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Whether the royal dwelling-place of nor sternness will move them ; Cynobellinus stood on the site which was nothing short of regular warfare, regular 80 soon to become the Roman colony, I establishment of legionary camps, cau do not profess to determine. The Roman bow those stubborn necks to the yoke. town often arose on a spot near to but With a view to this warfare in the West, not actually on the British site. Roman the Colony of Veterans is planted in Dorchester-jf any trace of it be left- the East. Some have therefore carried looked up on the forsaken hill-fort of Camulodunum elsewhere—though assurthe Briton on Sinodun. Roman Lindum edly matters are not much mended by came nearer to the brink of its steep carrying it into Yorkshire-others, more hill than the British settlement which daring still, have sought to depreciate it supplanted. I do not pretend to rule the authority of Tacitus himself. But, what may be the date or purpose of the as I read the passage, though the conearthworks at Lexden. All that I ask is nexion is perbaps a little startling, that I may not be constrained to believe though the wording is perhaps a little in King Coel's kitchen. But wherever harsh, the general meaning seems plain, the British settlement was, I cannot In order that the legions and their bring myself to believe that the site camps might be more easily established of the colony was other than the site among the threatening Silures, a feebler of the present town.

defence was provided for the conquered well suited for a military post, fixed on

Trinobantes. As I understand the terse a height which, in this flatter eastern phrases of the historian, the legions were land, is not to be despised ; it ap- removed from the East for the war with proaches in some faint measure to the Caradoc, and a colony of veterans was peninsular position of Shrewsbury, Bern, thought enough to occupy a land where and Besançon. On this site then the Colony little danger was feared. How little of Veterans was founded while Claudius danger was feared, how thoroughly the still reigned. When he bad taken his land was held to be subdued, appears place among the gods—Seneca to be from the defenceless state of the colony sure had another name for the change eleven years after. The colonists lived in him—the temple of the deified con at their ease, as if in expectation of queror arose within the site which the

unbroken peace.

The town was unRoman occupied to hold down the con- walled; the only citadel, the “arx quered people.

And now comes the æternæ dominationis," was the temple difficulty, the strange relation in which of the deified conqueror. The mission two such distant parts of Britain as of the veterans was less to fight than Camulodunum and the land of the to civilize their barbarian neighbours. Silures appear in the narrative of They were sent there indeed as “subTacitus. The Iceni are subdued ; the sidium adversus rebelles" ; but they Cangi have their lands harried; the were sent there also “imbuendis sociis Brigantes submit. But in the East and ad officia legum.” Sterner work than in the West, by the banks of the eastern this had to be done among the hills and of the western Colne, another spirit where Caradoc was in arms; but those reigns. The Silures, the people of who founded the unwalled colony hardly Caradoc, still hold out. Neither gentle- dreamed that, before long, work no less

stern was to be done there also. They It has been suggested that the extensive

little dreamed what feats of arms were to earthworks to be seen at Lexden are part of a system which took in the site both of an older

be done upon the Roman as well as by and a later Camulodunum, a system belonging him, in the land which they bad deemed to the time of British resistance to Teutonic so thoroughly their own that its capital invasions. They would be a defence raised

hardly needed warlike defences against against the East-Saxons, as Wareham and Wallingford are defences raised against the

an enemy. West-Saxons.

For eleven years the colonists lived a

merry life, the life of conquerors settled sang aloud that the end was come. The upon the lands of their victims. The men of the defenceless colony, and the dominion of law which the veterans small handful of helpers sent by Catus set up at Camulodunum did not hinder Decianus, guarded by no ditch or ramthe conquering race from seizing the part, defended the temple of Claudius lands and houses of the natives, and for two days till town and temple sank insulting them with the scornful names before the assaults of the avengers. So the of slaves and captives. Such doings first Camulodunum fell, in one mighty are not peculiar to the dominion of the flame of sacritice, along with the two Roman; but it does say something for other great settlements of the Roman the Roman, as distinguished from the on British ground. London, not adorned oppressors of our own day, that it is like Camulodunum with colonial tank, from a Roman historian that we learn but already the city of ships, the place the evil deeds of his countrymen. where, as in after days, the merchants Tacitus neither conceals nor palliates of the earth were gathered, fell along the wrongs which led to the revolt of with the veteran colony. So too fell eastern Britain, as wrongs of the same Verulam, doomed again to arise, again kind still lead to revolts before our own to fall, and to supply out of its ruins eyes, as they always will lead to revolts the materials for the vastest of surviving as long as such deeds continue to be English minsters. All fell, as though the done. Crime was avenged by crime, as power of Rome beyond the ocean was for crime ever will be avenged, till men ever broken. But their fall was but for unlearn that harsh rule which excuses a moment ; the sword of Suetonius won the wanton oppression of the tyrant back eastern Britain to the bondage and and bids njen lift up their hands in the slumber of the Roman Peace. The huly horror when his deeds are returned towns that the Britain had burned and on bimself in kind. Fearful indeed was harried again arose :

a new colony of the vengeance of the revolted Briton : Camulodunum, this time fenced in with but when he used the cross, the all the skill of Roman engineering, stake, the flame, against his oppres- aguin grew up. It grew up to live sors, he was but turning their own on through four unrecorded centuries, instruments of civilization against them- carefully marked in maps and Itineselves.

raries, but waiting for a second place The tale is one of the most familiar, in history till the days when Roman one of the most stirring, in that history and Briton had passed away, when the of the former possessors of our island Saxon Shore had become a Saxcn shore which so often passes for the history of in another sense from that in which it ourselves. We see the British heroine, bears that name in the Domesday of as we might now see some matron of the tottering Empire. Bosnia or Bulgaria, calling on the men The Roman then passed away from of her race to avenge her own stripes, the Colony of Veterans, as he passed her outraged daughters, the plundered away from the rest of Britain. But in homes of the chiefs of her people, the the Colony of Veterans he left both kinsfolk of their king dealt with as the his works and his memory behind him. bondmen of the stranger. But we are When I say that ho left his works, do concerned with Boadicea, her wrongs not fancy that I mean that he left the and her vengeance, only as they con- temple of Claudius behind him. On cerned the Colony of Veterans at Camu- the grotesque delusion which mistook lodunum. The tale is told with an a Norman castle for a Roman temple Homeric wealth of omen and of prodigy. I might not have thought it needful The statue of Victory fell backwards ; to waste a word. Only, when I was strange sounds were heard in the theatre last at Colchester, I


written up and in the senate-house; frantic women in the castle itself, such names


“Adytum," "Podium," and the like, Lincoln nor Exeter, nor even Chester, implying that there was still somebody can boast of being still girded by her in Colchester who believed the story. Roman walls in anything like the same Perhaps there was also somebody who perfection in which Colchester is. No believed that the earth was flat, and where else in Britain, save in fallen that the sun was only a few miles from Anderida and Calleva, have I ever seen it. The scientific antiquary will give the line of the old defences so thoroughly exactly as much attention to the one complete. But unluckily it is the line doctrine as the scientific astronomer only. While the circuit of the walls is will give to the other. Of the two so much more perfect than at York and stories I should be more inclined to Lincoln, the fragments which still re believe in old King Coel, in his fiddlers, main at York and Lincoln have kept and even in bis kitchen. Yet I have much more of their ancient masonry come too lately from the Illyrian land, than can be found at Colchester. Still ny mind is too full both of its past and Colchester can show far more than can of its present history, to let me believe be seen at Chester, where, though the that Helen the mother of Constantino Roman lines are all but as perfectly was the daughter of Coel of Colchester. followed by the later defences, little is The strange likeness between the names left of the actual Roman wall beyond its of the river and the settlement, between foundations. As the abiding wall of a the Colne and the Colony, accidental still inhabited town, the Roman wall of as it doubtless is, is, if not a puzzle, at Colchester is, I repeat, unique in Britain. least a coincidence. But King Coel And a Roman wall I do not scruple to will be at once sent by the comparative call it. In so calling it, I am far from mythologist to the same quarters as meaning to rule that the whole circuit Hellen and Romulus and Francus the of the existing wall actually dates from son of Hector. Saint Helen, says Henry the time of Roman occupation. I have of Huntingdon, surrounded Colchester no doubt that the lines are the Roman with walls. So she did many things at lines; I have no doubt that part of the Trier which the last and most scientific wall is the actual Roman wall. But I historian of Trier is pulling to pieces in have just as little doubt that it has been a way which must grievously shock in many places patched and rebuilt over some of his brethren. I trust then that and over again ; one great time above I shall not shock any body in Colchester all of patching and rebuilding is reby disbelieving in old King Coel. I corded in the days of Eadward the do not think that I shocked anybody in Unconquered. But the wall has a Exeter by decliving to believe that, higher historic interest, it becomes a when Vespasian marched off to besiege more living witness of Roman influence, Jerusalem, it was because he was bent from the very fact that much of it is upon taking some city, and had found not actually of Roman date. This very Exeter too strong for him.

fact shows, far more clearly, far more But the walls are there, whoever strikingly, how the arts and the memory built them, the walls which, at some

of Rome lived on. Whatever be the date between the invasion of Boadicea date of any part of the walls, they are and the invasion of the first East-Saxon Roman; they are built more Romano. settlers, were raised to shelter the It is at Colchester as it is at Trier, as it Colony. And even the legend of Helen is at Perigueux, as it is in a crowd of may be taken as pointing to the age of other places where the influence of RoCoustantius and Constantine as the man models had struck deep. In places most likely time for their building. of this kind the Roman construction Those walls are, as far as I have lived on for ages. Here in Colchester seen, unique among the inhabited we have actual bricks of Roman date towns of Britain. Neither York nor in the places where the Roman engineer laid them. We have bricks of Roman the sense in which the walls of Rome date used up again in the construction are the walls of Aurelian. of later buildings. Aud we have bricks, We come then to a time when the not of Roman date but of thoroughly walls of the Colony were still standing, Roman character, made afresh at all but when the legions of Rome were times at least down to the fifteenth no longer marshalled to defend them. century. Here, where brick and timber Was there ever a time when those walls were of vecessity the chief materials stood, as the walls of Bath and Chester for building, the Roman left his mark once stood, as the walls of Anderida and upon the bricks as in some other parts Calleva still stand, with no dwelling of Britain he left his mark upon the place of men within them? That quesstones. Northern England reproduced tion I will not undertake to answer. I the vast stones of the Roman wall in a think I remember that, in one of his crowd of buildings built more Romano, scattered papers and lectures—when with masonry of massive stones. With will they come together to make tbe such stones again, no less more Romano, History of the English Conquest of Bridid Æthelstan rebuild the walls of tain k-the great master of those times, Exeter. Here at Colchester Roman the discoverer of early English history, models were no less faithfully followed ; told us that of all the towns of England but here the mos Romanus naturally there was none more likely than Coltook the form of brick, and to build chester to have been continuously more Romano meant to build with brick inhabited through British, Roman, and not with stone. It meant to build British, and English days. If I am with bricks, either taken from some right in thinking that Dr. Guest said Roman building or cast in close imita- this, he doubtless had some weighty tion of those which the Roman build- reason for saying it. I have not myself ings supplied. In this sense the castle lighted on any direct evidence either for of Eudo Dapifer may be called a Ro- or against such a proposition. It is man building. So may the one tower only in a very few cases that we have of Primitive Romanesque to be found in any direct evidence as to the fate of this Colchester, which, while other towers or that particular town during the proof its type are of stone, reproduces in gress of the English Conquest. And material as well as in form the campa- of the circumstances under which the niles of Italy. So may Saint Botolfs kingdom of the East-Saxons came into priory, second only to Saint Albans being, we know absolutely nothing. The as an instance of Roman materials, Chronicles are silent; no legend, no not so much taught to assume new fragment of ancient song, is preserved to shapes, as brought back to their true us by Henry of Huntingdon. We have Roman use before Italy began her imi- nothing but a dry list of princes, and tation of the arts of Greece. But the that given, as might seem at first sight, walls are Roman in a yet stricter sense in two contradictory forms. We hear of than any of the other buildings around Æscwine as the first founder of the Eastthem. They are the old walls of the Saxon settlement; we find his remote Colony, in many places patched, in descendant Sleda spoken of as the first some, we may believe, actually rebuilt. East-Saxon king. In this I see no conBut they have undergone no change tradiction. The story of the growth of which at all destroys their personal Essex is doubtless much the same as the identity. The wall is not an imitation, story of the growth of East-Anglia and of a reproduction, of a Roman wall; it is the two Northumbrian kingdoms. Sevethe Roman wall itself, with such repairs, ral scattered Teutonic settlements were however extensive, as the effects of time gradually united under a mure powerful and of warfare bave made needful. The chief; he then deemed himself great walls of Colchester are Roman walls in enough, as the head of a nation and no longer the head of a mere trihe, is awkward to say that the likeness of to take upon himself the kingly title. the name of the colony and of the river Such was Ida in 'Bernicia; such, we is purely accidental: it would be more may believe, was Sleda in Essex. awkward still to hint that the river may But we have no trustworthy details have taken its name from the colony. But of the East-Saxons and their kings the colony is a fact; the retention of its till their conversion to Christianity in name is a fact; and, in the face of those the beginning of the seventh century. facts, all that I can do is to leave the We have no trustworthy mention of river to shift for itself. the town of Colchester till the wars It seems likely then that, whether of Eadward the Unconquered in the Colchester was or was not continuously tenth. All that we can say is that the inhabited through all the revolutions of Colony on the Colne, like the Colony on the fifth and sixth centuries, its time of the Rhine, keptits name. One was Colonia desolation, if it had any, was but short. Camulodunum; one was Colonia Agrip- If it did not become the dwelling-place pina ; but Colonia was name enough of Englishmen in the first moment of to distinguish either. Latin Colonia their conquest, it at least became the became British Caer Collun ; and Caer dwelling-place of Englishmen before its Collun appears in every list as one of British and Roman memories were forthe great cities of Britain. British gotten. But, as I just now said, of ColCaer Collun passed into English Colne- chester itself there is absolutely no ceaster, with no change beyond that mention in history between the days of which the genius of the British and Boadicea to the days of Eadward the English languages demanded. In Elder. All that I can find is a dark and British and in English alike it re- mythical reference in the story of Havemains the city of the colony. From loc as told by Geoffrey Gaimar. But this preservation of the name I argue, we must not forget, even within the as I have argued in the of walls of the colony, that Colchester is the one English city whose name ends not the whole of the East-Saxon realm. with the title with which the name of Colchester is not a city : it has never Colchester begins, the sister colony of been the seat of an independent bishopLindum,' that, if Camulodunum ever ric. That was because another of the was, like Deva, “a waste chester" it was Roman towns which was overthrown only for a very short time. I inferred by Boadicea, lowlier in rank in those from the fact that Lindum Colonia early days, had, by the time that the kept its name in the form of English East-Saxons embraced Christianity, outLincoln, that, if Lindum Colonia ever stripped the veteran colony. London, lay in the state of a waste chester, it was already the home of commerce before her but for a very short time. It was settled first overthrow—again, under her new again and named again while the memory name of Augusta, the home of commerce of its old name and its old rank were in the later days of Roman power--was still fresh. And I make the same infer- now, as an East-Saxon city, the head of ence in the case of Colchester, though the East-Saxon realm, again the home of with one degree less of certainty, because commerce, the meeting-place of merI must stand ready to have it thrown in chants and their ships. London, not my teeth that the town is called, not Colchester, became the seat of the from the Roman colony, but from the bishopric of the East-Saxons, and reriver Colne. Here is a point on which mained so till the strange arrangements each man must judge for himself. I of modern ecclesiastical geography gave cannot get over the succession of Colonia, Colchester a shepherd in the realm of Caer Collun, Colneceaster. I feel that it Hengest. But the very greatness which i See Macmillan's Magazine, August 1875,

made London the head of the East Art " Lindum Colonia.”

Saxon kingdom tended to part London


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