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Better come and see Mary before ported even the unimaginative Randinner. She will want to know all dolph back to childhood. The panelled about your home-concerns, and your walls, the spindled-legged furniture, wife. The house is unchanged, you
the inlaid cabinets and tables, were all will perceive," the Squire continued, exactly as he remembered them. This talking cheerfully as he led the way; touched him a little, though he had and the sound of his voice, somewhat all the robustness against impression high-pitched and shrill with age, which fortifies a slow intelligence. “It travelled far through the old passages. seems like yesterday that I was here,” “I hope no sacrilegious hands will he said. ever change the house. My heirs
This, in her turn, touched Mary, add to it if they please, but it is a whose excitement made her subject monument of antiquity, which ought to the lightest flutter of emotion. She never to be touched-except to mend smiled at him with greater kindness it delicately as Mary mends her old than she had yet felt. “Yes," she lace. This way, Randolph ; I believe said. “I feel so, sometimes, too, when you have forgotten the way.”
I look round; but it tells less upon us They were standing in an angle of who are here always. And so much the fine oak staircase, where the Squire has happened since then." waited till his son came up to him ; "Ah, I suppose so; though you at this moment a rush of small foot- seem to vegetate pretty much in the steps, and a whispering voice—“Run old ways. Those children though for Nello, Nello! he is coming," was instance," said Randolph, with a audible above. Randolph looked up laugh,
laugh, “scurrying off in such haste quickly, with a look of intelligence, as we came within hearing, that is not into the old man's face. But the like the old ways. Are you ashamed Squire did not move a muscle. His of them, or afraid to have them here? countenance was blank as that of I should not wonder for my part.” a deaf man. If he had heard, he The tears sprang to Mary's eyes. allowed no sign of hearing to be visible. She did not say anything in the sudden “Come along," he said, " it seems to shock, but looked at Randolph piteme that my wind is better than yours ously with a silent reproach. It was even at my time of life," with a half- the first time since the day of their sarcastic smile. Was he hard of arrival that any public mention had hearing ? a hypothesis rather agreeable been made of the children in her to think of; or what was the meaning father's presence. And there was a of it? Were these obnoxious children pause which seemed to her full of fate. the pets of the house ? but why should “You must not look at me so," said they run because he was coming? The her brother. “I gave you fair warnhostile visitor was perplexed and could ing. My father is not to be given up not make it out. He followed into the to your plots without a remonstrance drawing-room without a word, while at least. I believe it is a conspiracy, the small footsteps were still audible. sir, from beginning to end. Do you Mary was seated at a low table on intend our old family with all the which there was work, but she was honours you are so proud of, to drop not working. She rose to receive them into disgrace? With the shadow of with a certain formality; for except crime on it," cried Randolph, warmafter dinner when the Squire would ing into excitement. Then, with a sometimes come for a cup of tea, or dull perception of something still when there were visitors in the house, more telling, his father's weak point, she was generally alone in the low "and the bar sinister of vice," he quaint drawing-room, which trans- said.
To be continued. No. 211.- VOL. XXXVI.
HUNGARY AND CROATIA.
BETWEEN the 25th of April, 1848, and Czechs of Bohemia the same probabithe month of February, 1867, the lities of success as their Sclavonic provinces now included in the Austro- brethren further south. It is not Hungarian empire enjoyed the expe- only that in Bohemia the German rience of nearly eight different forms population is in numbers nearly equal, of government. The changes were
and in wealth and education the superung on Centralism and Federalism, rior of the Czechs; but the Czech according as the notions of Bach and cause itself has been weakened by a his followers, or those of Belcredi and practical identification in many rehis disciples were in the ascendant spects with the prejudices of the at Vienna, till finally, in February, nobility and the passions of the priest1867, under the pressure of the dis- hood, and by the divisions existing asters of the previous year, the brain between the old and the new Czech of Count Beust, ever fertile in re- party, the former looking only to the sources, devised the dualistic system, vindication of the historical rights of and the ideas of Bach and of Bel- the country, and the latter extending credi were alike discarded in favour their views to political and even of the ingenious piece of mechanism social alterations as well. In Croatia which now regulates the dominions
is different. There the subject to the House of Hapsburg. Sclaves are in a large and unquestioned That the edifice erected by Count majority, and the territorial nobility Beust was a masterpiece at the moment, is ranged on the side of the governthat it afforded at least a temporary ment. The priesthood is indeed ranged solution of existing difficulties, and against it; but the division of opinion gave the empire a fresh lease of life, between the Greek and Catholic comwill hardly be denied. Whether it has munions has not allowed the priestdone more is at least a doubtful
hood of either to obtain an altogether tion, which the future can alone solve. preponderating authority, while the The Sclavonic states in both halves liberal opinions of the celebrated of the empire demand the same im- Bishop Strossmayer have not been munities as against Austria and Hun- without influence in preventing the gary which the latter obtained under opposition of the clergy being identithe Ausgleich of 1867-68 from the fied with selfish objects and retrograde former. In the Cisleithan part of the opinions. Empire the dissentients are mainly re- From a very early period of history presented by the Czechs of Bohemia, Sclavonic races were settled in the the champions of the historical rights district which, roughly speaking, lies of the crown of King Wenzel; in the between the Adriatic and the river Transleithan or Hungarian portion of Drave. Brought under subjection at the empire by the Croatians. A few various periods by the Avars and the years ago the Bohemian question was Bulgarians, they got rid of their conto the front; at present the outbreak querors in the middle of the seventh of the Eastern question has thrown century, and founded, amongst other whatever passes on the upper course
principalities, the kingdom of Croatia. of the Elbe into obscurity compared For a brief period the empire of Charles with the events passing by the lower the Great comprised a large portion of waters of the Danube. Nor have the the territories of this kingdom within its limits, but in the time of his de- acter. The Pragmatic Sanction was scendants they recovered independence. accepted by the Landtag of Agram three The two kingdoms of Sclavonia and years earlier than by the Diet of Pesth. Croatia, which included Dalmatia, From the fifteenth century, indeed, then sprang into existence, the latter the Croatian deputies went and sat in of which conquered the former in the the Hungarian Diet, but the laws eleventh century. Such was the posi- voted at Presburg had to be ratified tion of things when the tide of Magyar at Agram.” Eventually Hungary sucinvasion, which had crossed the Car- ceeded in annexing the three Comitats pathians at the end of the ninth cen- of Syrmia, Vorocz, and Poszega, and tury, after rolling over the great plain reduced the Landtag to the rank of a between those mountains and the mere “Congregatio," or County ParDanube, crossed that river and reached liament, with the right of sending two the Drave. The struggle was brief. oratores regni to the Diet at Presburg. Croatia submitted between 1088 and These oratores regni could be heard, but 1102 to Ladislas I., who gave his son had no vote, while the three Comitats Almus the title of duke of these above mentioned, the district of Tiracountries, in much the same way that, pola and the Chapters elected their two centuries later, an English king members direct to the Diet, where gave his eldest son the title of Prince they had regular votes. In the Upper of Wales. A few years later Koloman House of the Diet sat the Ban, the added Dalmatia to his dominions, and Obergespäne or lord-lieutenants, the at the same time recognised certain magnates, and the bishops. historical rights as belonging to those In the days of Maria Theresa the Sclavonic provinces which he had separate Croatian Chancellery at Agram acquired.
was abolished, and the administration It is the recognition of these histo- of the country centralized at Pesth. rical rights that the patriotic Sclave Fiume and the adjacent Littoral were now claims, in much the same spirit claimed as an integral portion of the in which the Englishman of the twelfth dominions of the crown of St. Stephen; century asked for the laws of Edward the territories adjacent to the Save the Confessor, and the Bohemian were placed under a special governCzech claims the immemorial rights of ment, known as that of the “military the crown of King Wenzel. What the frontier,” and intended as a barrier laws of King Edward were it would against the Turks, while the adminisprobably have puzzled many a worthy tration of Dalmatia was transferred Englishman to say. The precise cha- to Vienna. Much was not accordingly racter of the conditions which were left of the triune kingdoms of Croatia, agreed upon between King Koloman Dalmatia, and Sclavonia. The memory, and the twelve Sclavonic chiefs who however, of earlier greatness and liberty treated with him is equally difficult did not perish. Distance rather lent to determine. One thing, however, is enchantment to the view. To re-unite certain: that for many centuries the Littoral, the Military Frontier Croatia and Sclavonia did enjoy a large and Dalmatia, and to have a real Diet amount of practical self-government. sitting at Agram became the day-dream “Many kings of Hungary," says M.
of Croatian patriots. de Laveleye, in his well-known work There was little time, however, on Austrian and German politics since while the ever-threatening invasions 1866, “had themselves crowned at of the Turks were still at the gate, to Agram; Croatia had her own coinage, quarrel seriously about constitutional the marturinas, and special laws placed questions. Foreign affairs were of on the statute book as such. Her Ban greater interest than home questions was invested with an independent when persons were still living who had authority almost sovereign in char- seen the standard of the Prophet
stream from the citadel of Buda; and might have slumbered and slept. It men cared more whether Belgrade was was as if the English Government had to remain a Mahomedan or a Christian attempted in the eighteenth century city than whether the members of the to force the English language on the Landtag at Agram were to have a veto Irish throughout the length and on the legislation of the Diet at Pesth. breadth of the country, in order to Nor were Turkish invasions the only allay the cravings of the sister island dangers which threatened the existence after independence. What followed of the countries east of the Leitha. is well known. The abortive Illyrian The yoke of the Austrian Emperors movement got up by Dr. Gai, with the was even heavier than that of the connivance of the Vienna bureaucracy, Turk, the cruelties of the Jesuits more was the first result. It soon died searching than those of any Achmet a natural death. In 1848 a Aga or Shefket Pasha. Nothing in general movement began, when the history is perhaps sadder than the Hungarian Diet showed no signs of contrast between the splendour of repealing the existing laws or of exHungary in the fourteenth century tending those liberties to the Croats and her misery in the seventeenth. which they claimed for themselves. Constant revolts, in which Croat and The Sclave hordes of the Ban JellaMagyar stood side by side, revolts chich were let loose by the Vienna carried out with the valour of a Mans- Government, and contributed as much feld and the perseverance of a Pym, to crushing the Hungarian insurrecalone taught the House of Hapsburg tion as the Russian army itself. Only the inutility of crushing the love of when it was too late did the Huncivil and religious liberty which burned garian Diet, in the throes of dissolution, with as pure a flame on the banks of proclaim the principle of the equality the Theiss and the Drave as on those of all languages before the law. of the Thames and Severn. After the The Diet of Agram in 1848 had failure of the centralizing efforts of
demanded that all matters, excepting Joseph II., the constitution of Hungary, those relating to the army, foreign as ascertained by the Bulla Aurea of affairs, and the finances, should belong Andrew II., the contemporary, and, in to their own sphere of responsibility, many respects, the counterpart of our and that on legislative and commercial own Magna Charta, remained un- measures the Landtag of Agram should molested, and the year 1848 found have a veto upon the resolutions of Hungary in possession of it. The that of Pesth, so far as the operation question, however, still remained of those measures affected the Sclavonic what was to be the character of the Provinces. The Ban was to be elected relations uniting the countries south- by the Diet, and was to have a responwest of the Drave to the Hungarian sible ministry. The Croatian troops, crown! Were the former to constitute like the Honveds of Hungary, were a regnum socium or be a pars adnexa ? not to be sent out of the country. In
It is possible that had the differ- its hour of necessity the Austrian ences of opinion been confined to con- Government proposed to listen to stitutional questions, the quarrel would these demands with a favourable ear. never have assumed a deep-seated But when the end immediately in view, character ; but the Hungarians by a viz: the suppression of the Hungarian succession of laws intended to force insurrection, had been accomplished, their own language on the Southern the statesmen of Vienna gave as little Sclaves, and to Magyarise them against attention to the views of the Landtag their will—laws passed in opposition of Agram as to those of the Diet at to the advice of some of the best men Pesth, and according as the Centralist in the Diet-succeeded in awakening or Federalist parties gained the upper a national feeling which otherwise hand, it was proposed to subordinate
both administration and legislation to these was composed of the representaa body of bureaucrats, or to a Parlia- tives of the landed aristocracy, mostly ment stationed at Vienna.
Hungarians in blood, and by those of Meanwhile the most violent attempts some of the large towns, such as at Germanizing the population went on. Warasdin and Eszek, who wished, Not only in all the government offices, owing to commercial reasons,
for but in the schools as well, was the union with Hungary. The name of German language introduced, and the the second party speaks for itself. City Theatre of Agram, which was in The third was chiefly composed of receipt of a government subvention, the official class and their following. was handed over to a body of German The National party was the majority actors. A reaction could not fail to of the Assembly, and could outvote produce itself. On the 20th of October, the other two even when combined, 1860, under the inspiration of Count which they seldom were, as the HunGoluckowski, was issued the cele- garian Unionists were naturally as brated diploma announcing a return much, if not more, opposed to the to Liberal or constitutional ideas, fol- Reichsrath party as to the Nationallowed, on the 26th February, 1861, by ists. The Vienna Government herethe promulgation of a constitution, upon had recourse to a remarkable centralising, but Liberal in character. device. They summoned the populaThe Austrian eagles were everywhere tion of the Military Frontier to elect pulled down, German disappeared from deputies to the Landtag, who, howthe schools, and the German actors ever, were only to have the right of were driven off the stage of the voting on the question of the repretheatre. No great result, however, sentation of the Diet in the Reichsrath. came of the October diploma and the Thereupon there appeared in the Diet February patent. Although the go- an array of soldiers in picturesque vernment established an independent uniforms, who all voted
Ay” with Croatian Chancellery with the same one accord. But the device was useless, rights and powers as the Hungarian, for the Unionists and the Nationalists and appointed the popular Mazsuranitz combined, and the President had to to be the head of it, the Croatian declare that the “Noes had it." The Landtag absolutely refused to be re- Austrian Government now had to give presented in the Central Reichsrath. up its centralising and federalising It drew up indeed a memorable Article, efforts. which declared that through the events At the commencement of 1866, and of 1848 every connection between with the consent of the statesCroatia and Hungary was once and men of Vienna, a deputation of the for all severed, and that the former Croatian Landtag went to Pesth to would only enter into negotiations for meet a committee of the Hungarian a union with the latter on the basis of Diet to discuss the basis of a settlea formal recognition of the above fact; ment. Two celebrated men then met but it declined to exchange the Hun- each other, Bishop Strossmayer and garian for the Austrian yoke, and after Deak Ferencz. The discussion was two Imperial rescripts had again in friendly, but agreement was difficult. vain summoned the members to elect The Hungarians wished to argue on deputies to the Reichsrath, the As- the basis of the laws they had passed sembly was dissolved.
in 1848; the Croatians on that of their The attempts of the Vienna Govern- own article of 1861. After much disment were renewed in 1865. In the cussion it was agreed that Croatia was Landtag which then met there ap- a regnum socium, and not a pars adnexa ; peared three well-defined parties, the · but when the attempt was made to Unionists, the National party, and the define what was meant by regnum party of the Reichsrath. The first of socium, agreement proved difficult. The