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graded, pleased with low delights and the sports of children. The transition to the Swiss is thus made :
My soul, turn from them ;-turn we to survey
Where rougher climes a nobler race display. The principle on which the transition is here made, is that of contrast. And since the mind is often wont to look at objects as opposed to each other, it naturally, in this way, passes from the Italians to the Swiss.
The transition from Switzerland to France is thus made :
Some sterner virtues o'er the mountain's breast May sit like falcons, cowering on the nest : But all the gentler morals, such as play Through life's more cultured walks, and charm the way, These far dispersed, on timorous pinions fly, To sport and flutter in a kinder sky. To kinder skies, where gentler manners reign, I turn-and France displays her bright domain. In this instance, the transition, like that before mentioned, depends in part on the principle of contrast, but seems more immediately to rest on the accidental mention of the words kinder sky. Such accidental associations are frequent, especially in familiar intercourse, and in the easy flow of the thoughts; and though they would not be generally approved of in the grave digcussion of a subject, in a descriptive epistle, which is the nature of the production we are examining, they strike us favourably.
Resemblance, cause and effect, and contiguity as to time or place, may be mentioned as other principles of association on which transitions are often easily made.
Conclusion. If it be of importance, that the attention be arrested at first by a well written introduction, and sustained by well connected and increasingly important arguments, it will be readily allowed, that a happy conclusion is no less desirable. It is then that a decision is about to be made; and the mind of the reader should be left impressed with a favourable opinion of the writer, and with the justness and truth of what has been told him. Hence we not unfrequently find a conclusion, containing a luminous and strong summary of the opinions and arguments that have been advanced, or striking and moving appeals to the heart, with passages of uncommon brilliancy and power. Those familiar with the remains of ancient oratory, will bring to mind perorations, illustrative of this remark.
As an example of a well executed conclusion, the following passage may be cited :
« Their statues are men; living, feeling, intelligent, adoring man, bearing the image of his Maker; having the impress of divinity. Their monuments are the everlasting hills which they have clothed with verdure-their praises, are sounds of health and joy, in vallies which they have made fruitful-to them incense daily rises, in the perfumes of fragrant fields, which they have spread with cultivation -fair cities proclaim their glory-gorgeous mansions speak their munificence-their names are inscribed on the goodly habitations of men; and on those hallowed temples of God, whose spires ever point to the Heaven, which, we trust, has received them.”
Narrative and Descriptive Writing. The directions given in this chapter on the management of a subject, refer principally to argumentative composition. We are not to expect in narrative writings the regular divisions of a discourse, as in didactic and argumentative productions. Still there will be some prominent or leading event, and the different parts of the narrative will tend to exhibit it fully and clearly. These parts will be the circumstances of the event, such as led to it, such as accompanied it, or such as follow from it; and the writer will dwell upon them in proportion to their importance and connexion with his main design. Occasional reflections may also be made, and inferences drawn, and whatever can illustrate, or throw an interest around the principal event, will be introduced. As to transitions, they will often depend on the order of occurrences in the succession of time, or as one occurrence is accounted to be the cause of another. (Ex. IV.)
In descriptive writing, it is the purpose of the writer, as has been stated, to place before the view of his readers some object or scene. In its design, it nearly resembles both historical and landscape painting, and there is a resemblance too, in the particulars on which the successful exertion of each depends. A happy selection of circumstances is of importance. A few prominent traits, well chosen, and strongly exhibited, will produce a much better effect, than the enumeration of many particulars. In this kind of writing, much is found, which is designed to assist the distinctness of the mind's conception, and when the writer dwells on different parts, it is with this purpose. The transitions, as in argumentative writings, are often abrupt, and it is thought sufficient connexion, that the different parts tend to the same end. The narrative and descriptive are often found united. (Ex. V.)
WERE men simply intellectual beings, and were it the only design of the writer to convey instruction to his readers, what has been said in the preceding chapter, would be all that is required, preparatory to the consideration of the qualities of a good style. But men have imagination, and are susceptible of emotions; and it is often the purpose of the writer, to cause the imagination to be exercised, and emotions of various kinds to be excited. To give pleasure in this way, may be the immediate object of the writer, or he may seek to please his readers, merely to arrest their attention, increase the distinctness of their views, and incline them to the favourable reception of the opinions he communicates.
From this statement, the definite object of this and the following chapter may be learnt. It is to aid in judging of whatever is thus addressed to the imagination in connexion with certain emotions of which men are susceptible. To direct in all that thus pertains to the imagination and these emotions, is regarded as the office of Taste. Hence the nature of taste in general will first be considered. This will be followed by some account of what is implied by a literary taste, including an enumeration of those different properties in literary productions which are objects of its attention, with such remarks and directions as may aid in its acquisition and improvement.
Definition of Taste. The decisions of taste are judgments passed on whatever is designed to excite emotions of beauty, of grandeur, or of sublimity. The power of thus judging is founded on the experience of emotions of the same nature, and is called taste; and he who exercises this power successfully, is called a man of taste. By judgment, as the word is here used, I mean the determining of the fitness of particular causes for producing certain effects. The chemist would produce a mixture having certain properties,-a certain degree of hardness, a required colour or taste. With this view he unites several simples; and in selecting the simples that are to be united for producing the required mixture, and in determining the quantity of each to be used, there is judgment. In the same manner, where taste is exercised, there is a certain effect to be produced, and in determining the fitness of means for producing this effect, there is judgment.
For a full account of the emotions just mentioned, the student must be referred to the philosophy of the mind. But it is necessary, that a short statement of what is meant by them should here be given.
As different occurrences and events come under the notice of our senses, or as the mind is led to take cognizance of its own thoughts and reflections, we are conscious of various feelings or emotions. Where moral agency is concerned, we regard what thus becomes the object of attention with approbation as virtuous, or we condemn it as vicious. In other instances, hope, fear, joy, sorrow, remorse, love, hatred, or some other of those emotions usually termed passions, is excited. But distinct, both from emotions of a moral nature, and from those included under the passions, there is a third class of emotions, which is particularly referred to in the preceding definition of taste, and these will now be exhibited.
When the sun goes down in the west, the surrounding clouds reflect to our view a rich variety of colours. We