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2 The

the radius.

diameters, and their circumferences are to 1 Euclid, each other as their diameters. Let one of

Book XIÍ.

Prop. 2. them be twice the distance from the Sun of the

chord of other; then the greater orbit is to the less as 4 600 is = to to l, or as the squares of their diameters. If they moved with equal velocities in their orbitual circumferences, their periodic times would be in the ratio of 2 to 1, or, of the circumferences of their orbits; but as the power of attraction is inversely as the squares of the distances, which distances are here double, therefore the projectile force, or velocity in orbit, will be double, and the periodic times will be as 4 to 1, which is the square ratio of their orbits, and of their distances from the Sun. But if these squares, viz. periodic times, be squared again, or multiplied by the same root, they will become CUBIC, and they will also be to each other as the cubes of their distances from the Sun, the cen-, tre of motion.

It is almost superfluous now to mhserve, that the spiritual interpretation, or what is called the moral of the above natural parables is this: viz. mere moral duty, without religious principle, is square only, or superficial, or not solid, or it is such as the heathen are expected to perform, from the light of reason (or moonlight *,)

* This may appear to contradict what has been formerly observed respecting the Sun, as the symbol of carnal reason and conscience (or light and heat) in infidels; and as similar

and of nature, (or the earth ;) but in order to please God, and be accepted by Him, this square ratio must become cubic, or reli

type of "

variations must occur continually in a treatise on universal analogy, it may be convenient to remark, as a perpetual index or compass in this ocean, that the Sun, Moon, and EARTH, &c. have meanings somewhat different, as well as somewhat similar, according to the system in which they are considered, viz. Ist. In the Gospel system, the Sun is the

our LORD Jesus Christ, who is the Head of all. principality and power.” Ephesians. Here the Moon will symbolize, 1st. The light of Moses, or the moral and ceremonial law; 2dly. The light of natural reason, together with every philosophical system derived from it; such at least is my persuasion from reflection : for if it includes the root, it must also include the branches. The Earth will here denote the course of the carnal and unregenerate world, which lieth in wickedness, according to circumstances, or +.

2d. The Sun of Infidels, or Deists, or natural-religion men, is carnal reason and conscience, or the light and heat of the intellectual firmament of such persons, or the king and demi-god of this world; who is the image and viceroy of Satan, “ who gives him his power, and throne, and great authority.” Not that infidels believe or understand the truth of this analogy; for if they did, they would cease to be such. In this system the Moon appears to me to be, or to symbolize, the light which the human mind receives at second hand by reflexion, from the sun of reason, abstracted from the heat of conscience, which is reprobate and dormant; and this light is infidel philosophy, moral, natural, and experimental, including the sciences. The earth is, as I apprehend, (in thiş system, the moral and animal nature of man, including also the inferior systems of the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, of the natural creation.

gious, by a reference and conformity to his revealed will; viz. whether ye eat or drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to the glory of God.(1 Cor. chap. x.)

Another highly important consideration presented by the quotation from Mr. Ferguson's Astronomy is this ; viz. “ This holds precisely with regard to the planets round the Sun, and the satellites round the planets.In other words, we are bound to pay the same obedience to our princes and lawful governors, for God's sake, as they are bound to pay to him. Thus St. Peter says: “ Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake, whether it be unto the king' as supreme, or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by Him, for the punishment of evil doers, and for the praise of them that do well. For so is the will of God.

The foregoing analogies appear to prove to demonstration, that the centripetal and centrifugal forces, as established by the great Creator, between the Sun and the planets, are perfect types of the supreme power of God, as combined with and permissively modified by the will of man, (and secretly by Satan in man,) which it nevertheless overrules, so as to produce the very result which man's vain and evil desire of independence strives to avoid and frustrate. Also, the one and the same projectile force is, * according as it is centrically or excentrically regulated, symbolical both of the rebellious opposition of man's carnal will, and also of the diligent and faithful performance of duty in a renewed and regenerate state.

Thus, the love of unlawful independence or carnal liberty, (that abomination which causeth desolation,") + so strong in the heart of man since his fall; or, I should rather say, which was the essence of his fall, as proceeding from pride and selfishness, or Satan, the grand master of the order of rebellion, called the holy right of insurrection ; which first creeps and then strides from earth to heaven, and would overturn the altars and the throne of God, as it does the throne of kings and rulers appointed by Him, is the lively prototype of that inherent tendency in the natural earth, to burst the bands of the power of the Sun, and to rush wild into independent space.

* That is to say, in proportion as the principle of the projectile force in orbit is from obedience to "the Sun of Righteousness," or from “ the prince of the power of the air,” the spirit that worketh in the children of disobedience.

* It may be said, that the Roman eagles in the temple of Jerusalem, the holy place, were the said abomination. True : but why? Because they were types of the abomination of Roman Liberty, which was the tyranny of pride and selfishness, even the liberty of schism, idolatry, and atheism in religion, the holy place.-See Josephus on the Siege of Jerusalem.

This view of the subject is minus, but there is also (as mentioned above) a positive view of the same, which is symbolical of the zeal and energy of love and duty in the orbit of piety. Thus the late Rev. John Newton, of St. Mary Woolnoth, in his Review of Ecclesiastical History, introduces a happy allusion to, and illustration of, astronomical analogy in the character of St. Paul, as an exemplar of a minister of Christ.* (See Introductory Dialogue 1st, to these Essays, p. 2.)

Upon the due and steady equilibrium of these two forces, as established in the laws of God impressed upon matter, depends the regularity, and even the existence of our Solar system; and in like manner, upon the due equilibrium between the power of will in man, and his obedience to the divine will, as manifested by his two great Lights,viz. Divine Revelation, or

Nay, so strong was his love to the Churches, that it balanced his desire to be with Christ. In the

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referred to, we see the happy centripetal and centrifugal forces, . which carried him on through the circle of duty: he constantly tended and gravitated to his centre of rest; but successive opportunities of usefulness and service drew him off, and made him willing to wait yet longer." This author does not undertake to defend every word of the above quotation, with respect to philosophical and mathematical accuracy, which perhaps were not intended by the reverend Divine. It is quite enough for him to defend his own analogies, yet he considers the above to be perfectly true.

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