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had even considered it could in a former letter; for in this month, we have two, at least, who actually died Roman Catholics; and the very first upon the list seems nearly in this predicament. William Taylor, Martyr, whom Fox, although he styles him "A constant witness bearer and testis of Christ's doctrine," acknowledges to have held the doctrines of the Catholic Church in all things except with respect to the invocation of saints, and therefore declares that he ought not to have been put to death: he says, "Taylor so prosecuted his mind herein, that he seemed little or nothing to differ from the papists, as most plainly appeared by his own words, &c." It seems that he was first cited for holding heterodox opinions, before Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, in the reign of Henry the fifth, when he made a formal retractation of his errors; but relapsing, he was in the second year of Henry the sixth again summoned before the then Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of Worcester, and being tried and condemned, he suffered death in the year 1422. Then follow six German renegade ecclesiastics; the first of these is Vexelianus, Doctor Martyr; one who held the doctrines of the Waldensians and Wicklifians, besides opinions of his own, impugning the belief of the Trinity, all of which he retracted at the stake, to which he had been condemned by the Bishop of Metz: he died a catholic, as Fox himself unwillingly admits in the following words; "Although this aged and feeble old man, by weakness, was constrained to give over unto the Roman clergy by outward profession of mouth, yet, notwithstanding, his opinions and doctrine declared his inward heart, of what judgment he was, if fear of death present had not otherwise enforced him to say then he did think, &c." As Fox gives this man as a protestant martyr, surely I am right in my conclusion with regard to the latitude of the term protestant. The second German is Doctor Vesselus, alias Basilias, Confessor, a priest of Gronninghen, in Freeseland, who held opinions tending to promote sedition, founded upon some of the doctrines of Wickliffe: being called upon in 1490 to account for the same, he retracted them all. So much for this confessor. The third is Henry Sutphen, martyr, an apostate monk, who, quitting his con


vent, married and taught the doctrines of Luther; besides which he was active in creating disturbances: upon these facts he was convicted, and suffered in the year 1524, at Diffenar, in Germany. The fourth in this company is John Hugleyne, martyr; he also was an apostate and a priest. He was condemned by the Bishop of Constance in 1526, and executed at Marspurg, "for that he did not hold," says Fox, "the Bishop of Rome's doctrine in all points." We have now Petrus Flessidias, martyr; and next, Adolphus Clabachus, martyr. Of these, Fox relates very little, except that they were executed at Cologne in the year 1528, but for what he does not say; they however help to increase his list of martyrs. On the eighth is Patrick Hamlinton, martyr, called the Abbot of Ferne. This gentleman travelled into Germany, and studied at Marspurg about the year 1527, where he imbibed the heterodox doctrines then in fashion, and returning into Scotland he publickly taught what he had learned abroad, and also added some opinions of his own, which appear not a little fanciful. He was apprehended by order of the king, tried, judged and convicted, and sentenced to die. We have on the ninth Thomas Hillon, martyr.

Of this man, Fox says, "there remaineth nothing in writing,

but only that he was an honest poor man, and burned by William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, and by Bishop Fisher, of Rochester, at Maidstone, in Kent, in the year 1530, for the constant and manifest testimony of Jesus Christ, and of his free grace and salvation." But he might have seen in the preface of Sir Thomas More's answer to Tyndal, that this man had been a priest at Norwich, who, laying down the priestly office, was employed by Tyndal to convey books to and from the continent; that he was taken up at Gravesend upon suspicion of stealing some linen from a hedge, and that upon his examination he discovered himself to be so perverse and obstinate in his heterodox opinions, that he was sentenced to suffer. On the tenth, an extraordinary protestant martyr presents himself; Thomas Bilney, whom Fox seems to hold in great estimation. He was master of arts at Cambridge, and was one of the first who, in the days of Henry the eighth, publickly disseminated the doctrines of Luther; which he did in his sermons" preached at

Ipswich. For this he was summoned in 1527 before Cardinal Wolsey, and Tonstal, Bishop of London, when thirty-four interragatories were put to him; to most of them he gave catholic answers; but being condemned upon the other few, he then publickly recanted all bis erroneous opinions, and for his penance walked before a procession in St. Paul's, covered with a sheet, and carrying a faggot upon his shoulder. He, however, again relapsed, and was a second time convicted and sentenced to be executed; but when he saw death at hand he again retracted and acknowledged his errors with apparent signs of sincere repentance, made his confession, humbly requested absolution, and received the blessed sacrament upon his knees before he died. On the eleventh comes David Foster, martyr, a poor obstinate old man, who suffered at York in the year 1531, for wilfully and perversely maintaining heterodox opinions. We have now a mad confessor, Edward Freese. This person was first a painter, and then a monk of Berry, in Yorkshire; from whence he ran away and became a painter again, took a wife, and propagated the doctrines of Luther; and amused himself with scribbling his opinions upon walls, &c. and at length, as Fox writes, " being fallen out of his wits, he was sent back to the said Abbey again, but could never be recovered, but that he behaved himself like a wild man, staring and gazing upon the people." On the thirteenth are Valentine Freese and his wife, martyrs. These two suffered at York with

He was a foolish and ob

Foster, and equalled him in stubborness and presumption. Father Batt, confessor, is the next. stinate old man, who, with his wife, endeavoured to disseminate the doctrine of Luther, being apprehended, they were thrown into prison, from whence they both escaped in the night, and nothing more is known of them. Rawlins White, martyr, follows on the fifteenth; an old fisherman of Cardiffe, in South Wales, who sent his boy to school that he might be able to read the bible to him, as he could not read himself; and after a time he and his boy travelled over the country, the boy reading, and the old man expounding what was read to him. In Queen Mary's days, he was apprehended and brought before the bishop of Llandaff, with whom he attempted to enter into a

disputation; he was however condemned, and suffered at Cardiffe in 1555. We have next Thomas Tomkins, martyr, of whom nothing more is known than that he was a weaver of Shoreditch, obstinate in maintaining the opinion of Zwinglius, that he was taken before Bishop Bonner, who used every argument to make him retract, so that his life might be saved, but all to no purpose. Fox relates rather a rough mode of arguing made use of by the bishop to convince him, but we have only the word of Fox which is not worth much for this story. Two gentlemen martyrs follow, Thomas Highed and Thomas Causton, who were both executed in Essex, 1555, for disseminating the doctrines of Luther and of Zwinglius, although the opinions of the one, were in many instances contrary to the dogmas of the other. Three stout hearted martyrs, according to Fox, are next upon the calendar, William Hunter, William Piggot, and Stephen Knight. The first was an apprentice to a weaver in London; he ran away from his master, and went to his father's at Brentwood: there he procured a bible, set about perusing it, and formed a new religion of his own, although, as Fox acknowledges he could scarcely read, and was but nineteen years of age. He attempted to publish his discoveries in religion with great alacrity, but his career was soon stopped, for he was brought before Bonner, to whom he thought himself an equal match in argument. Fox is very diffuse in relating the talents and qualifications of this young divine, and if we believe him, miracle worker. The second was an artizan of London, as was also the third; they were neither of them however wanting in presumption and obstinacy, for which they all three suffered in 1555. On the twenty second is John Lawrence, minister, martyr, an apostate dominican friar and priest, who was on the point of marrying when he was brought before Bonuer, for broaching heterodox opinions, which he obstinately maintained before the bishop, and being condemned, he suffered at Colchester upon the twentieth of March of the same year.

Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, martyr, now requires our notice. Yet it is impossible in this paper to give more than a rapid sketch of some of the prominent features of the life and death of this individual: for it would fill many pages were the atrocities committed by him, alone re

lated. While at Cambridge, he privately married against the rules of the University, and of the discipline of the church, and after the death of Warham, he was, by the interest of Sir Thomas Bullen, made Archbishop of Canterbury, in order to promote the views of the King in his attempt at obtaining a divorce from his Queen. He afterwards aided that monarch in

all his cruel and unjust measures against his wives, and in all his reforming plans against the church. He was active in bringing to the fire, those who dissented from the doctrines promulgated by the royal and capricious lay divine, and supported with equal zeal the sacrilegious exactions of the youthful Edward's uncles. Hitherto he had basked in the sunshine of kingly favour, but when Mary ascended the throne, a sad reverse befel him; degraded and brought to his trial, he was, after many delays sentenced to suffer death; then his former hardihood forsook him: in the most abject terms he acknowledged his delinquencies and abjured his errors; he set his hand to seven different instruments, all condemning his past life and doctrines; but when he discovered that these would not save him, and that he was doomed to suffer, he then publicly retracted all his former abjurations, and died at the stake. For the last days of this man's life, the reader is requested to consult that able work, "The History of England," written by the Rev. J. Lingard, D. D. The three following martyrs were all tried, condemned, and executed together: John Spicer, set down for the twenty-fourth: William Corberly for the twentysixth; and John Maundrell for the twenty-seventh. The first was a mason of Dorsetshire, the second a taylor, both disciples of the third, a cowherd of Salisbury, who affected the doctor, although he could not read himself, and getting into trouble in Henry the eighth's days, he recanted, stood in a sheet with a candle in his hand, &c. however meeting in the reign of Queen Mary with Spencer and Corberly, they went to the parish church of Kevil, purposely to contradict the priest; this raised a ferment in the congregation, they were taken from the church, and put into the stocks, and afterwards conducted before the bishop of Salisbury, before whom they showed a great deal of insolence and presumption; in the end they were con

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