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Hungarians claimed that the finances, By it Croatia was recognised as the tariffs, and the public works of the belonging to the category of lands country should be controlled by the subject to the Hungarian crown, and Diet at Pesth exclusively; the Croats accordingly acknowledged the agreeasked that the Assembly at Agram ment of 1867 between Hungary and should have a share in their adminis- Austria as binding on herself. She was tration ; the Hungarians proposed that to be represented at Pesth by thirtythere should be a Croatian Secretary one delegates from the Landtag. The of State with a seat in the Diet at territory of Fiume was recognised as Pesth, who should control the Ban, belonging to Hungary, and bound to and that the Ban should be appointed send her deputies direct to Pesth. by the Emperor on the recommenda- Nothing was said about Dalmatia or tion of the Hungarian Prime Minister. the Military Frontier. The Croatian The Croatians wished the Ban to be Chancellery at Vienna was abolished. responsible to the Diet at Agram, and Local government, justice, and educacommunicate directly with the Em- tion, were left to the direction of the peror. Before an agreement could be Landtag at Agram; everything else arrived at, war broke out with Prussia, was to belong to the Hungarian Diet. and the two deputations returned home. The taxes were to be collected by

The result of the war had naturally Hungarian officials. The Croatian an immense influence on the future revenue was first charged with seven of the questions at issue. It became per cent. of the common expenses of necessary to the statesmen at Vienna the Austro-Hungarian empire, next to conciliate Hungary at any price, with a sum of 2,200,000 florins for the and the general result of the labours expenses of the local administration of Count Beust was enormously to mentioned above, and the remainder strengthen her influence in the affairs was then to be paid into the Hungarian of the empire. It was therefore under exchequer. The Ban, who was always an immense moral disadvantage that to be a civilian, was to be appointed in 1868 the Croatian leaders renewed by the Emperor on the recommendatheir negotiations with the leaders at tion of the Hungarian Prime Minister. Pesth. The appointment of Freiherr There was to be a Croatian minister, Levin von Rauch, a notorious Unionist, with an office at Pesth, sitting in the as Ban, instead of the popular F. M. Hungarian Cabinet, through whom all Freiherr von Schokcsevits, was a safe matters relating to Croatia were to be index as to which way the tide was laid before the Emperor. Such was running. The Landtag was dissolved the Ausgleich of 1868. in order to get rid of the National Unfavourable as the result of the majority, a new electoral law was pro negotiations was to the views of the mulgated by the Diet at Pesth, and National party, the manner in which the the Hungarian officials made the most agreement arrived at was carried out determined efforts to get together a made it doubly odious to them. In a few Unionist majority. They were suc years Baron Rauch had accumulated a cessful all along the line. No more load of deserved unpopularity which than fifteen Nationalists were elected, might alone have been enough to render who only entered the Landtag to pro his resignation probable. Fortunately test against the electoral law as illegal his connection in a variety of speculaand invalidating the future proceed- tions, which he had used his official posiings. A new deputation was appointed tion to further, brought matters to a to go to Pesth, where everything of crisis. The circumstances which led to course under the circumstances went his dismissal were as follows. In order perfectly smoothly, and what is known to escape the persecution to which the as the Ausgleich of 1868 was agreed National Press was subjected, the upon,

Zatocsnik newspaper established itself at Petrinia, on the Military Frontier, tier, before whom the trial took place. and commenced a series of articles Rauch was thereupon instantaneously professing to show up a scandalous dismissed. No successor was for some speculation to which Baron Rauch time appointed, and the duties of the had been a party. At the same time post were temporarily performed by Miletits, the best known among the the “Sectionschef” Vakanovitz of Nationalist leaders, in his newspaper, Agram. A fresh Landtag was about the Zastava, denounced him as a to meet. The position of the govern“Haramia” (scoundrel). Miletits was ment was highly critical, as it was condemned to a year's imprisonment, known the Nationalists were going to but against the writers in the Zatocsnik, make an effort to regain their old Mrazovitz and Voncsina, Rauch took predominance. On the 20th Septemno steps. The charge brought forward ber, 1871, they held a public meeting, by them was the following. A com- and protested against all the proceedpany consisting of landed proprietors ings of the Diet of 1868 as invalid, was desirous of obtaining a concession owing to the manner in which the from the government in order to drain Landtag had been elected, again claimed the large swamps on the Save, known Fiume as an integral portion of the as the Lonjokopolje, in exchange for Croatian territory, and demanded the a long lease of the reclaimed land. incorporation of the Military FronAmongst the shareholders was the tier with the country. Thereupon the Ban's brother. The cost of the en- Landtag was dissolved. In the new gineering operations was estimated elections, which, owing to the agitaby the government officials at an ex- tion, had to be carried out under the cessive amount, and the concession was old election law, the National party accordingly granted on very easy gained an easy majority Negotiaterms to the company. Hardly, how- tions were thereupon set on foot beever, had the transaction been com- tween the leaders and Count Lonyay, pleted than the company sold their the Hungarian Prime Minister, which lease to a Dutch company at a far pointed to a favourable result; but higher price. The profit thereby made the intrigues of the Unionist party by the vendors was enormous. It was and of the supporters of Rauch sucasserted that Baron George Rauch ceeded in preventing any good result was only a man of straw, behind arising from them. A report was whom stood the Ban himself. A spread that Miletits and a deputation similar affair was that of the Limito of the Servian Omladina were coming salt pans. The corporation of Karl- to Agram to stir up the Landtag and stadt was refused a renewal of a lease make anti-Hungarian demonstrations. of these salt pans, which it had en- Thereupon the Landtag was immejoyed on very easy terms for many diately dissolved without having met years, and the lease was given to a for business. New elections were Jew from Agram on the same terms. ordered. During their continuance It was asserted that the Jew also was the negotiations continued, but Count a man of straw put up by Rauch, Lonyay asked that in order to restore whose rule began to be accounted the balance of parties in the Landtag, as corrupt as that of the Turkish the Nationalists should abandon a cerPashas in Bosnia. Ultimately the tain number of seats to the Unionists. outcry became so great that Rauch The Nationalists refused, but expressed received orders from Vienna to indict themselves ready to consent to the Mrazovitz and Voncsina for libel. deputation which might have to go Mrazovitz and Voncsina pleaded the to Pesth to discuss the final settletruth of what they said, and their ment, consisting of one half Unionists, “exceptio veritatis” was admitted by one half Nationalists. the High Court of the Military Fron The Nationalists again obtained a

decisive majority at the elections of Hungarian purposes. The advantage 1872. The Hungarian Government to Croatia of this arrangement was having little confidence in the promises that, if, as was anticipated, the 45 per of the Nationalists, now had recourse cent of the revenue exceeded the sum to another electioneering device. By of 2,200,000 florins, the difference the old Croatian electoral laws, under would beiso much gained to the Croawhich the Landtag had been elected, tians. On the constitutional question, the great landowners, to whose pro- after long discussions, it was agreed perty a seignoral jurisdiction belonged that the Croatian Minister should prior to the year 1848, had an ex-officio always be obliged to submit the proright to a seat and vote in the Land- posals of the Ban to the Emperor, and tag. The great majority of these only express a separate opinion if in his “ Virilists," as they were called, were opinion the position of Hungary were Hungarian absentee proprietors. At likely to be injuriously affected. To the bidding of the Hungarian Govern the demands of the Croatian deputation, ment they all now appeared in a body that the direct taxes should be coland claimed their seats. The Unionist lected by their own civil service, and party thereby just obtained a majority, the railroads and roads be similarly and a deputation, on the whole satis administered, the Hungarians opposed factory to them, was elected, and pro- an unyielding resistance. The responceeded to Pesth to meet the Hungarian sibility of the Ban to the Croatian deputation. The negotiations between Landtag was left unmentioned in the them lasted nearly eight months, from new Ausgleich, but the principle was the 27th October, 1872, to the 29th admitted, and it was left to be exJune, 1873. More than once they were pressed in a law to be passed by the nearly broken off. The contest raged Landtag, to whose sphere it more prochiefly around these points, viz., the perly belonged. At the same time the powers of the Ban, those of the Croa- popular Mazsuranitz was appointed tian Minister at Pesth, and the finan- Ban. The Croatian demand relating cial relations of the two countries. to Fiume was refused, but that regardThe Croatians demanded that the ing the Military Frontier had been acEmperor should nominate the Ban cepted even prior to the commencement without waiting for the advice of the of the negotiations, and on June 9th, Hungarian Prime Minister, and that 1872, a Royal Proclamation appeared the Ban should have the right of com- directing the necessary steps to be manicating directly with the Emperor, taken, and should be responsible to the Land- The general result of the agreetag at Agram. On the financial ment was on the whole favourable to question they objected to the arrange- Hungary, for the points conceded to ment under which a lump sum of Croatia, except that relating to the 2,200,000 florins was allowed out of Military Frontier, were few and unimthe taxes to the Landtag for local pur- portant, while Hungary had obtained poses, and to the 7 per cent contribu- what to her was of vital importance, tion to the common expenses of the the practical recognition of the legality Empire, as being too high. An agree- of what passed in 1868. ment was first arrived at on the second The new Ausgleich passed the Hunquestion, which was discussed by a garian Diet unanimously, the Croatian special committee of eight members. Landtag after a division. In the latter, It was agreed that 45 per cent of the Makanec and other leaders of the gross revenue of Croatia should be re- National party inveighed against it served for local purposes, and the with extreme bitterness, as being an remaining 55 per cent paid into the abandonment of all the historical Hungarian Exchequer, and appro- claims of their country to equality priated to Hungarian and Austro- with Hungary, and of everything which from their own point of view was anti-Serb policy would consequently contained in the words reynum socium find little or no favour at Agram. It as distinct from pars adnera. Their is recollected that in 1848 Jellachich, speeches found an echo which has not when appointed Ban, though himself only not died away, but has been a Catholic, had himself installed by the roused again by the struggle going on Serb Patriarch, Ragatschitch. across the border between Servia and Two lines of policy may be said Turkey.

to find favour with the National party. The area of Croatia is indeed small, That the day is not far off when the even since the incorporation of the Turkish empire will break up is adMilitary Frontier. It comprises only mitted on all hands. Who will then be 16,773 square miles, nor can it be the heir of the Sublime Porte, so far described as rich. The population as Turkish Croatia, the Herzegovina, falls short of 2,000,000. But the and Bosnia are concerned — those National party in Croatia feels that “Hinterländer Dalmatiens," which are behind it are greater forces, of which absolutely necessary to her developit is only one of the representatives. ment? Some of the politicians at

The political tendencies of the Croa- Agram would reply Croatia, and would tian population are togravitate towards see in such an annexation the means their Servian brethren. At first sight of strengthening themselves against it might have been supposed that it the Diet of Pesth, while maintaining would have been otherwise, for while the connection if not with Hungary the history of the Serbs belongs to the at least with the House of HapsEast of Europe, that of the Croatian burg. This solution would have for people is knit in with the fortunes of its chief supporters the Roman Cathothe West. The Croatians were first lic section of the population. Others, converted to Christianity from Rome, believing that the Dualistic system the Serbs by the Greek missionaries would yet be too strong for them, look Cyril and Methodius. The Croatians forward to the day when there shall use the Latin alphabet, the Serbs be one great Croat-Serb empire, with the Cyrilian letters. Croatia was not its centre at Belgrade. And hence it included in the great Serb empire is that some of the leaders of the of Stephen Douchan in the four- National party at Agram so frequently teenth century. But here their differ- spend no inconsiderable portion of the ences end, and these do not go deep. year in prison, and that Austrian “Croatians and Serbs," says Dr. statesmen see so many objections to Ficker in his description of the various schemes of autonomy for the subject races inhabiting the Austrian empire, provinces south of the Danube and the "are so closely allied to one another Save. that while few difficulties exist in deter Certain it is that whenever the mining the frontier between them on the Eastern Question is finally settled, the one hand and the Slovene and the non- wishes and aspirations of the inSclavonic population on the other, it habitants of Croatia will have to be requires a careful inquiry to determine taken into account. The issues inthose existing between the two peoples volved, like every issue which helps to themselves.” The necessities of poli- constitute the great riddle now puzzltics have completed what nature had ing the statesmen and diplomatists of begun. In the Hungarian the Croat Europe, are complicated in the extreme. of Agram sees an enemy he wishes to A separation of Croatia and Sclavonia get rid of; the Serbs of Belgrade have from the crown of St. Stephen, to which a like feeling towards the Turks of they have been subject for so many Constantinople. The old Military centuries, is a change of such magnitude Frontier now incorporated with Croatia that it is not likely to take place so is mainly inhabited by Serbs, and an long as the Austro-Hungarian empire exists. It is an open question whether as barbarians. If any considerable the cause of good government would be change were likely to take place in the really advanced by the formation of territorial distribution of the neigha great Croat-Serb kingdom, at least at bouring provinces, and the connection present. On the other hand, if Bosnia, with Hungary were to be finally Turkish Croatia, and the Herzegovina severed, an immediate movement for were placed under the dominion of the annexation to Italy would begin in the House of Hapsburg it is difficult to Littoral, and in more than one district believe that the existing distribution of Dalmatia. If, however, Fiume and of power in the Austro-Hungarian the Littoral were to be annexed to empire could be preserved, and that Italy, Trieste could hardly remain some hazardous federalist experiment Austrian; but Germany, it is generally might not have to be attempted. It supposed, will never consent to Trieste is this feeling which, without justifying becoming Italian. Thus, which ever way the foolish attempts of Magyar fanatics the look-out turns, there are breakers to impose their own language on the ahead, Scylla on one side, Charybdis Croats, makes their determination to on the other, and Englishmen, while subordinate the Landtag at Agram to watching the efforts of Continental the Diet at Pesth a matter of easy statesmen to steer through, do so not comprehension, for the question in- merely as spectators of a complicated volved is to them almost one of experiment in which they have no conexistence. As regards Fiume and cern, but as feeling that on a successful the Littoral it must be recollected result attending those efforts may that the Italians, who form the ma- depend the preservation of European jority of the population of that district, peace, and of interests which are their are strongly opposed to the views of the own. Sclavonic agitators, whom they regard


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