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that controversy and was, as I think, exposed to view the entire structure signally discomfited.

of Roman brick. The “pointing" He begins with a thrice-told tale alluded to was simply to protect the about the tower having been “stripped decayed mortar-joints. I do not ask of its original plaster.” This has Mr. Loftie's opinion as to its necesbeen more than once fully explained, sity, he has no means of judgingbut is too good a stone to remain while I have. Whether the Roman unthrown. Mr. Loftie has, however, brick or the plastering which covered in the interval of fight, forgotten his it be the best looking, I leave to others; tale. It is clear that he now thinks but this being the largest structure in that it was internal plaster which was England of the Roman brick, the thus stripped, for he goes on to say interest attached to that material, and of the exterior of the tower that “ the the fact that the construction is now exquisite weathering of the old bricks' visible, at least make some amends for has been “rudely removed" and, again, the loss of its coating of mortar. that “there was a venerable bloom on the As a matter of taste, pure and bricks." Now, will it be believed simple, there is room for two opinions. that this “exquisite weathering" and Sir Edmund Beckett likes it, Mr. “ venerable bloom” are ascribed to Stevenson does not, and. while Mr. brickwork which I was the first Loftie is not quite sure what we have to expose to view, and which had done (whether plastering or unplasternever known what weather was since ing) he dislikes it, whatever it may

be. the days of Henry I., when the walls We find the editor of Mr. Murray's were coated with the mortar with Guide to St. Alban's Cathedral saying which my critic accuses me of having that “the tile-work, which is the great “ daubed” them“ everywhere”? I can feature of St. Alban's, is thus shown hardly be

blamed for destroying in its integrity, and the tower has beauties which existed in Mr. Loftie's infinitely gained in beauty of tone and brilliant imagination -- and nowhere

and nowhere colour," and the editor of his Handelse.

book to the Environs of London (Mr. The facts of the case are these: The Loftie's text-book for St. Michael's) tower, like the rest of the Norman saying that “lastly, to the great imstructure, was built of Roman bricks provement of its appearance, the refrom Verulam, and coated all over with maining cement was stripped from plastering. This plastering had often the exterior, the mortar repointed, and gone out of repair, and been patched the structural character fairly exposed again and again in a not very sightly to view.” manner. It was once more in bad order, Mr. Loftie next attacks the interior, and was falling off in large flakes when which he says has been "simply I was repairing the tower, so much so gutted.” By this he means that the that it was found necessary to remove pewing, galleries, &c., have been it, with the full intention of repeating removed. He omits, however, to give it. Here I suppose came in what he the reason for their removal. This alludes to as “ the wishes of the towns- was not done, in the first instance, with men,” for I recollect arguing against any notion about the incongruity of some one's wishes, and urging that the such fittings, but simply because the tower was always meant to be central tower, under or near which plastered. So far, however, was I most of them were placed, threatened from being “ led by them,” that I to fall, and the space occupied by them obstinately persisted in my own way, was imperatively required for the and began to replaster the walls, when timber shoring, excavations, and new on my next visit I was so horrified at foundations requisite to render it their hideousness, that I at once re

Mr. Loftie mentions the stripped my own plaster, and have “Georgian oak panelling.” Any one


who looks at Neale's view of the years. I know of no “Elizabethan" interior of the choir, will at once work or “traces of the Stuart period ” observe that this panelling inclosed earlier than Queen Anne's time. The the two eastern piers of the tower in pulpit will, no doubt, be retained. which the chief danger existed. How, I may add that Mr. Loftie speaks of then, let me ask, were these pillars the oak as “black with age.” He is to be repaired (one of them was not perhaps aware that oak does not crushed for seven feet deep into its sub- get black with age, but with oil and stance) without removing the panel- varnish. The “Watching Loft" is of ling? The same was the case with the far greater age than the work he adjoining walls of the presbytery. laments, but shows more disposition to One, at least, of them was crushed become white than black with age. throughout its length beneath the Mr. Loftie winds up his remarks casing of this “Georgian panelling.' on this most venerable building by How was it to be rendered safe while saying that “it would have been imthis remained ? It was as much as possible, three years ago, to believe we could do to save it at all. If the that it could be made to look so new panelling had remained the tower by any expenditure of thought or would probably not now be standing.

money." But,” it will be asked, “why not I write while fresh from St. Alban's, have refixed this panelling when the and I simply meet this statement by work was done ?" One reason why denying it. True, that where the tower was that it covered up on either piers have been repaired to save the side the ancient doorways into the building from destruction their new presbytery, the beautiful tabernacle- plastering necessarily “looks new." work over which had been ruthlessly True, that where stone details of hewn down, probably to make way windows had so perished that it had for it. New openings had been rudely for many years been thought hopeless cut through the walls to the eastward to glaze them, the renewal or repair of these, and it became necessary to of such portions must necessarily look security that these should be solidly in part new. True, that where dirt walled up, and consequently that the has given place to cleanness, it may older ones should be re-opened just look newer for the operation, just as where the wainscoting was.

But any other building, when repaired, "why not refix the old pewing, gal- looks fresher than before. But I leries, &c. ?Our work had been assert that not only the real antiquity, begun for the safety of the building, but the old look of the building has but it had

grown into restoration. been thoroughly respected. WhereA bishopric was hoped for and then ever the whitewash is scraped off old promised. The galleries, &c., had paintings and inscriptions appear ; already partly disappeared before we and, contrary to what is usual, began, and the organ shown at the where stonework is divested of its west end of the choir in Neale's whitewash, its darker colour gives view had yielded to one (on a suffi- it a look of even increased age. The ciently absurd design) in the transept. building was in a degree a ruin, and But what need is there of explana- must be repaired. Five whole bays of tions ? Let any reasonable being take the nave clerestory had scarcely a a glance at Neale's or Clutterbuck's square yard of old stone surface reviews, and ask himself whether, when maining, while the aisle roof below the Abbey Church should become a cathedral, it would be possible to

1 The glass had been replaced by open retain such fittings? They dated, I

brickwork which Mi. Loftie has, I believe, believe, from 1716 to 1801, with other

elsewhere called Elizabethau lattice work, but

which has been shown to have been put in Ly parts erected within the last fifteen a man now living.

them was after each successive winter finding ofthe Shrine of St. Amphibalus; strewed thickly with the débris annu- of the discovery of the charming perally brought down. Is this state of pendicular doorway and stone screen things to remain because, forsooth, in the south presbytery aisle ; also of some can be found to prefer ruin to the lovely fourteenth century choir reparation? This glorious temple must ceiling ; of the restoration of the old not, and so far as I am concerned levels, adding to the height of the inshall not, be left to crumble on to its terior of the building in some places as destruction, but I hope to redeem it at much as two feet; of the discovery of the smallest possible cost of real and the foundations of the old choir stalls, apparent antiquity.

whereby you have been able to reI will not, however, further defend place their successors on the old lines.” my own course as regards this building. He mentions also the ancient tile Mr. Street, in recently addressing the pavements and wall paintings, the Institute of British Architects, said beautiful presbytery entrance, &c., that as to St. Alban's Abbey he (Mr. but adds 61

only this would not have Street) could only say that the work agreed with the indictment.” which had been done there under the Mr. Ridgway Lloyd, the great local direction of Sir Gilbert Scott was the antiquary of St. Alban's, who has done opening to us of what was practically so good a work in elucidating its a sealed book, and he could hardly history, writes to me also to express conceive that anybody who at all his indignation at the attack. After cared for medieval art could object to telling me that watching the prowhat had been done there.

gress of the work had been one of The rector of St. Alban's, in writing his greatest pleasures for several years, to express his “admiration” of “the he

says :ingenuity displayed" by Mr. Loftie, “With your permission I will give goes on to say “I can positively a few instances to show the conservaaffirm that Mr. Loftie's statement that tive character of your work. the exquisite weathering of the old “The Georgian (not Elizabethan) bricks has been rudely removed is oak panelling in the presbytery was absolutely untrue. The only external of no great merit, and its removal portions of the building where they was most fortunate, since it served to were exposed to the weather have not hide the fractures in the north-east pier been touched, while the tower, where of the lantern tower, which so nearly they had been plastered over, and led to the destruction of the central could by no possibility have gathered tower, and a great part of the eastern any bloom, now reveals them; and limb of the church. It also concealed even the last three winters have given from view the priest's doorways as them a weathering which will grow well as the canopied structure over more charming as years roll on.

So the southern of these doorways. That far from the tower looking 'modern' over the north door is certainly new (as 't did when it was stuccoed) the (though following old indications), course after course of the tiles of old but soon after it was finished, some Verulam now exposed to view impart finials [pinnacles] belonging to its an appearance of unique antiquity, and predecessor were found in the Saint's tell even the chance beholder the story chapel, and at once the new finials

I shall never forget were cut off and the old ones subCharles Kingsley's enthusiastic ad- stituted. miration when I had the pleasure of

“ It is true that after the two pointing this out to him.” After saying eastern piers carrying the lantern what I have already stated about the towers had been partly rebuilt with old pulpit, he suggests that Mr. Loftie brick and cement, they were plastered might have told his readers of the over to match their fellows on the

of the pile.

western side, but who would wish it its advance to the rank of a cathedral, otherwise ?

without the loss of any object of “In the Lady Chapel, in almost antiquity. every instance in which the wall

Passing over a number of less imarcading has been renewed, old and portant matters, we will now proceed new work may be seen side by side, to Canterbury Cathedral. the former by its presence attesting

Mr. Loftie introduces the subject the faithfulness of the latter.

by giving an account of all the “One most valuable of the many things done to the Cathedral for the discoveries made during the restora- last half century, including the tion is that of the ancient paintings erection of the south-west tower, on the ceiling of the choir. This was which, with the reparation of its until recently adorned with a series of fellow tower, he mysteriously de17th century paintings indifferently scribes as being “in the style now executed, but it was discovered that universally recognised as that of Camthe panels bore an earlier design berwell; an expression I do not beneath. The later painting having understand, unless it be a means of been carefully removed, a splendid connecting it with myself, I having, series of thirty-two heraldic shields thirty-five years back, built a church (date circa 1370) was disclosed, show- at Camberwell, though as far as posing the mediæval arms assigned to the sible from being in that style. I Saints Alban, Edward the Confessor, beg, however, to clear the ground by Edmund, Oswyn, George, and Louis; saying that I have never carried out the emperors Richard (Earl of Corn- any work in connection with Canterwall) and Constantine; the kings of bury Cathedral. The question at England, Scotland, Man, Castile and issue, however, relates to the proposed Leon, Portugal, Sweden, Cyprus, Nor- refitting of the choir, and I have elseway, Arragon, Denmark, Bohemia, where stated it as follows:Sicily, Hungary, Navarre, France, and We do not know what were the the Crusader king of Jerusalem ; as fittings of the choir at Canterbury well as those of several of the sons of after its restoration in 1180. Very Edward III. There are also several probably they were only temporary. sacred devices, including the corona- “We have, however, records of their tion of our Lord and St. Mary, and, in being renewed by Prior De Estria addition, nearly the whole of the Te about 1304. He is especially said to Deum in Latin, and a number of quo- have decorated the choir with beautitations from the Antiphons at Matins ful stonework, a new pulpitum (or and Lauds from the Sarum Antiphoner. rood loft) and three doorways. The This discovery, which is entirely due to fittings, &c., then introduced continued the work of restoration, it is impossible undisturbed till long after the great to estimate too highly.

Among lesser

Rebellion. It is probable that they 'finds' may be mentioned the two pits had been much injured during that for heart burial, one in the Lady period; and we find that Archbishop Chapel and the other in the south Tenison, in 1702, removed all the transept; both have been most care- old stallwork; concealed the beautiful fully preserved."

side screens of De Estria by classic of the entire work of restoration, wainscoting; and substituted pewing reparation, or whatever we may call it, for the side stalls ; but, to the west, I may say that it has been replete er ted new return stalls with very with the most important discoveries ; rich canopies, concealing entirely the that it has been characterised by the pulpitum or rood screen of De Estria. most studious conservatism ; that it has The wainscoting of the sides was resaved the building from destruction ; moved about 1828, leaving the pewing and that it is gradually fitting it for backed up by De Estria's

side screens.

The Dean and Chapter now desire to was removed, no doubt arose from its substitute for these pews as near a like barbarous treatment by the same reproduction as may be of De Estria's men. It is droll to find the enthusistalls. We have found parts of them astic advocates of the style of the last below the flooring, and trust to find century arguing, from the havoc made other fragments from which their in older work by their demi-gods, that pattern may be recovered. The diffi- it is hopeless and almost beneath conculty, however, is with the western or tempt to try to recover the older work return stalls : for behind them we find from their depredations. De Estria's pulpitum or rood screen Putting, however, such considerawith its original and rich colouring, tions aside, the simple question is and apparently complete, excepting this: having a Queen Anne work the stone canopies of the Priors' and placed in front of a mediæval work, Sub-Priors' stalls, which were rudely each possessing its own class of merit, hewn off when Tenison's stalls were ought we to be content with seeing erected. We want to preserve both one, or ought we to endeavour to render the stalls and the more ancient objects both visible ? I took the last-named which they conceal. I love Tenison's view, and suggested that a worthy stalls well, but I love De Estria's position should be sought for Tenipulpitum more. Some probably take son's work, and that the choir screen, the contrary view. Why should not -the “pulpitum ” of Prior de Estria both be gratified ?"

-should be exposed to view. Mr. Now this is a very fair subject for Loftie has spoken of this idea as óa discussion and difference of opinion ; new design by Sir Gilbert Scott founded and the more so as this is practically on a fragment.” He speaks of “the

Queen Annework, and to the special portion of it already restored behind lovers of that style its removal would the altar" (which does not exist) naturally be exasperating. For myself and says “could we be certified that I do not in the least degree wish its the stone screen exists intact behind removal on account of any discrepancy the panelling, we might hesitate. But between it and the surrounding archi- nothing of the kind is asserted. A tecture. Some have gone so far as that; small portion only remains, and from for my part I have no sympathy with it an eminent architect is prepared to that feeling, but the reverse. My reconstruct the whole." He has elseown leanings entirely arose from my where described what is proposed as excitement at the discovery (or re- “modern work in imitation of some discovery) of De Estria's pulpitum, fragments of a stone screen of the 14th hidden behind Tenison's stalls, which century.” Mr. Morris speaks of it I do not hesitate to say filled me with "Sir Gilbert Scott's conjectural an enthusiasm with which the devotees restoration,” and again, as of Queen Anne cannot be expected proposed imitation, restoration, or to sympathise. That work is described forgery of Prior Eastry's rather by those who desire to minimise it as commonplace tracery.”' small in quantity and greatly muti- The facts are that the old screen, lated. I have devoted much time to or “pulpitum,” remains throughout its it, and have to state that it is almost extent in very fair condition, with its entire, having only suffered from the ancient colouring nearly complete and mercilessness of Archbishop Tenison's exceedingly beautiful. It is true that workmen, who, while putting up the the barbarous mutilations made in stalls, chopped away the two canopies putting up Tenison's work have left and much of the mouldings of the cen- a few parts in some degree to conjectral doorway. The necessity for restor- ture; but the evidences left in situ, ing the inner face of the side screens aided, it may be fairly hoped, by in 1828, when Tenison's wainscoting fragments still to be found, will


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