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crest like the topaz, while in another produced by interference of light in it resembles the sapphire, The more

superposed transparent lamellæ, or by vivid colours and more developed excessively fine surface striæ. These plumage of the males, I am now in- elementary conditions for the proclined to think may be wholly due to duction of colour are found everywhere their greater vital energy, and to those in the surface-structures of animals, so general laws which lead to such supe- that its presence must be looked upon rior developments even in domestic as normal, its absence as exceptional. breeds; but in some cases the need of Colours are fixed or modified in protection by the female while incu- animals by natural selection for bating, to which I formerly imputed various purposes; obscure or imitative the whole phenomenon, may have sup colours for concealment-gaudy colours pressed a portion of the ornament which as a warning-and special markings, she would otherwise have attained. either for easy recognition by strayed

Another real, though as yet inex- individuals, females, or young, or to plicable cause of diversity of colour, direct attack from a vital part, as in is to be found in the influence of the large brilliantly-marked wings of locality. It is observed that species of some butterflies and moths. totally distinct groups are coloured Colours are produced or intensified alike in one district, while in another by processes of development,-—either district the allied species all undergo where the integument or its appendthe same change of colour, Cases of ages undergo great extension or modithis kind have been adduced by Mr. fication, or where there is a Bates, by Mr. Darwin, and by myself, plus of vital energy, as in male aniand I have collected all the more mals generally, and more especially at curious and important examples in my

the breeding-season. Address to the Biological Section of Colours are also more

or less inthe British Association at Glasgow in fluenced by a variety of causes, such 1876. The most probable cause for as the nature of the food, the photothese simultaneous variations would graphic action of light, and also by seem to be the presence of peculiar some unknown local action probably elements or chemical compounds in the dependent on chemical peculiarities in soil, the water, or the atmosphere, the soil or vegetation. or of special organic substances in These various causes have acted and the vegetation; and a wide field is reacted in a variety of ways, and have thus offered for chemical investigation been modified by conditions dependent in connection with this interesting sub- on age or on sex, on competition with ject. Yet, however we may explain new forms, or on geographical or cliit, the fact remains of the same vivid matic changes. In so complex a subcolours in definite patterns being pro- ject, for which experiment and systeduced in quite unrelated groups, which matic inquiry has done so little, we only agree, so far as we yet know, in cannot expect to explain every indiinhabiting the same locality.

vidual case, or solve every difficulty ;

but it is believed that all the great Let us now sum up the conclusion features of animal coloration and at which we have arrived, as to the many of the details become explicavarious modes in which colour is pro- ble on the principles we have endeaduced or modified in the animal voured to lay down. kingdom.

It will perhaps be considered preThe various causes of colour in the

sumptuous to put forth this sketch of animal world are, molecular and chemi- the subject of colour in animals, as a cal change of the substance of their substitute for one of Mr. Darwin's integuments, or the action on it of most highly elaborated theories—that heat, light or moisture. It is also of voluntary or perceptive sexual selection; yet I venture to think that it is most severe, and even the slightest more in accordance with the whole of disadvantage may prove fatal. Equally the facts, and with the theory of important, probably, has been the pernatural selection itself; and I would manence of favourable conditions in the ask such of my readers as may be tropics, allowing certain groups to consufficiently interested in the subject, tinue dominant for long periods, and to read again chapters xi. to xvi. thus to carry out in one unbroken line of the Descent of Man, and consider whatever developments of plumage or the whole theory from the point of colour may once have acquired an asview here laid down. The explana- cendency. Changes of climatal contion of almost all the ornaments and ditions, and pre-eminently the glacial colours of birds and insects as having epoch, probably led to the extinction been produced by the perceptions and of a host of highly-developed and choice of the females has, I believe, finely-coloured insects and birds in staggered many evolutionists, but has temperate zones, just as we know that been provisionally accepted because it it led to the extinction of the larger was the only theory that even at- and more powerful mammalia which tempted to explain the facts. It may formerly characterised the temperate perhaps be a relief to some of them, zone in both hemispheres. This view as it has been to myself, to find that is supported by the fact, that it is the phenomena can be shown to de- amongst those groups only which are pend on the general laws of develop- now exclusively tropical, that all the ment, and on the action of “ natural more extraordinary developments of selection," which theory will, I ven- ornament and colour are found. The ture to think, be relieved from an local causes of colour will also have abnormal excrescence, and gain addi- acted best in regions where the clitional vitality by the adoption of my matal conditions remained constant, view of the subject.

and where migration was unnecessary; while whatever direct effect

may

be Although we have arrived at the produced by light or heat, will necesconclusion that tropical light and heat sarily have acted more powerfully can in no sense be considered the within the tropics.

And lastly, all cause of colour, there remains to be these causes have been in action over explained the undoubted fact that all an actually greater area in tropical the more intense and gorgeous tints than in temperate zones, while estiare manifested by the animal life of mated potentially, in proportion to the tropics, while in some groups,

such its life-sustaining power, the lands as butterflies and birds, there is a which enjoy a practically tropical climarked

preponderance of highly- mate (extending as they do considercoloured species. This is probably ably beyond the geographical tropics)

, due to a variety of causes, some of are very much larger than the temwhich we can indicate, while others perate regions of the earth.

Combinremain to be discovered. The luxu- ing the effects of all these various riant vegetation of the tropics through

causes we are quite able to understand out the entire year, affords so much the superiority of the tropical parts of concealment, that colour may there be the globe, not only in the abundance safely developed to a much greater ex- and variety of their forms of life, but tent than in climates where the trees also as regards the ornamental appendare bare in winter, during which ages and vivid coloration which these season the struggle for existence is forms present.

A. R. WALLACE.

To be continued.

THE SMILE AND THE SIGH.

A LONELY Smile, which smiled in sadness,

Once hailed upon the passing breeze
A new-born Sigh, which sighed in gladness

To give a restless mortal ease.

The Smile and Sigh soon formed a union

A union everlasting, blestWhereby, in brotherly communion,

Each worked to give the other rest.

Thus, mutually their toils relieving,

They lived in peaceful light and shade; No petty jealousies conceiving,

Of nought, not even Death, afraid.

And when, with friendship still unbroken,

Fate caused them for a time to part, Each of the other kept a token,

To prove the two were one at heart.

For, smiling, the Sigh to Heaven was carried

On angels' golden wings one day, While, sighing, the Smile on earth still tarried,

And lent its charm to lifeless clay.

Till then, this world was often dreary,

But since then (so the legend saith), Death's sigh gives Life unto the weary

Life's smile itself illumines Death.

410

GERMAN SOCIETY FORTY YEARS SINCE.

a Volks.

In 1841-3 Mrs. Austin was in Germany, Elector. The officers still wore pigtails, and met most the celebrated men cocked hats set over one eye, high neckand women of that epoch. Some of the cloths, and coats buttoned back. As he stories jotted down by her during a was walking stiffly along, a groom came prolonged residence in Dresden and by riding a horse which he appeared to be Berlin seem too good to be lost, while breaking in. "What mare is that you others show considerable insight into are riding?' called out the major with German life. The brothers Grimm an authoritative, disdainful air. She appear to have been the most sym- belongs to Prince George,' answered the pathetic people she met in Berlin groom.

"Ah- -h!' said the major, About Jacob Grimm she writes thus:- raising his hand reverentially to his hat

“ His exterior is striking and enga- with a military salute, and bowing low ging. He has the shyness and simplicity to the mare. I told this story," of a German man of letters, but without continued Grimm,“ to Prince B. thinkany of the awkward, uncouth air which ing to make him laugh. But he looked is too common among them. His is a grave, and said, with quite a tragic tone noble, refined head, full of intelligence, of voice, 'Ah, that feeling is no longer thought, and benevolence, and his whole to be found !”, exterior is full of grandeur—at the same

“ Jacob Grimm told me time perfectly simple. Wilhelm is also mährchen too : a fine-looking man, younger, fatter, and "St. Anselm was grown old and inmore highly-coloured ; less imposing, firm, and lay on the ground among thorns less refined, but with a charming air of and thistles. Der liebe Gott said to goodnature, bonhomie and sense. His him, “You are very badly lodged there; wife is also very pleasing. I met him why don't

you build yourself a house !" one night at tea, and we began talking “Before I take

“Before I take the trouble," said of fairy tales ; I said, “Your children Anselm, “I should like to know how appear to me the happiest in the world; long I have to live.” “ About thirty they live in the midst of Mährchen years," said der liebe Gott. “Oh, for (fairy tales).' 'Ah,' said he, 'I must so short a time," replied he, “it's not tell you about that. When we were at worth while,” and turned himself round Göttingen somebody spoke to my little among the thistles.' son about his father's Mährchen. He “ Bettina von Arnim called, and we came running to me and said with an had a tête-à-tête of two hours. Her offended air, “ Vater, man sagt du hast conversation is that of a clever woman, die Mährchen geschrieben-nicht wahr, with some originality, great conceit, and du hast nicht solches Dummezeug ge- vast unconscious ignorance. Her sentimacht?” ('Father, people say that you

ments have a bold and noble character. have written the fairy tales—surely you We talked about crime, punishment, never invented such rubbish ?') He prisons, education, law of divorce, thought it below my dignity,' said &c., &c. Gleams of truth and sense, Grimm. Somehow the child had never clouds of nonsense-all tumbled out seen or attended to the fact of his with equally undoubting confidence. father's authorship.”

Occasional great fidelity of expression, Another story of Grimm's :

Talking of the so-called happiness and “When I was a young man I was walk- security of ordinary marriages in ing one day and saw an officer in the old Germany, she said, "Qu'est que cela fashioned uniform. It was under the old me fait ? Est-ce que je me soucie de

ces nids qu'on arrange pour propager ?' them to escort her back, as a matter of I laughed out; one must admit that course. the expression is most happy. She “At a ball given at Mr. talked of the ministers with great con- and Madame S- were invited. He tempt, and said, “There is not a man came alone, and apologised to the lady in Germany; have you seen one for of the house about his wife's absence. whom you could feel any enthusiasm ? She hoped Madame Swas not They are all like frogs in a big pond; ill. Oh no; but Mr. A-has well, well, let them splash their best. just arrived, and you understand she What have we to do with their croak- could not leave him alone the first ing?' Some things she said about the evening.' folly of attacking full-grown, habitual “My maid Nannie told me a curious vice, by legislation, prison discipline, &c., illustration of the position of servants were very true, and showed a great here. The maid belonging to the master capacity for just thought. But what of the house, has, it seems, a practice of did she mean, or what did Schleier- running out, and being gone for hours macher mean, for she quoted him, by without leave. On Sunday last she had saying, 'la péché est une grâce de Dieu?' leave; Monday, ditto; Tuesday, ditto; These are things people say to make and was out the whole of those evenings. one stare. -Among other divorce .cases Wednesday she took leave, and did not we talked of was the following :-Herr return till after ten. Her mistress S- a distinguished man, between asked her where she had been ; she refifty and sixty, with grown-up children fused to answer, on which her mistress and a wife who for five-and-twenty pressed her. Well,' she said, “if I years had stood by his side a true and won't tell you, you can't hang me for faithful partner through good and evil it.' With which answer the lady went fortune-especially a great deal of the away content. Another day the master, latter. A certain Madame A

who is lame, came down into the kitchen woman about thirty, bien conservée, and said, 'I have left my spectacles; I rather pretty, and extremely coquettish, wish you would run up for them.' made it her business to please Mr. Oh,' said she, “I am washing dishes.' S—, and succeeded so well that he The droll thing is that they say they soon announced to his wife his desire to are only too glad to have this steady be divorced from her, and to marry and obliging person, because she is Madame A- who on her side was to honest-a thing almost unknown here. divorce her husband. Poor Madame “A great many ladies in Berlin have S—could hardly believe her senses. evenings on which they receive She was almost stupefied. She ex- especially the ministers' wives - not postulated, resisted, pleaded their child- their friends, but all the world. If ren - marriageable daughters — all in you don't go for two or three weeks, vain. Mr. S said he could not they tell you of it — the number be happy without Madame Am In of omissions is chalked up against short, as may be imagined, he wore you. Nor, except in two or three out his wife's resistance, and the blame- of the more exotic, can you look less, repudiated, and heart-broken wife in for half-an-hour and come away. took her children and retired into Old People ask you why you go, and where Prussia. Madame

Athen became you are going to. In many houses you Madame S- But the most curious are expected to take leave. Then you thing was that the ci-devant husband have the satisfaction of being told where remained on terms of the greatest in- you were last night, and what you said; timacy, and became the tame cat of who sat next you, and especially that the house. When Mr. Swent a you did not admire Berlin, or somejourney his wife accompanied him a thing in it. Of course you deny, equicertain way, and Mr. A- went with

vocate, palliate, lie. If you have the

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