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work; but these, like nearly all the ceiving that it would never have been works of these three painters in the painted, had not the works of Mr. gallery, are of earlier date, and lent by Leighton been in existence first; the present owners. But Mr. Watts though, to say truth, the work does contributes a recent painting of great not come too near to its model. The power, and which alone, perhaps, of artist may rest with more confidence all the works exhibited here, can merit on his portraits, which, however, are the title of a great picture. A great not painted for the occasion. That of ness of style is perceptible, as was Mrs. Freshfield, though unquestionably observed, in two of the larger figures open to a charge of mannerism, is very of Mr. Burne Jones ; but in Mr. unusual and very charming in its semiWatts's Love and Death there is a grand idealised treatment, its delicate harand impressive idea, appealing to our monies of colour in the elegant decorimaginative faculty as well as to our ative adjuncts, the fine drawing of the sense of form and colour, shadowing hands, and in a certain serene digforth one of the profoundest enigmas nity of pose and manner imparted to of life, and embodied with a sombre the whole. grandeur worthy of the subject. There Among those whose works are is something that sends a chill through largely represented in the gallery is us in the sight of this heavily-draped, Mr. Legros, than whom no one exslow-moving, portentous figure, which hibits a style more manly, sincere, advances irresistibly towards the en- and unpretending. His Le Chautrance, as we may say, of the House dronnier is a painting which at once of Life, its back to the spectator, compels our respect by its simple the terror of its countenance only to truthfulness and straightforwardness be guessed from the reflected agony of of style. This and the other larger protest and repulse in the action of the works of this artist are not, however, rosy winged boy who is ready to sink exhibited by himself; his own contriunder his doom. The figures are in butions comprise a landscape and four one sense supernatural, but it is studies of heads painted before the noticeable how Mr. Watts's super- Slade school class in the course of his natural differs from that of his duties as instructor, and which are “opposite" at the further extremity full of spirit and character. In the of the room. Mr. Burne Jones's larger works there is a certain defiangels are supernatural in virtue of ciency, a dulness of tone and a too the elimination of every characteristic uniform quiescence in the figures, of human feeling or passion; Mr. which cannot but be felt as a shortWatts's figures represent moods of coming; and it is in fact, so far, by human feeling in its most intense and this artist's studies and especially by concentrated ideal expression. Before his etchings, that we know how forcible a picture like this we fe 1 that paint- he can be. Possibly he may transplant ing can still do something for us in this force and vivacity in time into tellectually ; can quicken our deepest his larger works, which only require sympathies, and stir our profoundest some such brightening up as that emotions, “comparing spiritual things with spiritual.” 1

pear too long! If the line of the ankle down Mr. Richmond's Electra at the Tomb

to the heel (partially hid by the right leg)

be followed out by the eye, and compared with of Agamemnon is also a work of high the perspective distance between the two feet and imaginative aim, but one in regard of the figure on the pavement, it certainly to which we cannot help at once per

appears that the lower part of this limb must

be of disproportionate length. If it be so, it "May it be suggested, though doubtfully and is a small blemish in a great work, easily cor. with deference, whether there is not an over- rected: if thoso more learned in technicalities sight in perspective, by which the left leg of of drawing decide that there is nothing wrong, the figure representing " Love" is made to an. 80 much the better.

would imply, to render them works dress of our countrywomen; he porof very high interest, as they are trays a certain type of girl, the style already of very solid and enduring of the figure, the sit of the dress, merit. Then there is Mr. A. Moore, to perfection : but why this type of another painter with a marked indi- girl always? That there are young viduality, whose principal contribu- women to be found, even among those tions here represent his peculiar who rank socially as “ladies," so qualities,-grace of form, very fine “ dressy,” so inanely handsome, so pert drawing, and most delicate comb'na- and essentially vulgar in expression, tions of colour in decorative drapery, we unfortunately know; that an artist

-in perfection; a perfection, how- desirous of painting “society” in ever, which has rather restricted England should perversely select this aims, and moves within narrow bounds. disagreeable type for illustration is Indeed, the artist has not apparently not altogether creditable either to his claimed in general to be more than a taste as an artist or his truthfulness as painter of the outward graces of elegant an illustrator. It would be hardly courfigure, and subtle tones of colour ; he teous to quit the Grosvenor Gallery generally gives his beautiful little works without a word for the fine portrait by some merely conventional distinctive Sir Coutts Lindsay himself, of Lady title, “pansies," "beads,” and so on. Lindsay; a full-length figure holding In the present case one figure holds a a violin; a work combining considerbook closed in the hand, and is en- able individuality in expression with titled The End of the Story: a title a rich, though not obtrusive, decorawhich rather unfortunately forces upon tive effect. The portrait of the same our attention the limits of his art. lady by Mr. Watts, apparently at a Such a title naturally excites our in- considerably earlier date, also apterest; we expect to see in the ex- pears; a portrait full of life and pression of the figure something that energy, and very fine in colour. Sculpmay suggest to our imagination the ture is but scantily represented. Mr. nature of the story and of its effect Maclean's lone (presumably the heroine on the reader. But Mr. Moore gives of The Last Days of Pompeii) has fine us nothing of this. His figure is a qualities, and is in a pure and sculpgraceful woman, charmingly draped, turesque style: and we cannot but and she holds a book; but that is all contrast the advantageous circumthat he tells us. The larger figure, stances under which such a figure is Sapphires, is evidently finished con seen here, in the midst of a large and amore, and is so perfect in its delicate handsomely furnished room, with the physical charm of contour and colour as conditions under which sculpture is to tempt us for the moment to forget exhibited at the Academy rooms. The that we may tire of an art, however little sculpture gallery at the Grosvenor lovely, which makes little appeal to rooms is unfortunately too narrow, but the intellect and none to the emotions. here also the conditions of sculptural

Of the collection in the smaller room effect, in regard to lighting and accesthere is not much to suggest special sories, have been kept in view. comment, except the fact that a The comparative absence of landusually very realistic French painter scape from the collection is a deficiency of modern English society has sud- to be regretted. The paintings of this denly taken to allegory, and that it class are few in number, and no one is to be earnestly hoped he will find of them can be said to be really out his mistake before going any fur- important. But landscape is so pecuther with it. As to his portrayal of liarly the modern form of the art, the English “ Meess," M. Tissot has at that in which the greatest things least got over the prejudice of his have been accomplished almost within countrymen in regard to the looks and the present generation, that no exhi

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bition of contemporary painting can vacy? we are gravely rebuked, and be thought at all complete which does asked on what principle an artist is not adequately represent what is being bound to make public his work at all. aimed at and accomplished in land- To which the simple answer is that scape painting.

all genuine and robust human genius If the Grosvenor Gallery can be seeks the light of day; craves, in made to realise the object which has obedience to what in lofty irony has been professed, of providing an annual been defined for all time as "that last exhibition of high-class pictures only, infirmity of noble minds,” for the sufarranged effectively and without crowd- frage of mankind, for the “applause ing, it will be an inestimable boon. We and universal shout” which stir the hve far too many promiscuous exhi- blood and confirm the hopes of him bitions for real enjoyment, and the sense gets absolutely wearied with

“Who thinks he hath done well in people's ranging over the waste of commonplaces among which the good things From one point of view, therefore, it at Burlington House are disposed. It is a step in the right direction, that cannot be said that common place, and some of these specialists in painting even worse, is unrepresented in the have in this case come out of their first exhibition at the Grosvenor concealment and appealed to a more Gallery. Dire things are to be found public verdict : and it is much to be there, but the principal gallery is regretted, in the real interests of art, kept fairly clear of them; and even that one remarkable painter whose the eccentricities which figure there praise is loud on the lips of those who have some aim beyond that of painting are admitted to familiarity with his the first thing that comes to hand, works, should not have availed himself “ because they find it so, and like it of the same opportunity : for most assomehow," which has been said to be suredly it is only in the great air of specially characteristic of English life that a great and healthy art can artists. But it is impossible to over- grow and tourish. Only let it be look the presence of an element of urged that this very end would be eccentricity, the prominence given to defeated if the new exhibition were to types of painting which form the be made a field for the especial display special cultus of small groups of wor- of artistic eccentricities, however brilshippers who offer up a blind admira- liant; and that if the Grosvenor Gallery tion, each to their own special high is to hold the position and exercise the priest. There is far too much at pre- healthy influence on contemporary sent of this private clique spirit in painting which has been professed connection with painting in England. and hoped for, it must be by promoting An artist declines public notice, and the art which app als to the widest shows his productions only as a special sympathies and culture of the edufavour to a special circle, who kiss the cated world, rather than by enabling hem of his garment and see nothing certain limited circles of dilettanti to but perfection in his work; and if we indulge each in its favourite flavour inquire, why this mystery and pri- of caviare.

H. HEATHCOTE STATHAM,

119

COLONIA CAMULODUNUM.'

The history of the town in which we are now met, as far as it concerns the general history of the island, belongs mainly to three distinct periods; and, in two of these, Colchester, placed as it is in the extreme east end of the island has a singular historical connexion with events which went on at the same time in the western parts of the island. In strictly English history, the time when Colchester plays its really most important part is in the tenth and eleventh centuries. But on the surface of history, as history is commonly written, the name of Colchester stands out in greater prominence at an earlier and at a later date, in the first century of our æra and in the seventeeth. To most minds Colchester will be the town which was overthrown by Boadicea, and which was taken by Fairfax. The events of the intermediate age have had more direct bearings on the real destinies of the English kingdom and nation ; but it is the earlier and later dates which have most firmly fixed themselves in popular memory. And, both at the earlier and at the later date, there is a singular historical connexion between Colchester and the land in which it stands, and a widely distant part of Britain. It seems a wide step indeed from the land of the Silures to the land of the Trinobantes, from Mor. ganwg to Essex, from British Cardiff to Saxon Colchester. And yet there are points of connexion between the two lards and the two spots. Colches ter has in its earlier days a privilege

which is shared by no other city or borough of England. The first beginvings of its history are not to be found in British legend or in English annals ; they are recorded by the pen of the greatest historian of Rome. It is in the pages of Tacitus hiniself that we read of the foundation of that veteran colony which, swept away in its first childhood by the revolted Briton, rose again to life, first to be emphatically the Colony of Rome, and to become in after days the fortress which the men of the East-Saxon land wrested by their own swords from the grasp of the invading Dane. But, in the very page in which he records the beginnings of the Trinobantine colony, be brings that colony, into a strange, and at first sight puzzling, connexion with movements in the far Silurian land. Later on in his Annals, he has to record the overthrow of the new-born colony, the first of all the sieges of Colchester. His narrative of that stage of British affairs brings in in its first clause a name which, in legend at least if not in history, is held to be preserved in the name of the greatest fortress of Morganwg. Before Tacitus can tell us how much Suetonius did in the east of Britain, he has first to tell us how little Didius had done in the west. Now this same Didius is, at least by a legendary etymology, said to have given his name to Caerdydd, the fortress of Didius, as a more certain etymology sees, in the name of the town where we are met, the name of the fortress of the Colony. If then there be any truth in the popular etymology of Cardiff, the beginnings of Cardiff and of Colchester must be dated from nearly the same time. And, even without trusting too much to

* Read at the opening of the Historical Section of the Archæological Institute at Colchester, August 1st, 1876. Some of the purely personal and local references have been cut short.

80 doubtful a legend, we at least find the land of the Silures and the land of the Trinobantes brought close together in our earliest glimpse of both. The foundation of a Roman colony in the east, is directly connected in the narrative of Tacitus with patriotic movements in the west. Alike in the days of Boadicea and in the days of Fairfax, warfare in the Silurian and in the Trinobantine land has to be recorded in the same page. In the royalist revolt of which the fall of Colchester was the last stage, no part of the island took a greater share than the land to check whose earliest revolt Colchester was first founded. When the royal standard was again unfurled at Colchester, it had but lately been hauled down at Chepstow; it was still floating over Pembroke. And one of the fortresses of the land of Mor. ganwg, one of the lowlier castles which surround the proud mound and keep of Robert Fitzhanon, saw perhaps the last encounter in that last stage of the civil war which even local imagination can venture to dignify with the name of battle. The fight of St. Fagans does not rank in English history along with the fights of Marston and Naseby : and the siege of Colchester, with all its deep interest, military, local, and personal, can hardly, in its real bearing on English history, be placed on à level with the siege of Bristol. Yet the siege of Colchester and the war in South Wales were parts of one last and hopeless struggle. The remembrance of its leaguers and skirmishes lives in local memory there as keenly as the last siege of Colchester lives in local memory here. And if the name of Fairfax may be bracketed in the East with the name of Suetonius Paullinus, in the West the name of Oliver Cromwell has left but small room for the memory of Aulus Didius.

Throughout the earliest stage of the history of the two districts their historical connexion is as clear as it is strange. I am not going bere to give a complete history of Colchester or of Essex, or to dispute at large on any minute

points of controversy. I presume however that I may at least assume that Camulodunum is Colchester and not any other place, in the kingdom of the East-Saxons or out of it. I feel sure that, if I had any mind so to do, my East-Saxon hearers wonld not allow me to carry the Colony of the Veterans up to Malton in Yorkshire ; and I certainly cannot find any safe or direct road to guide them thither. I trust too that there may be no civil war in the East-Saxon camp, that no one may seek to wile away the veteran band from the banks of Colne to the banks of Panta. Maldon has its own glories : its name lives for ever in the noblest of the battle-songs of England; but I at least can listen to no etymologies which strive to give a Roman origin to its purely English name. Let more minute philologers than I am explain the exact force of the first syllable alike in Northumbrian Malton and in East-Saxon Maldon. Both cannot be contractions of Camulodunum ; what one is the other must surely be ; one is the town, the other the hill, of whatever the syllable common to both may be taken to be. I at least feel no doubt that it is the town in which we are now met which has the unique privilege of having its earliest days recorded by the hand of Tacitus.

But if it is Tacitus who records the foundation of the colony, it is not in wbat is left to us of his pages that we find our first mention of the name of Camulodunum. That unlucky gap in his writings, which every scholar has to lament, sends us for the first surviving appearance of the name to the later, but far from contemptible, narrative of Dio. Claudius crossed into Britain, and went as far as Camulodunum, the royal dwelling place of Cynobellinus. That royal dwellingplace he took, and, on the strength of that and of the other events of his short campaign in the island which men looked on as another world, he enlarged the pomoerium of Rome and brought the Aventine within the sacred precinct.

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