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Whether the royal dwelling-place of Cynobellinus stood on the site wbich was 80 soon to become the Roman colony, I do not profess to determine. The Roman town often arose on a spot near to but not actually on the British site. Roman Dorchester-if any trace of it be left looked up on the forsaken hill-fort of the Briton on Sinodun. Roman Lindum came nearer to the brink of its steep hill than the British settlement which it supplanted. I do not pretend to rule what may be the date or purpose of the earthworks at Lexden. All that I ask is that I may not be constrained to believe in King Coel's kitchen. But wherever the British settlement was, I cannot bring myself to believe that the site of the colony was other than the site of the present town. It was a site well suited for a military post, fixed on a height which, in this flatter eastern land, is not to be despised ; it approaches in some faint measure to the peninsular position of Shrewsbury, Bern, and Besançon. On this site then the Colony of Veterans was founded while Claudius still reigned. When he had taken his place among the gods-Seneca to be sure had another name for the change in him—the temple of the deified con queror arose within the site which the Roman occupied to hold down the conquered people. And now comes the difficulty, the strange relation in which two such distant parts of Britain as Camulodunum and the land of the Silures appear in the narrative of Tacitus. The Iceni are subdued ; the Cangi have their lands harried; the Brigantes submit. But in the East and in the West, by the banks of the eastern and of the western Colne, another spirit reigns. The Silures, the people of Caradoc, still hold out. Neither gentle
' It has been suggested that the extensive earthworks to be seen at Lexden are part of a system which took in the site both of an older and a later Camulodunum, a system belonging to the time of British resistance to Teutonic invasions. They would be a defence raised against the East-Saxons, as Wareham and Wallingford are defences raised against the West-Saxons.
dess nor sternness will move them ; nothing short of regular warfare, regular establishment of legionary camps, can bow those stubborn necks to the yoke. With a view to this warfare in the West, the Colony of Veterans is planted in the East. Some have therefore carried Camulodunum elsewhere-though assuredly matters are not much mended by carrying it into Yorkshire-others, more daring still, have sought to depreciate the authority of Tacitus himself. But, as I read the passage, though the connexion is perbaps a little startling, though the wording is perhaps a little barah, the general meaning seems plain. In order that the legions and their camps might be more easily established among the threatening Silures, a feebler defence was provided for the conquered Trinobantes. As I understand the terse phrases of the historian, the legions were removed from the East for the war with Caradoc, and a colony of veterans Was thought enough to occupy a land where little danger was feared. How little danger was feared, how thoroughly the land was held to be subdued, appears from the defenceless state of the colony eleven years after. The colonists lived at their ease, as if in expectation of unbroken peace. The town was unwalled; the only citadel, the “arx æternæ dominationis," was the temple of the deified conqueror. The mission of the veterans was less to fight than to civilize their barbarian neighbours. They were sent there indeed as “subsidium adversus rebelles" ; but they were sent there also “imbuendis sociis ad officia legum.” Sterner work than this had to be done among the hills where Caradoc was in arms; but those who founded the unwalled colony hardly dreamed that, before long, work no less stern was to be done there also. They little dreamed what feats of arms were to be done upon the Roman as well as by him, in the land which they bad deemed so thoroughly their own that its capital hardly needed warlike defences against an enemy.
For eleven years the colonists lived a
merry life, the life of conquerors settled upon the lands of their victims. The dominion of law which the veterans set up at Camulodunum did not hinder the conquering race from seizing the lands and houses of the natives, and insulting them with the scornful names of slaves and captives. Such doings are not peculiar to the dominion of the Roman; but it does say something for the Roman, as distinguished from the oppressors of our own day, that it is from a Roman historian that we learn the evil deeds of his country men. Tacitus neither conceals nor palliates the wrongs which led to the revolt of eastern Britain, as wrongs of the same kind still lead to revolts before our own eyes, as they always will lead to revolts as long as such deeds continue to be done. Crime was avenged by crime, as crime ever will be avenged, till men unlearn that harsh rule which excuses the wanton oppression of the tyrant and bids men lift up their hands in holy horror when his deeds are returned on himself in kind. Fearful indeed was the vengeance of the revolted Briton : but when he used the cross, the stake, the flame, against his oppressors, he was but turning their own instruments of civilization against themselves.
The tale is one of the most familiar, one of the most stirring, in that history of the former possessors of our island which so often passes for the history of ourselves. We see the British heroine, as we night now see zome matron of Bosnia or Bulgaria, calling on the men of her race to avenge her own stripes, her outraged daughters, the plundered homes of the chiefs of her people, the kinsfolk of their king dealt with as the bondmen of the stranger. But we are concerned with Boadicea, her wrongs and her vengeance, only as they concerned the Colony of Veterans at Camulodunum. The tale is told with an Homeric wealth of omen and of prodigy. The statue of Victory fell backwards; strange sounds were beard in the theatre and in the senate-house ; frantic women
sang aloud that the end was come. The men of the defenceless colony, and the small handful of helpers sent by Catus Decianus, guarded by no ditch or rampart, defended the temple of Claudius for two days till town and temple sank before the assaults of the avengers. So the first Camulodunum fell, in one mighty flame of sacritice, along with the two other great settlements of the Roman on British ground. London, not adorned like Camulodunum with colonial rank, but already the city of ships, the place where, as in after days, the merchants of the earth were gathered, fell along with the veteran colony. So too fell Verulam, doomed again to arise, again to fall, and to supply out of its ruins the materials for the vastest of surviving English minsters. All fell, as though the power of Rome beyond the ocean was for ever broken. But their fall was but for a moment; the sword of Suetonius won back eastern Britain to the bondage and the slumber of the Roman Peace. The towns that the Britain had burned and harried again arose : a new colony of Camulodunum, this time fenced in with all the skill of Roman engineering, again grew up. It grew up to live on through four unrecorded centuries, carefully marked in maps and Itineraries, but waiting for a second place in history till the days when Roman and Briton had passed away, when the Saxon Shore had becoine a Saxon shore in another sense from that in which it bears that name in the Domesday of the tottering Empire.
The Roman then passed away from the Colony of Veterans, as he passed away from the rest of Britain. But in the Colony of Veterans he left both his works and his memory behind him. When I say that he left his works, do not fancy that I mean that he left the temple of Claudius behind him. On the grotesque delusion which mistook a Norman castle for a Roman temple I might not have thought it needful to waste a word. Only, when I was last at Colchester, I saw, written up in the castle itself, such names as
“Adytum," “ Podium,” and the like, Lincoln nor Exeter, nor even Chester, implying that there was still somebody can boast of being still girded by her in Colchester who believed the story. Roman walls in anything like the same Perhaps there was also somebody who perfection in which Colchester is. Nobelieved that the earth was flat, and where else in Britain, save in fallen that the sun was only a few miles from Anderida and Calleva, have I ever seen it. The scientific antiquary will give the line of the old defences so thoroughly exactly as much attention to the one complete. But unluckily it is the line doctrine as the scientific astronomer only. While the circuit of the walls is will give to the other. Of the two so much more perfect than at York and stories I should be more inclined to Lincoln, the fragments which still rebelieve in old King Coel, in his fiddlers, main at York and Lincoln have kept and even in his kitchen. Yet I have much more of their ancient masonry come too lately from the Illyrian land, than can be found at Colchester. Still my mind is too full both of its past and Colchester can show far more than can of its present history, to let me believe be seen at Chester, where, though the that Helen the mother of Constantine Roman lines are all but as perfectly was the daughter of Coel of Colchester. followed by the later defences, little is The strange likeness between the names left of the actual Roman wall beyond its of the river and the settlement, between foundations. As the abidiog wall of a the Colne and the Colony, accidental still inhabited town, the Roman wall of as it doubtless is, is, if not a puzzle, at Colchester is, I repeat, unique in Britain. least a coincidence. But King Coel And a Roman wall I do not scruple to will be at once sent by the comparative call it. In so calling it, I am far from nythologist to the same quarters as meaning to rule that the whole circuit Hellên and Romulus and Francus the of the existing wall actually dates from son of Hector. Saint Helen, says Henry the time of Roman occupation. I have of Huntingdon, surrounded Colchester no doubt that the lines are the Roman with walls. So she did many things at lines; I have no doubt that part of the Trier which the last and most scientific wall is the actual Roman wall. But I historian of Trier is pulling to pieces in have just as little doubt that it has been a way which must grievously shock in many places patched and rebuilt over some of his brethren. I trust then that and over again ; one great time above I shall not shock any body in Colchester all of patching and rebuilding is reby disbelieving in old King Coel. I corded in the days of Eadward the do not think that I shocked anybody in Unconquered. But the wall has a Exeter by declining to believe that, higher historic interest, it becomes a when Vespasian marched off to besiege more living witness of Roman influence, Jerusalem, it was because he was bent from the very fact that much of it is upon taking some city, and had found not actually of Roman date. This very Exeter too strong for him.
fact shows, far more clearly, far more But the walls are there, whoever strikingly, how the arts and the memory built them, the walls which, at some of Rome lived on. Whatever be the date between the invasion of Boadicea date of any part of the walls, they are and the invasion of the first East-Saxon Roman; they are built more Romano. settlers, were raised to shelter the It is at Colchester as it is at Trier, as it Colony. And even the legend of Helen is at Perigueux, as it is in a crowd of may be taken as pointing to the age of other places where the influence of RoConstantius and Constantine as the man models had struck deep. In places most likely time for their building. of this kind the Roman construction Those walls are, as far as I bave lived on for ages. Here in Colchester seen, unique among the inhabited we have actual bricks of Roman date towns of Britain. Neither York nor in the places where the Roman engineer laid them. We have bricks of Roman the sense in which the walls of Rome date used up again in the construction are the walls of Aurelian. of later buildings. And we have bricks, We come then to a time when the not of Roman date but of thoroughly walls of the Colony were still standing, Roman character, made afresh at all but when the legions of Rome were times at least down to the fifteenth no longer marshalled to defend them. century. Here, where brick and timber Was there ever a time when those walls were of vecessity the chief materials stood, as the walls of Bath and Chester for building, the Roman left his mark once stood, as the walls of Anderida and upon the bricks as in some other parts Calleva still stand, with no dwelling of Britain he left his mark upon the place of men within them? That quesstones. Northern England reproduced tion I will not undertake to answer. I the vast stones of the Roman wall in a think I remember that, in one of his crowd of buildings built more Romano, scattered papers and lectures—when with masonry of massive stones. With will they come together to make tbe such stones again, no less more Romano, History of the English Conquest of Bridid Æthelstan rebuild the walls of tain A--the great master of those times, Exeter. Here at Colchester Roman the discoverer of early English history, models were no less faithfully followed; told us that of all the towns of England but here the mos Romanus naturally there was none more likely than Coltook the form of brick, and to build chester to have been continuously more Romano meant to build with brick inhabited through British, Roman, and not with stone. It meant to build British, and English days. If I am with bricks, either taken from some right in thinking that Dr. Guest said Roman building or cast in close imita- this, he doubtless had some weighty tion of those which the Roman build reason for saying it. I have not myself ings supplied. In this sense the castle lighted on any direct evidence either for of Eudo Dapifer may be called a Ro- or against such a proposition. It is man building. So may the one tower only in a very few cases that we have of Primitive Romanesque to be found in any direct evidence as to the fate of this Colchester, which, while other towers or that particular town during the proof its type are of stone, reproduces in gress of the English Conquest. And material as well as in form the campa- of the circumstances under which the niles of Italy. So may Saint Botolfs kingdom of the East-Saxons came into priory, second only to Saint Albans being, we know absolutely nothing. Tbe as an instance of Roman materials, Chronicles are silent; no legend, no not so much taugbt to assume new fragment of ancient song, is preserved to shapes, as brought back to their true us by Henry of Huntingdon. We have Roman use before Italy began her imi. nothing but a dry list of princes, and tation of the arts of Greece. But the that given, as might seem at first sight, walls are Roman in a yet stricter sense in two contradictory forms. We hear of than any of the other buildings around Æscwine as the first founder of the Eastthem. They are the old walls of the Saxon settlement; we find his remote Colony, in many places patched, in descendant Sleda spoken of as the first some, we may believe, actually rebuilt. East-Saxon king. In this I see no conBut they have undergone no change tradiction. The story of the growth of which at all destroys their personal Essex is doubtless much the same as the identity. The wall is not an imitation, story of the growth of East-Anglia and of a reproduction, of a Roman wall; it is the two Northumbrian kingdoms. Sevethe Roman wall itself, with such repairs, ral scattered Teutonic settlements were however extensive, as the effects of time gradually united under a mure powerful and of warfare have made needful. The chief; he then deemed himself great walls of Colchester are Roman walls in enough, as the head of a nation and
no longer the head of a mere tribe, is awkward to say that the likeness of to take upon himself the kingly title. the name of the colony and of the river Such was Ida in Bernicia; such, we is purely accidental: it would be more may believe, was Sleda in Essex, awkward still to hint that the river may But we have no trustworthy details have taken its name from the colony. But of the East-Saxons and their kings the colony is a fact; the retention of its till their conversion to Christianity in name is a fact; and, in the face of those the beginning of the seventh century. facts, all that I can do is to leave the We have no trustworthy mention of river to shift for itself. the town of Colchester till the wars It seems likely then that, whether of Eadward the Unconquered in the Colchester was or was not continuously tenth. All that we can say is that the inhabited through all the revolutions of Colony on the Colne, like the Colony on the fifth and sixth centuries, its time of the Rhine, keptits name. One was Colonia desolation, if it had any, was but short. Camulodunum; one was Colonia Agrip- If it did not become the dwelling-place pina; but Colonia was name enough of Englishmen in the first moment of to distinguish either. Latin Colonia their conquest, it at least became the became British Caer Collun ; and Caer dwelling-place of English men before its Collun appears in every list as one of British and Roman memories were forthe great cities of Britain. British gotten. But, as I just now said, of ColCaer Collun passed into English Colne- chester itself there is absolutely no ceaster, with no change beyond that mention in history between the days of which the genius of the British and Boadicea to the days of Eadward the English languages demanded. In Elder. All that I can find is a dark and British and in English alike it re- mythical reference in the story of Havemains the city of the colony. From loc as told by Geoffrey Gaimar. But this preservation of the name I argue, we must not forget, even within the as I have argued in the case of walls of the colony, that Colchester is the one English city whose name ends not the whole of the East-Saxon realm. with the title with which the name of Colchester is not a city: it has never Colchester begins, the sister colony of been the seat of an independent bishopLindum,' that, if Camulodunum ever ric. That was because another of the was, like Deva, “a waste chester" it was Roman towns which was overthrown only for a very short time. I inferred by Boadicea, lowlier in rank in those from the fact that Lindum Colonia early days, had, by the time that the kept its name in the form of English East-Saxons embraced Christianity, outLincoln, that, if Lindum Colonia ever stripped the veteran colony. London, lay in the state of a waste chester, it was already the home of commerce before her but for a very short time. It was settled first overthrow—again, under her new again and named again while the memory name of Augusta, the home of commerce of its old name and its old rank were in the later days of Roman power--was still fresh. And I make the same infer- now, as an East-Saxon city, the head of ence in the case of Colchester, though the East-Saxon realm, again the home of with one degree less of certainty, because commerce, the meeting-place of merI must stand ready to have it thrown in chants and their ships. London, not my teeth that the town is called, not Colchester, became the seat of the from the Roman colony, but from the bishopric of the East-Saxons, and reriver Colre. Here is a point on which mained so till the strange arrangements each man must judge for bimself. I of modern ecclesiastical geography gave cannot get over the succession of Colonia, Colchester a shepherd in the realm of Caer Collun, Colneceaster. I feel that it Hengest. But the very greatness which
i See Macmillan's Magazine, August 1875. made London the head of the EastArt " Lindum Colonia.”
Saxon kingdom tended to part London