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wrong Meffage to one of the Servants, he flew into fuch a Rage, that he fwept down a Dozen TeaDishes, which, to my Misfortune, ftood very conve nient for a Side Blow.

I then remov'd all my China into a Room which ⚫ he never frequents; but I got nothing by this neither, ⚫ for my Looking-Glaffes immediately went to Rack.

IN fhort, Sir, whenever he is in a Paffion he is an gry at every thing that is brittle; and if on fuch Occafions he had nothing to vent his Rage upon, I do not know whether my Bones would be in Safety. 'Let me beg of you, Sir, to let me know whether there be any Cure for this unaccountable Distemper, or if not, that you will be pleased to publish this Letter: For my Husband having a great Veneration for your Writings, will by that means know you do not approve of his Conduct.

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I am,

Your most humble Servant, &c.

N° 564. Wednesday, July 7.



Regula, peccatis qua poenas irroget aquas:
Ne Scutica dignum horribile fectere flagello.


T is the Work of a Philofopher to be every Day fubduing his Paffions, and laying afide his Prejudices. I endeavour at least to look upon Men and their Actions only as an impartial Spectator, without any Regard to them as they happen to advance or crofs my own private Intereft. But while I am thus employed my felf, I cannot help obferving, how thofe about me fuffer themselves to be blinded by Prejudice and Inclination, how readily they pronounce on every Man's Character, which they can give in two Words, and make him either good for nothing, or qualified for

every thing. On the contrary, thofe who fearch thoroughly into human Nature, will find it much more difficult to determine the Value of their Fellow-Creatures, and that Mens Characters are not thus to be gi ven in general Words. There is indeed no fuch thing as a Perfen intirely good or bad; Virtue and Vice are blended and mixed together, in a greater or lefs Proportion, in every one; and if you would fearch for Tome particular good Quality in its moft eminent Degree of Perfection, you will often find it in a Mind, where it is darkned and eclipfed by an hundred other irregular Paffions.


MEN have either no Character at all, fays a celebrated Author; or it is that of being inconfiftent with themselves. They find it easier to join Extremities, than to be uniform and of a Piece. This is finely illuftrated in Xenophon's Life of Cyrus the Great. Author tells us, that Cyrus having taken a most beautiful Lady named Panthea, the Wife of Abradatus, committed her to the Cuftody of Arafpas, a young Perfian Nobleman, who had a little before maintain'd in Difcourfe, That a Mind truly virtuous was incapable of entertaining an unlawful Paffion. The young Gentleman had not long been in Poffeffion of his fair Captive, when a Complaint was made to Cyrus, that he not only follicited the Lady Panthea to receive him in the Room of her abfent Husband, but that finding his Entreaties had no Effect, he was preparing to make ufe of Force. Cyrus, who loved the young Man, immediately fent for him, and in a gentle Manner reprefenting to him his Fault, and putting him in Mind of his former Affertion, the unhappy Youth, confounded with a quick Senfe of his Guilt and Shame, burst out into a Flood of Tears, and spoke as follows.

OH Cyrus, I am convinced that I have two Souls. Love has taught me this Piece of Philofophy. If I had but one Soul, it could not at the fame time pant after Virtue and Vice, wish and abhor the fame thing. It is certain therefore we have two Souls: When the good Soul rules, I undertake noble and virtuous Actions; but when the bad Soul predominates, Lam forced to do Evil. All I can fay


at prefent is, that I find my good Soul, encouraged by your Prefence, bas got the Better of my bad.

I know not whether my Readers will allow of this Piece of Philofophy; but if they will not, they must confefs we meet with as different Paffions in one and the fame Soul, as can be fuppofed in two. We can hardly read the Life of a great Man who lived in former Ages, or converse with any who is eminent among our Contemporaries, that is not an Inftance of what I am faying.

BUT as I have hitherto only argued against the Partiality and Injuftice of giving our Judgment upon Men in grofs, who are fuch a Compofition of Virtues and Vices, of Good and Evil, I might carry this Reflection Atill farther, and make it extend to moft of their Actions. If on the one Hand, we fairly weighed every Circumftance, we fhould frequently find them obliged to do that Action we at firft Sight condemn, in order to avoid another we should have been much more difpleafed with. If on the other Hand we nicely examined fuch Actions as appear most dazling to the Eye, we fhould find most of them either deficient and lame in feveral Parts, produced by a bad Ambition, or directed to an ill End. The very fame Action may fometimes be fo oddly circumstanced, that it is difficult to determine whether it ought to be rewarded or punish'd. Those who compiled the Laws of England were fo fenfible of this, that they have laid it down as one of their first Maxims, It is better fuffering a Mischief than an Inconvenience, which is as much as to fay in other Words, That fince no Law can take in or provide for all Cafes, it is better private Men fhould have fome Injustice done them, than that a publick Grievance fhould not be redreffed. This is ufually pleaded in Defence of all those Hardships which fall on particular Perfons in particular Occafiens, which could not be forefeen when a Law was made. To remedy this however as much as possible, the Court of Chancery was erected, which frequently mitigates and breaks the Teeth of the Common Law, in Cafes of Men's Properties, while in Criminal Cases there is a Power of pardoning ftill lodged in the Crown.


V NOTWITHSTANDING this, it is perhaps Impoffible in a large Government to distribute Rewards and Punishments ftrictly proportioned to the Merits of every Action. The Spartan Commonwealth was indeed wonderfully exact in this Particular; and I do not remember in all my Reading to have met with fo nice an Example of Juftice as that recorded by Plutarch, with. which I fhall close my Paper for this Day.

THE City of Sparta being unexpectedly attacked by a powerful Army of Thebans, was in very great Danger of falling into the Hands of their Enemies. The Citizens fuddenly gathering themselves into a Body, fought with a Refolution equal to the Neceffity of their Affairs, yet no one fo remarkably diftinguished himfelf on this Occafion, to the Amazement of both Armies, as Ifadas the Son of Phoebidas, who was at that time in the Bloom of his Youth, and very remarkable for the Comeliness of his Perfon. He was coming out of the Bath when the Alarm was given, fo that he had not time to put on his Cloaths, much lefs his Armour; however tranfported with a Defire to ferve his Country in fo great an Exigency, fnatching up a Spear in one Hand, and a Sword in the other, he flung himself into the thickeft Ranks of his Enemies. Nothing could withstand his Fury in what Part foever he fought he put the Enemies to Flight without receiving a fingle Wound. Whether, fays Plutarch, he was the particular Care of fome God, who rewarded his Valour that Day with an extraordinary Protection, or, that his Enemies, ftruck with the Unufualnefs of his Drefs, and Beauty of his Shape, fuppofed him fomething more than Man, I fhall not determine.

THE Gallantry of this Action was judged fo great by the Spartans, that the Ephori, or chief Magiftrates, decreed he fhould be prefented with a Garland; but as foon as they had done fo, fined him a thousand Drachmas, for going out to the Battel unarmed.

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N 565.

Friday, July 9.

Deum namque ire per omnes

Terrafque, tractufque maris, cœlumque profundum.


Was Yesterday about Sun-fet walking in the open
Fields, 'till the Night infenfibly fell upon me.
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firft amufed my felf with all the Richnefs and Variety of Colours, which appeared in the Western Parts of Heaven: In Proportion as they faded away and went out, feveral Stars and Planets appeared one after another, 'till the whole Fimament was in a Glow. The Bluenefs of the Ether was exceedingly heightened and enlivened by the Seafon of the Year, and by the Rays of all thofe Luminaries that paffed through it. The Galaxy appeared in its most beautiful White. To compleat the Scene, the full Moon rofe at length in that clouded Majefty, which Milton takes Notice of, and o pened to the Eye a new Picture of Nature, which was more finely fhaded, and difpofed among fofter Lights, than that which the Sun had before difcovered to us.

AS I was furveying the Moon walking in her Brightness and taking her Progrefs among the Conftellations, a Thought rofe in me which I believe very of ten perplexes and disturbs Men of ferious and contemplative Natures. David himself fell into it in that Re flection, When I confider the Heavens the Work of thy Fingers, the Moon and the Stars which thou haft ordain ed; what is Man that thou art mindful of him, and the Son of Man that thou regardeft him! In the fame Manner when I confidered that infinite Hoft of Stars, or, to speak more Philofophically, of Suns, which were then fhining upon me, with thofe innumerable Sets of Planets or Worlds, which were moving round their re spective Suns; when I ftill enlarged the Idea, and fúp



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