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fore went to Quebec, where, after having devoted three months to the study of the Algonkin language, I embarked on the 13th of August, in a canoe, to proceed to the country of the Illinois, which is more than 800 leagues distant from Quebec. You may easily imagine that so long a journey in such barbarous regions, could not be undertaken without considerable danger and severe hardships. I had to traverse lakes of an immense extent where storms are of as frequent occurrence as on sea. It is true you may land every evening, but fortunate are they who find some flat rock upon which they can pass the night. When it rains, the canoe turned upside down, is the only means of shelter. There is still greater danger on the rivers, and particularly in such parts where they flow with extreme rapidity. The canoe then flies like an arrow, and if it strikes against the rocks which are there to be found in numbers, it is dashed into a thousand pieces; this misfortune happened to some of those wno accompanied me in other canoes, and it was by a singular protection of Divine Providence that I escaped a similar fate, for my canoe struck several times against these rocks without sustaining the least injury.

In short the most craving hunger is to be dreaded in these kind of journies; the length and diffculty of the way will admit but of the scanty supply of one sack of Turkey wheat, we depend on hunting for further subsistence; but if the game prove scarce, several days of privation are the consequence. Then there is no other resource but to seek for a kind of leaf which the savages call Kengnessanach, and the French "Trigres de roches." Were it not much larger than chervil it might be taken for that plant on account of its similarity of shape. It is either boiled or roasted for use; I have eaten of the latter which is less disgusting.

After a journey of forty days I entered the Illinois river, and having proceeded fifty leagues, I arrived at their first village, which consisted of three hundred huts, each containing from four to five hearths (fires.) A hearth is always destined for two families. They have eleven villages of their nation. The very day after my arrival, I was invited by the chief to a grand entertainment which he gave to the most distinguished indi

viduals of the nation. For this feast several dogs were killed, which is deemed a magnificent banquet by the savages, and which on that account is denominated the captain's feast. The ceremonies observed on the occasion are similar throughout these nations. It is commonly at such feasts that the savages deliberate on their most important affairs, whether, for example, they should declare war against their neighbours, or terminate it by pacific proposals.

When the guests had arrived they placed themselves all round the hut, seated either on the bare ground or on mats. The chief then rose and harangued them; I must confess that I admired his fluency of speech, the strength and accuracy of his reasoning, the eloquent spirit of his declamation, as well as the choice and delicacy of his expressions. I am sure that if I had committed to paper the extemporaneous harangue of this savage, you would readily have agreed with me that few European orators after much labour and meditation could have delivered so persuasive and satisfactory a speech. When the chief had done speaking, two savages who acted as carvers, served the whole company, and each plate was divided between two guests. They conversed on indifferent subjects, and at the end of the feast took away with them according to custom, the remaining fragments.

What we understand by the word Christianity, is called simply Prayer by all the savages. Thus, when I shall tell you in the course of this letter, that such a savage nation have embraced Prayer, this implies that they have either become christians, or are inclined to be so. There would be less difficulty in converting the Illinois if Prayer allowed of polygamy ; they acknowledge that prayer is salutary, and are glad that their wives and children are taught it; but when we speak of it to themselves, we experience how difficult it is to fix their natural inconstancy, and to induce them to marry but one wife, and remain always faithful to her.

At the hour of morning and evening prayer, they all resort to the chapel. Even the jugglers, that is to say, the greatest enemies to religion, send their children to be instructed and baptized; and this is the most abundant fruit which we first



reap amongst these savages, and of which we are the most certain for out of the number of children we christen, not a year passes but many die before the use of reason; and amongst adults, the greater part are so fervently devoted to Prayer that they would suffer the most cruel death rather than renounce it.

It is fortunate for the Illinois that they are at a very great distance from Quebec, for they are thus deprived of the use of brandy, which is common in other parts; this liquor is the greatest obstacle to the propagation of the Christian religion amongst the savages, and proves a source of numerous crimes of the most horrrid description. It is well known that they purchase it only for the purpose of the most brutal intoxication: the disorders and fatal deaths which we witness every day, ought to put a stop to the consideration of gain which is derived from the sale of so pernicious a liquor.

I had lived with the Illinois two years, when I was recalled to devote the remainder of my days to the Abnakise nation. It was the first mission to which I had been appointed on my arrival in Canada, and it is probably the one in which I shall end my life. I was therefore obliged to go to Quebec, for the purpose of returning to my dear favourite savages. I have already described to you the length aud difficulties of this journey, so that I shall now content myself with relating a very consolatory adventure which happened to me about forty leagues from Quebec. I chanced to arrive at a kind of village, in which there were twenty-five French houses, with a curate attached to them. Near this village, was a hut of savages, in which there lived a girl of sixteen-years of age, whom an illness of several years had reduced to the last extremity. The curate who was unacquainted with the language of these savages, begged me to hear the patient's confession, and conducted me himself to the hut. In the course of the conversation I had with this young girl, I found that she had been thoroughly instructed by one of our missionaries, but that she had not as yet received the rites of baptism. After two days spent in putting the necessary questions to her, in order to ascertain if she had proper dispositions: "Refuse me not," she said, "I conjure

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" 'you, the grace of baptism which I ask at your hands; you see that I labour under an intolerable oppression of the "chest, and that I have but a short time to live; what a mis"fortune would it not be for me and a reproach to yourself, if "I were to die without receiving that sacrament." I told her to prepare herself for receiving it the next day, and I withdrew. The joy she experienced on the occasion, produced in her so sudden an improvement, that she was able to attend the chapel at a very early hour. I was greatly surprised at her arrival, and I immediately administered to her with due solemnity the rites of baptism; after the ceremony she returned home, where she never ceased to return thanks to the divine mercy for so great a blessing, and to sigh after the happy moment which should unite her to God for all eternity. Her wishes were granted, and I was fortunate enough to attend her at her death. What an interposition of Providence was not this in favour of that poor girl, and what a consolation for me to have been the instrument which the Almighty deigned to use to place her soul in heaven!

(To be continued.)


By an ancient law of the church, it was forbidden to bury any dead body within the walls of places consecrated to the worship of God: but this prohibition was afterwards dispensed with, in favour of such as had been eminent for sanctity, as it is related by the author of the life of Saint Fulgentius; and by degrees, this law ceased. Bede relates, that so early as in the time of St. Austin, "King Ethelbert erected the church of the apostles Peter and Paul, and endowed it with various gifts, designing it to be a place of interment for himself, St. Austin, as well as of all the Archbishops of Canterbury and Kings of Kent." The primitive Christians held the burial places in great respect. Saint Denys, the Areopagite, who lived in the time of the apostles, denominated cemetries in his "Hierarchy," honorable and sacred places. Tertullian gives them the same appellation in the 51st chapter of his "Book of his soul."

Optatus, Milevetanus, Saint Cyprian, Saint Ambrose, Saint Austin, Saint Jerome, and Saint Chrysostom, all speak of them nearly in the same terms. Saint Clement, the pope, says in his "Apostolical Constitutions:" "Assemble yourselves in the cemetries, there read the sacred books and sing your spiritual hymns; be present at the mass which is there celebrated; and after you have received the body of our Saviour, continue the harmony of your song." And when Pope Liberius was driven from the churches by order of the Arian Emperor Constans, he retired to cemetries there to acquit himself of the duties belonging to his charge.

Churches of stone began to be erected in this country as early as in the seventh century. Bede says, that Paulinus, after converting the governor of Lincoln, built there a church of stone.

In the same century, Wilfrid introduced Church-music into general use, from Kent; to which county it had been previously brought by Adrian, the seventh Abbot of St. Austin's Monastery, in Canterbury. Bede thus describes this event: "Singing sacred music, also, which before had only been practised in the Church of Kent, began, at this period, to be learned in all the churches of England. The first teacher of music after James, whom we have mentioned before in the churches of Northumberland, was Eddy, surnamed Stephen, invited from Kent by the most reverend prelate, Wilfrid." The six notes of the ancient scale of music or diagram, invented by Aretinus, was taken, as some authors relate, from the first strophe of an hymn of St. John the Baptist, said to have been composed by Paulus Diaconus.

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The whole, however, has been comprised in one line by Angelo Berradi.

"UT RElevet MIserum FAtum SOLitosque LAbores." "All the Italian writers," says Dr. Burney, "agree that the sacred dramas called oratorios, had their beginning in the time of San Phillippo Neri, who was born in 1515, and founded the

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