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the teachings of his German uncle. of physiological psychology couched in English Judaism is without signs of Spenserian phraseology, we have not life: the only working of the spirit, the cared to inquire. We have only abortive reform agitation, was due to a spoken because we have some of the similar movement in Germany. And knowledge and all of the sympathy English Jews have themselves much to which alone, we contend, are needed blame for the neglect that English to make the Mordecai part of Daniel criticism has shown for Mordecai. Deronda as great a success as all must

What we have attempted to show acknowledge to have attended the part has been that the adverse criticism on relating to Gwendolen Harleth. If the Mordecai part of Daniel Deronda this be so, the lovers of English literahas been due to lack of sympathy ture will have the gratification of knowand want of knowledge on the part of ing that the hand of one of our greatest the critics, and hence its failure is not artists has not lost its cunning in these (if we must use the word) objective. last days. Indeed, if a higher subject If a young lady refuses to see any argue higher faculties, the successful pathos in Othello's fate because she treatment of a great world - problem dislikes dark complexions, we blame would seem to be an advance on her the young lady, not Shakspeare : and previous studies

previous studies of village life. if the critics have refused to see the One word more of explanation. I pathos of Mordecai's fate because he have spoken throughout the above reis a Jew of the present day—so much marks in the plural, as feeling that the worse for the critics !

most of what I have said would be We have not attempted to criticise shared by all Jews who have the knowDaniel Deronda as a whole. Whether ledge and the sympathy which enable it errs in the juxtapositions of two them to recognise in Mordecai Cohen parts appealing to such widely diverse not only the finest representative of interests, or in the position of the hero their religion and race in all literature, -which seems to partake of that un

but also the most impressive personstable equilibrium which the proverb ality in English fiction. assigns to him that sitteth on two stools-or in the frequent introduction

JOSEPH JACOBS.

112

THE GROSVENOR GALLERY.

That a

The opening of Sir Coutts Lindsay's most intellectual art of the day; that magnificent Gallery in New Bond Street he invites the contribution only of implies something more than a mere works of the highest standard, and in addition to the formidable list of such limited number as to avoid all annual picture exhibitions.

crowding of the walls, and give the picture-gallery on such a scale, and so gallery the air of a picture saloon in a sumptuously fitted, should be erected private palace, rather than of an exhiby private enterprise, is in itself a fact to bition filled from the public drag-net. be noted: and though some of the deco- Certainly this is a consummation rative detail is rather rich than refined devoutly to be wished, and the attainin style ; though we may be puzzled by ment of which would seem to be perthe architectural anomaly of a grand fectly compatible with that entire entrance and staircase which seem to absence either of opposition or of lead to nothing; yet having once found devotion to any special school of our way into the principal room, we can- painting which is earnestly professed at not but feel that there is something in the Grosvenor Gallery. As a matter the impression produced by the pictures, of fact, however, this first exhibition as grouped on these spacious and richly- is to some extent a demonstration in hung walls, quite alien from that sense favour of certain modes or fashions of confusion and weariness which the of painting (not bound together in eye experiences in ranging over the such coherency as to constitute a closely-packed walls of an average school ") which have not so far found exhibition room. The distribution of favour in the public eye.

Some of the pictures, both on the walls and in those who are recognised in another the catalogue under artists' names, is place, by the initiated and the laity something more than a mere matter alike, as among our most gifted artists, of arrangement; it indicates that view are here represented only by works of the art of painting, not unfamiliar painted some time since, for other occain France (and accepted by ourselves sions, and now lent by their present in our estimate of old pictures), which owners. On the other hand, artists who regards a painting in reference to the have long since indignantly flicked from individuality of the artist rather than their boots the dust of Burlington House to the mere facts of the subject; and (not perhaps without some preliminary this not only in regard to qualities of invitation so to do) are found here in manipulation, but taking into account high statealso the mental attitude of the artist towards his subject. If only the pos

Amongst the enthroned gods on sainted

seats." sibility of this view of painting, as a form of expression of the relation of Others who may complain of having individual intellect to life and nature, been fairly (or unfairly) turned out of could be thus suggested to some small doors by the recognised institution for proportion of our holiday picture- promoting Art, are here had in dignity gazers, the Grosvenor Gallery would and estimation. Without concluding have had a raison d'être. The avowed that the Grosvenor Gallery is intended position of its owner, however, is that to be either a nursery of neo-Italian ħis gallery is to represent the best and painting, or a casual ward for the reception of homeless artists, it is im- Adam and Eve, do we find out what possible to ignore the tendencies illus- they are severally intended to symboltrated in its opening exhibition. ise. Putting out of question the light

These are most pointedly displayed, in which the Mosaic account of creation perhaps, in the dedication of one end is now regarded by most educated perof the room entirely to the works of sons, it seems incredible that in the Mr. Burne Jones. Since this artist present day a grown man should paint, declined public demonstration of his for grown men and women to look at, powers, there can be no question that anything so infantile in sentiment as he has achieved a far higher technique; this ; should bestow all this beauty as little question, perhaps, that his pos- of colour and manipulation upon such sible path in art has been more sharply a piece of child's scenery. Were these restricted and defined. The painter panels a "predella" to some great of Love Disguised as Reason, one of ideal painting, we might accept them the last works of his that was seen at as embodying that degree of symbolism the old Water-Colour Society, might, which would afford a suitable decoraso far as one could then judge, have tive adjunct to the principal work ; taken one of two very different paths; we might even conclude that this alone might have developed an art com- is their intention, but for comparison bining latter-day passion or Sehn-sucht with the painting beside them, Venus' with something of the intellectual Mirror. But here, in a painting of naïveté of which Chaucer is the type ; ? quite a different scope, intended to reor he might, from the point of de- present no angels or genii, but terresparture of some other drawings of that trial women, we find the same type of period, have developed what might be face as in the angels of the Days; the called the mystical-decorative style. same dreamy vacuity of expression, To the latter his scale has inclined; the same type of mouth which is the for the Days of Creation, mystical peculiar delight of certain painters in subject, is emphatically decora- and their critics, who will describe tive painting. An exquisite finish of it for you as “moulded by passive execution, a richness and harmony of potentialities of passion," or

" fullcolour, scarcely to be over-rated, we blown with illimitable desire." Quitdo doubtless see in this painting. But ting however, these inexplicable females if we attempt to carry our inquiry who, in front of a landscape mapped beyond the external aspect to the out with conventional regularity, thought of the painting, we are brought gaze with such unaccountable agony up at once. In these graceful and of solemnity on the reflection of their melancholy winged figures which stand own faces in the pond, we gladly dreamily holding the symbols of their recognise in some of the larger symseveral offices, there is positively not a bolical figures a more masculine and thought or a meaning deeper than healthy feeling. Fides is a noble demight furnish matter for a child's sign, though in a somewhat convenSunday picture-book. There is no tional style ; and in the unfinished attempt at distinctive character or Sibyl there is a freedom of action and expression in the various figures; their expression, and a largeness of manner faces have the same gentle vacuity of which seem to promise that the artist, sentiment; they stand in a row, look- if he can shake himself free from the ing certainly, as is said of the days in affected sentimentalism which has beGenesis, “ very good," and only by the set his genius, may yet rise above contents of the crystal globes they decorative painting. hold, the last of which exhibits a little A word in reply to that lifting of

the eyebrows which will be the comAs, to a certain limited extent, Mr. Morris has succeeded in combining them in

ment on the last remark, on the part poetry.

of those who do continually affirm that No. 212.- VOL. XXXVI.

I

Such an

all painting is decorative, and that some singular productions which seem only under such a character does the to be the ghosts of the early Renaisart achieve its highest aims and capa- sance revived. One painter gives us a bilities. Such an axiom, reduced to modern Pinturicchio. Another imparts its plain meaning, probably intends to a certain colour of his own to figures infer that a majority of the produc- in the draperies and the manner of tions of the great age of Italian paint- Botticelli, and in looking at his painting, omitting the Venetian school (a ing of Love and the Maiden, we at least pretty considerable exception), were share the wonder of the latter at the painted on walls and ceilings, and as sight of the remarkable youth before part of the decoration of buildings, her, who, from the perspective relation and not as things complete in them- of his legs to the tree trunks on either selves; and the moral drawn is—if we side of him, must be straddling his would produce equal results, let us go limbs in a manner which would make and do likewise. Something no doubt his front view still more remarkable. may be said for the idea of bringing Next to this we find a starved, bloodthis art more home to the people at less, nude figure, with oakum hair, large by making it more a part of the which we are invited to accept as the decoration of our public buildings; mother of the human race. though even here it would be rash to art as this reminds one of the dead count on thus awakening the same crew who rose again to work the ship kind of naïve and unaffected interest of the Ancient Mariner. That the in such an art, as was natural when figures here are more naïve, more at the middle and lower class mind was variance with the ideal of the subject so much more shut out from literary represented, than in many producand other intellectual interests than is tions of fifteenth-century art which now the case. As to the further are justly admired, need not be imcorollary which seems to be implied, plied; but what was “ childlike” in that we have no great art now because the earlier days of art becomes only we paint on canvas-let us paint on “childish ” when revived in the face wet plaster instead, and we shall be of our present culture; and between sure to have a great style; of people the two epithets there lies a whole who reason thus we can only conclude, world of meaning. as Canning did of those who professed Turning to the portion of the walls to like dry champagne, that "they

they occupied by Mr. Whistler, while still would say anything." The idea of among the singularities of the exhibigreater dignity supposed to belong to tion, we are in a more healthy atmowhat is called decorative painting is a sphere. Mr. Whistler's art is at least fallacy. That for all intellectual no echo of anything else; it expresses purposes, the greatest painting which his own artistic idiosyncrasy. If we has in itself the most complete in

fail to find sufficient motive for paintdividuality and intensity of poetic ing, on a scale of life size, what may expression, independent of its sur- be called phantoms of figures, we at roundings. To say that it cannot least feel that these are genuine as exercise its highest influence on us, far as they go; and that the idea unless forming a portion of a scheme of painting the general impression of mural decoration, is as rational as of a figure rather than its accidental to say that Tennyson or Browning details of costume is logically comcannot come home to our minds with prehensible. The figure of the girl in their full meaning unless we have their white is full of character and feeling; words engraved on the walls instead and the slightly-painted dress is no of being bound up in volumes.

mere bundle of drapery; it is filled Flanking the wall devoted to the with the figure, in a manner testifying works of Mr. Burne Jones, we find to that power of draughtsmanship to

which the artist's life-studies and other dress is a beautiful harmony of low drawings bear witness more fully. His tones. But of the expression, the cha Nocturnes are again in the debateable racter of the child, there is nothing: she land; they can hardly be called turns up to us mechanically a dull, carenature; they are rather accidents of fully-painted face, with every wrinkle effect to which everything else is of the skin studied, and that is all ; sacrificed. This, though reasonable while Mr. Leslie's little girl, though a enough within limits, brings us to a painting, let it be admitted, of far less region hardly convenient to dwell in ; force and individuality in a certain the air is too thin. As Samuel John- sense (for execution and colour such as son said of certain literary vagaries- Mr. Hunt's are hard facts that claim Nothing odd will do for long ; their full value), has a real life and dictum which must apply to this phase character looking through her features. of the art of Mr. Whistler; who has, Of humour Mr. Hunt does not seem to however, other props already for his have a shred, in his painting at least; artistic fame, and a long career, let us witness The Lantern-maker's Courtship, hope, in which to embody the sug- in which the mechanical clockwork gestions of his genius. in less fleeting action of the figure contrasts with the and insubstantial forms. That he can intended humour of the incident in a do so is amply proved by his admirable manner almost painful in its inconpainting of Mr. Carlyle which bangs gruity. It is of no use-despite of in the vestibule, and which may be such unremitting zeal, of speciallycalled one of the most strongly cha- arranged exhibitions, and the support racteristic of contemporary portraits. of a large portion of the press, Mr.

The works of Mr. Holman Hunt Hunt and his not too discreet or rein the gallery are not among his ticent admirers will not persuade the most important, but they are suffici- world that this is the highest kind of ently characteristic of his practice to thing to be looked for from painting, suggest certain reflections. If in Mr. unless we are to regard the art as Whistler's works we seem to have the consisting in mere imitative realism ; soul of painting with but little of the a theory which, in the eyes of some body, in the works of Mr. Hunt we persons, would apparently be conhave the body without the soul. That sidered as involving no sacrifice of any he is a remarkable phenomenon in kind. Indeed, those who have taken contemporary English art no one with note of the kind of temper in which any sense or perception in regard to the claims of this artist to unquespainting would think of questioning. tioning veneration are upheld, the reSuch a production as his Afterglow is a

stricted mental culture and the bigotry triumph of realistic force such as only of assertion which go hand-in-hand in the rarest insight into the relation of this worship, may be excused if they pigments to light, and the most intense hardly find themselves attracted to the and concentrated assiduity, could attain shrine of the painter by the nature of to. But his art seems to stop at the the incense burned before him. outsides of things. The body is there, Of the paintings which represent brilliant, forcible, glowing ; but where the names of Poynter, Millais, and is the informing soul? It is worth Tadema, there is less call to speak, while to contrast his smaller painting their respective standing and position of An Italian Girl with the half- in contemporary art being little queslength of a girl by Mr. Leslie, under tioned or open to question, while the the title Palm Blossom, which hangs works exhibited here under their nearly opposite. In Mr. Hunt's paint nimes scarcely illustrate their highest ing the outside of the girl is there or most characteristic powers : the unquestionably, down even to the small pictures by Mr. Poynter contain, minute wrinkles on her lips; and the indeed, some of his most beautiful

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