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found; but always pitch it on our ordinary speaking key. It should be a constant rule, never to utter a greater quantity of voice, than we can afford without pain to ourselves, and without any extraordinary effort. As long as we keep within these bounds, the other organs of speech will be at liberty to discharge their several offices with ease ; and we shall always have our voice under command. But whenever we transgress these bounds, we give up the reins, and have no longer any management of it. It is a useful rule too, in order to be well heard, to cast our eye on some of the most distant persons in the company, and to consider ourselves as reading to them. We naturally and mechanically utter our words with such a degree of strength, as to make ourselves be heard by the person whom we address, provided he is within the reach of our voice. As this is the case in conversation, it will hold also in reading to others. But let us remember, that in reading, as well as in conversation, it is pofsible to offend by speaking to loud. This extreme hurts the ear, by making the voice come upon it in rumbling indistinct maffes.

By the habit of reading, when young, in a loud and vehement manner, the voice becomes fixed in a strained and unnatural key ; and is rendered incapable of that variety of elevation and depression which constitutes the true harmony of utterance, and affords eafe to the reader, and pleasure to the audience. This unnatural pitch of the voice, and disa. greeable monotony, are most obfervable in perfons who were taught to read in large rooms ; who were accustomed to stand at too great distance, when reading to their teachers; whofe instructors were very imperfect in their hearing ; or who were taught by persons that considered loud expression as the chief requisite in forming a good reader. These are circumstances which demand the serious attention of every one to whom the education of youth is committed.

SECTION II.

Distinctness. In the next place, to being well heard and clearly underftood, distinctness of articulation contributes more than mere loudness of found. The quantity of found pecessary to fill even a large space, is smaller than is commonly imagined ;

and, with diftinct articulation, a person with a weak voice will make it reach farther, than the strongest voice can reach without it. To this, therefore, every reader ought to pay great attention. He must give every sound which he utters, its due proportion; and make every syllable, and even every letter in the word which he pronounces, be heard distinctly ; without slurring, whispering, or fuppressing any of the pro

per founds.

An accurate knowledge of the simple, elementary founds of the language, and a facility in expressing them, are so necessary to distinctness of expression, that if the learner's attainments are, in this respect, imperfect, (and many there are in this situation, it will be incumbent on his teacher, to carry him back to these primary articulations; and to sufpend his progress, till he become perfectly master of them. It will be in vain to press him forward, with the hope of forming a good reader, if he cannot completely articulate every elementary sound of the language.

SECTION III.

Due Degree of Slowness. In order to express ourselves diftinctly, moderation is requisite with regard to the speed of pronouncing. Precipitancy of speech confounds all articulation, and all meaning. It is scarcely necessary to observe, that there may be also an extreme on the opposite side. It is obvious that a lifeless drawling manner of reading, which allows the minds of the hearers to be always outrunning the speaker, must render every such performance infipid and fatiguing. But the extreme of reading too fast is much more common,

and requires the more to be guarded against, because, when it has grown up into a habit, few errors are more difficult to be corrected. To pronounce with a proper degree of flowness, and with full and clear articulation, is neceffary to be studied by all, who wish to become good readers ; and it cannot be too much recommended to them. Such a pronunciation gives weight and dignity to the subject. It is a great assistance to the voice, by the pauses and rests which it allows it more easily to make ; and it enables the reader to swell all his founds, both with more force and more harmony.

SECTION IV.

Propriety of Pronunciation. AFTER the fundamental attentions to the pitch and management of the voice, to distinct articulation, and to a proper degree of slowness of speech, what the young reader must, in the next place, study, is propriety of pronunciation

; or, giving to every word which he utters, that found which the best usage of the language appropriates to it ; in opposition to broad, vulgar, or provincial pronunciation. This is requisite both for reading intelligibly, and for reading with correctness and ease. Instructions concerning this article

may best be given by the living teacher. But there is one observation, which it may not be improper here to make. In the English language, every word which consists of more syllables than one, has one accented fyllable. The accent rests fometimes on the vowel, sometimes on the consonant. The genius of the language, requires the voice to mark that syllable by a stronger percuffion, and to pass more flightly over the rest. Now, after we have learned the proper

seats of these accents, it is an important rule, to give every word just the same accent in reading, as in common discourse. Many persons err in this respect. When they read to others, and with solemnity, they pronounce the syllables in a different manner from what they do at other times. They dwell upon them, and protract them; they multiply accents on the same words ; from a mistaken notion, that it gives gravity and importance to their subject, and adds to the energy of their delivery. Whereas this is one of the greatest faults that can be committed in pronunciation : it make what is called a pompous or mouthing manner; and gives an artificial affected air to reading, which detracts greatly both from its agreeableness, and its impression.

Sheridan and Walker have published Dictionaries, for af certaining the true and best pronunciation of the words of our language. By attentively consulting them, particularly “ Walker's Pronouncing Dictionary,” the young reader will be much affisted, in his endeavours to attain a correct pronunciation of the words belonging to the English language.

SECTION V.

Emphasis. By Emphasis is meant a stronger and fuller found of voice, by which we distinguish some word or words, on which we design to lay particular stress, and to show how they affect the rest of the sentence. Sometimes the emphatic words must be diftinguished by a particular tone of voice, as well as by a particular stress. On the right management of the emphalis depends the life of pronunciation. If no emphasis be placed on any words, not only is discourse rendered heavy and lifeless, but the meaning left often ambiguous. If the emphafis be placed wrong, we pervert and confound the meaning wholly.

Emphasis may be divided into the 'SUPERIOR and the INFERIOR emphasis. The superior emphasis determines the meaning of a sentence, with reference to something said before, presupposed by the author as general knowledge, or removes an ambiguity, where a paffage

may have more senses The inferior emphasis enforces, graces, and enlivens, but does not fix, the meaning of any paffage. The words to which this latter emphasis is given, are, in general, such as seem the most important in the sentence, or, on other accounts, to merit this distinction. The following passage will serve to exemplify the superior emphafis.

“ Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit
" Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste
“ Brought death into the world, and all our wo," &c.

" Sing heav'nly Muse !” Suppofing that originally other beings, besides men, had disobeyed the commands of the Almighty, and that the circumftance were well known to us, there would fall an emphasis upon the word man's in the first line ; and hence it would be read thus :

than one.

« Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit,” &c. But if it were a notorious truth, that mankind had tranfgreffed in a peculiar manrer more than once, the emphasis Thould fall on first, and the line be read,

“ Of man's FIRST disobedience,” &c.

Again, admitting death (as was really the case) to have been an unheard of and dreadful punishment, brought upon man in consequence of his transgression ; on that supposition the third line would be read,

“ Brought death into the world,” &c. But if we were to suppose, that mankind knew there was such an evil as death in other regions, though the place they inhabited had been free from it till their transgression, the line would run thus :

“ Brought death into the WORLD," &c. The superior emphasis finds place in the following short sentence, which admits of four distinct meanings, each of which is ascertained by the emphasis only.

" Do you ride to town tu.day?" The following examples illustrate the nature and use of the inferior emphasis :

“ Many persons mistake the love, for the practice of virtue.”

“Shall I reward his services with falsehood ? Shall I forget him who cannot forget me ?"

“ If his principles are falfe, no apology from himself can make them right : if founded in truth, no cenfure from others can make them wrong.

« Though DEEP yet CLEAR, though gentle yet not DULL;

“ STRONG ithout RAGE ; without oʻERFLOWING, FULL.'' A friend exaggerates a man's virtues ;

an enemy,

his crimes."

« The wife man is happy, when he gains his own approbalion : the fool, when he gains that of others.''

The superior emphasis, in reading as in speaking, must be determined entirely by the sense of the passage, and always made alike : but as to the inferior emphasis, taste alone seems to have the right of fixing its fituation and quantity.

Among the number of persons, who have had proper op. portunities of learning to read, in the best manner it is now taught, very few could be selected, who, in a given instance, would use the inferior emphasis alike, either as to place or quantity. Some persons, indeed, use scarcely any, degree of it : and others do not scruple to carry it much beyond any

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