« EelmineJätka »
£ s. d. Double harrowing and rolling
0 4 0 Twenty loads of manure and filling
4 0 0 Ridging
0 2 0 Women spreading dung in furrows
0 1 3 Splitting the ridges over manure
0 2 0 Drilling and seed
0 4 6 Singling
0 3 6 Twice horse hoeing (Garrett's)
0 1 6 Hand-hoeing in the rows
0 3 6 Pulling, topping and storing in clumps..
0 7 6 Four bushels of superphosphate of lime drilled with the seed 0 16 6
£10 8 3 Produce 20 tons. Land dug 10 inches deep at 4d. per rod, amounting to about 30s. an acre, and a good substitute for subsoiling.
At the Protection Banquet held at Edinburgh, April, 1851, Mr. Sheriff Alison said : In the five years ending with 1835, the annual importation of wheat under protection was 398,000 quarters a year. This of course was comparatively trifling, and was not a hundreth part of the consumption of Great Britain, which was then to all intents and purposes a self-supporting country, and for several years previous to that period not a single quarter was imported; a change of policy was introduced in 1842, and the duties materially lowered, the result was that from 1842 to 1845 the average importation was about two millions and a half. Since the corn laws were repealed in 1846, the average of the importation has been for the last two years 10,796,000 quarters; and in the month of February, 1850, the importation of all kinds of grain was 342,000 quarters. In February, 1851, it was 694,000 quarters. Again in March, 1851, when the prices were 39s. a quarter for wheat, the importation was 928,000 quarters, being double what it was the year before. Thus we were importing at the rate of 11,000,000 of quarters a year, which was fully one-fourth of the annual subsistence, one-third of all the wheaten bread eaten by Englishmen. Cattle was on the same ratio; and whilst our importations generally are increasing, our exportations are far from increasing.
With respect then to the importation of corn, the Chancellor of the Exchequer admitted that he had been 120 per cent. wrong in his calculations in 1829, and seventy per cent. wrong as regards last year,
Earl Fitzwilliam's scale of reduction is twelve per cent. per annum; the basis
upon which his previous rents were fixed was 6s. 8d. per bushel for wheat, but the basis on which the readjustment has been calculated is 5s. 10d. per bushel.
Mr. Baker, of Essex, stated at the Farmers' Club, in May last, the average amount of rental in this country in 1793, of the enclosed arable land, was 14s. 8d. per acre, and of meadow land 25s. per acre. The presumed rental, as paid at the present time, may be assumed at about one-third more; viz., arable land, 22s. 6d., and meadow land 32s.6d., which pretty nearly accords with the increased quantities produced; but the incidental expenses are much higher now than at that period :
Bushel. Wheat.. 224s. Barley..34]s. Oats..33s. Beans and Peas..20}s.
1850. Wheat..30s. Barley..44s. Oats..52s. Peas and Beans..30s.
Clover..lg tons. and the following resolutions were carried at the Club :
“That as regards the investment of capital in the purchase of land, the simplification of titles, and the facilities of transfer by a well regulated system of registration, would materially induce the investment of capital.
" That with respect to the investment of capital in the cultivation of the soil, a reform in the construction of the clauses in ordinary leases or agreements, with permission to remove buildings erected by the tenants, and compensation for unexhausted improvements, would naturally conduce to the investment of capital by the tenant farmer: But
“That it appears from statements submitted to the meeting that the cost of raising agricultural produce preponderates so much over its present value, that either an increase of prices, or a reduction of expenses, must take place before capital will be freely invested in land."
Private Money Drainage Act (12 & 13 Vict. c. 100).-The working of this act is placed under the jurisdiction of the Inclosure Commissioners. By this act, after application made, notices given, inspection of the land by the officer of the commission, any person in the actual possession or receipt of the rents or profits of any lands (except any tenant for life or lives, or for years, holding under a term or agreement for a lease, on which a rent of not less than two-thirds of the clear yearly value of the premises comprised therein shall have been reserved, and except any tenant for years whatsoever holding under a lease or agreement for a lease, for a term which shall not bave exceeded twentyone years from the commencement thereof,) may borrow or advance money for drainage, and charge the same on the inheritance. Upon the commissioners being satisfied of the due
VOL. XV. NO. XXIX.
execution of the work, they may grant a rent-charge for twentytwo years indefeasible in title, and chargeable upon the land prior to all other charges, except tithe rent-charge, chief rents and taxes. See also 13 & 14 Vict. c. 31.
The provisions of the Drainage of Lands Act of 1849 have been amended by a bill brought into the House for the improvement of land and farm buildings by loans, and advances of private money for the erection and repairs of farm buildings on lands in Great Britain and Ireland, and it provides that landlords may borrow money on the security of rentcharges upon the inheritance of the land sought to be improved, to the extent of eighteen months' value of the land, without any preference over existing heritable securities or rent-charges; the commissioners appointed to authorize such loans to be satisfied that the applications for the same will be of permanent benefit to the subject, and the real charges granted in respect of any loan may be made payable for any period exceeding twenty-two years; the provisions and directions of the Drainage of Lands Acts are to be followed out: but this bill was eventually thrown out in the House of Lords.
The Episcopal and Capitular Estates Bill has just passed through both Houses of Parliament; the management of ecclesiastical estates under the late system being unsatisfactory to the church and its lessees : to the one because the property is less productive than it ought to be, and to the other because the uncertainty of leases prevents the employment of capital, and encourages an imperfect method of cultivation.
Suppose, says Lord Carlisle, “ a farm worth 1001. per annum is to be let on lease for twenty-one years, renewable every seven. At the end of seven years, the farmer applies, on payment of a fine, to have another term of seven years added to the fourteen years, which are yet unexpired. It is said that a septennial fine of 1501., which would be the amount of a fine on the supposition that a year and half's balance was the lineal fine, is equivalent to a permanent annual rent of 251., to commence in presenti, the rate of interest being assumed at 41. per cent." Now if the lessor is determined to have his lease out, he will receive no fine, and will become entitled to enter on this farm of 1001. per annum.
It is found that a perpetual rent of 1001., to commence fourteen years hence, is equivalent to a perpetual rent of 631., 3} per cent. Now it is proposed by the commissioners to divide the advantage between the lessors and lessees. (Sir W.Oughton's evidence before the Committee of Agricultural Customs (1848). On Church Property, Q. 4360.)
The Lords' Report, upon which the present bill is founded, advises, as a mode of adjusting these respective rights and claims, that one more renewal of leasehold terms, having less than twenty-one years to run, shall be made upon the accustomed fines, and that the sale of the reversion (or the purchase of the leasehold term) shall be made at a rate of interest at which the value of the fee-simple shall have been calculated. All sales or purchases to be subjeet to the approval of the Church Estates Commissioners and of the Ecclesiastical Commission. The in. creased funds arising from such dealings are appropriated exclusively to the purposes of church extension, subject to the provision that regard is to be had to the state of the parishes wherein the funds arise.
The Farm Buildings Bill and Bill to improve the Law of Landlord and Tenant, in relation to emblements, to growing crops seized in execution, and to agricultural tenants' fixtures, require notice.
The object of the Farm Buildings Bill is to extend the provisions of the Drainage of Lands Act, 1849, to the advance of private money for the erection and repair of farm buildings on lands in Great Britain and Ireland.
The Leases Bill has reference to three objects: the rights to emblements, growing crops seized under execution, and agricultural tenants fixtures. In respect to the first of these objects, the law in relation to emblements, says the editor of the Mark Lane Express, “We consider the proposed alterations a judicious and practical amendment based upon common sense. The establishment of the ordinary relations of landlord and tenant until the expiration of the current year, instead of the present claim to emblements, is a decided improvement. In respect to the second object, the rendering growing crops seized and sold under execution liable for accruing rent, so long as the same shall remain on the land, we decidedly object to a general enactment so far as regards the rents which may accrue from the land upon which the crops are growing. We should consider it fair that the produce should be liable ; but we are of opinion that the law of distress for rent, as it now stands, gives an unfair advantage to the landlord over other creditors, and operates prejudicially to the tenantry as a class.”
The new act relating to landlord and tenant came into operation on the 1st of August last, 14 & 15 Vict. c. 25, for improving the law of landlord and tenant in relation to emblements, to growing crops seized in execution, and to agricultural tenants’ fixtures; it enacts, that on the determination of leases, or tenancies under terms for life, instead of claims for emblements, the tenant shall continue to hold and occupy such farms or lands until the expiration of the current year; growing crops of the tenant sold under an execution shall, in default of sufficient goods and chattels, be liable for the accruing rent, notwithstanding any bargain, sale or assignment which may have been made or executed of such growing crops by any such sheriff or other officer.
A tenant may also remove the buildings and fixtures erected by him on a farm, unless the landlord shall elect to take them.
Further, it is provided, that on a tenant quitting the place, leaving the tithe rent charge unpaid, the landlord may pay the same, and recover it from the first-named tenant as if it were a simple contract debt, but the act does not extend to Scotland.
What can be done at this crisis is a very natural question. A parliamentary committee has reported that many landowners have not the power, under the present state of the law, to grant such agreements as are necessary to justify tenants in expending their capital on the land, so it is quite clear that some alteration must be made in the law before such expenditure can reasonably be expected. What should the alteration be? Commissioner Fane proposes that the present state of the law should be reversed, “that the law should be just instead of unjust;" so that when there was not a written agreement to the contrary, the outgoing tenant should be entitled to a fair valuation for judicious expenditure made at his expense.
Firstly. The law of landlord and tenant should be amended, to enable British farmers generally to try for the first time how cheap they (with security for their capital expended on improvements) can produce food for their countrymen.
2ndly. A moderate fixed duty, say 1s. a bushel, on foreign corn, not so much on colonial corn, as an equivalent for the taxes, &c. that British grain is liable to.
3rdly. To compensate consumers for any sınall increase in the price of bread, caused by duty on corn, the present duty on tea might be decreased from 2s. Id. to ls.
4thly. The duty on malt should not in fairness be more than on foreign grain; these could be made equal, or 1s. a bushel under a new system.
5thly. The burdens of land should be fairly adjusted; for instance, the county should not be liable to more than a fair share of the expenses of prosecuting and keeping poachers ; and each game preserver should pay one-half of the expenses where he is the prosecutor.
E. B. A.