again at Gibraltar. And them a most beautiful appearance.
I with the more confidence advance this obvious re- It is one of the principal and most fertile of the
mark, because my brother has always found that some Azorian islands, lying nearly east and west. Its length
of his birds, and particularly the swallow kind, are is about 18 or 20 leagues; its breadth unequal, not
very sparing of their pains in crossing the Mediterra- exceeding five leagues, and in some places not more
nean: for when arrived at Gibraltar, they do not, than two.

It contains about 80,000 inhabitants.
“rang'd in figure, wedge their way,

Its capital, the city of Ponta del Guda, which con.

tains about 12,000 inhabitants, is situated on the south " and set forth

side of the island, on a fine fertile plain country, pretty
16. Their airy caravan high over seas

regularly built ; the streets (traight, and of a good
Flying, and over lands with mutual wing
“ Easing their flight.”

breadth. It is supplied with good water, which is

brought about the distance of three leagues from the
but scout and hurry along in little detached parties of neighbouring mountains. The churches and other
fix or seven in a company; and sweeping low, just over religious edifices are elegant and well built for such an
the surface of the land and water, direct their course illand. There is a large convent of Fraciscan friars
to the opposite continent at the narrowest passage they and one of the order of St Auguftin, four convents
can find. They usually flope across the bay to the for professed nuns, and three Recolhimentos for young
south-west, and so pass over opposite to Tangier, which women and widows who are not professed. The vef-
it seems is the narrowest fpace.

sels anchor is an open road; but it is not dangerous,
“In former letters we have considered whether it as no wind can prevent their going to sea in case of
was probable that woodcocks in moon-shiny nights stormy weather.
cross the German ocean from Scandinavia. As a proof The country round the city is plain for several
that birds of less speed may pass that sea, considerable miles, well cultivated, and laid out with good taste in-
as it is, I shall relate the following incident, which, to spacious fields, which are fown with wheat, barley,
though mentioned to have happened so many years Indian corn, pulse, &c. and commonly produce an.
ago, was ftrialy matter of fact :-As some people nually two crops ; for as foon as one is taken off, an.
were shooting in the parish of Trotton, in the county other is immediately fown in its place. The soil is
of Suflex, they killed a duck in that dreadful winter remarkably gentle and easy to work, being for the
1708 9, with a silver collar about its neck (I have most part composed of pulverised pumice-stone. There
read a like anecdote of a swan), on which were en- are in the plains a number of pleasant country-seats,
graven the arms of the king of Denmark. This anec- with orchards of orange-trees, which are esteemed the
dote the rector of Trotton at that time bas often told best in Europe.
to a near relation of mine ; and, to the best of my re- The second town is Ribeira Grande, situated on
membrance, the collar was in the possession of the rec- the north side of the island, containing about as many

inhabitants as the city ; a large convent of Franciscan
“ At present I do not know any body near the sea- friars, and one of nuns. It gives title to a count, called
fide that will take the trouble to remark at what time the Conde Ribeira Grande, who first instituted linen and
of the moon woodcokes first come. One thing I used woollen manufactories in the island.
to observe when I was a sportsman, that there were The third town is Villa Franca, on the south side
times in which woodcocks were so Nuggish and Deepy of the island, about fix leagues east of Ponta del Guda.
that they would drop again when flushed just before It has a convent of Franciscan friars, and one of nuns,
the spaniels, nay juil at the muzzle of a gun that had which contains about 300. Here, about half a mile
been fired at them: whether this strange laziness was from the shore, lies a small island (Ilhao), which is
the effect of a recent fatiguing journey, I shall not hollow in the middle, and contains a fine bafon with
presume to say.

only one entrance into it, fit to hold 50 sail of vessels
“ Nightingales not only never reach Northumber- secure from all weather ; at present it wants cleaning



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