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Echinades. But however untenble this The troops of Meges are opinion of Strabo, and however clear from Doulichion, and from the Echinian that he was very ill-informed about Islands, on the other side of the water, Cefalonia (to which he gives a circuit of over against Elis.” On the other side 300 stades, instead of near 800 ?), his as from whence? Not as from Elis, for arguments against a particular sup- their position relatively to Elis is deposition ought none the less to be con- scribed in the words which follow ; but sidered. Let us see what they are. manifestly on the other side of the He says

that Doulichion cannot, water as from Doulichion, which lies according to Homer, be found in Cefa- about twenty-five miles off. And here lonia, because the subjects of Odysseus it should be borne in mind that Homer were Kephallenes, whereas Doulichion, a few lines further on uses the kindred with the other Echinades, was under phrase 'antiperaia' for the continent Meges, and was inhabited by Epeians in relation to the group of islands in from Elis. This he thinks proved by the which I place Doulichion. So that line respecting‘Otosthe Kullenian,'who he text of the Iliad almost compels is called the companion of Meces, and a us to regard Doulichion as facing the leader of the Epeians' (N. xv.518).? Echinai from a distance; and very

Now Homer nowhere says anything well agrees with the supposition that of Epeians as inhabiting Doulichion, it is to be found in Cefalonia. or any other place but Elis. He says Nor is there any force in Strabo's Meges had emigrated to Doulichion on observation that the Doulichians are account of a personal quarrel with his not called Kephallenes.

There is father Phuleus, an Epeian (Il. xxiii. indeed an obvious reason for it; inas637); and calls Otos his comrade, and much as Meges led, not Doulichians a leader of the Epeians. But as Meges only, but also the people of the Echinian was an Epeian, Otos might very well be isles, whom no one supposes to have called his friend or military comrade, been Kephallenes. The contingent, without having left his country. Strabo therefore, could not be brought within does not weigh the fact that Otos is a common tribal name ; and Homer declared to be a Kullenian; and there gives it no tribal name whatever : is no Kullenè in Doulichion. The though, just before, he calls the people name Kullenè was afterwards given of Elis by the name of Epeians, and, only to the chief summit in the moun- just after, the subjects of Odysseus tain chain which divides Achaia and by the name of Kephallenes. Elis on one side from Arcadia on the

II. The supposition here advanced other. But as Homer calls Otos a is, in truth, as far as appears, the Kullenian and also an Epeian, and opinion of all the ancients except places Arcadia generally (Il. ii. 603) Strabo. He acquaints us that Helunder Mount Kullenè, we must in lanikos considered the two names to reason suppose him to have meant the be co-extensive : a declaration which, chain and not merely the particular after what we have seen from the hill, even as Pelion meant both a hill

poems respecting Samos, seems to and a chain. The name Kullenios, require some limitation.

But he adds therefore, fastens Otos to Elis.

that Andron supposed Doulichion to And in truth, unless I am much be part of Cefalonia, and that mistaken, the text of Homer_totally Pherekudes considered it to be represevers Doulichion from the Echinai, sented by Palè, the western district, instead of uniting them; it runs as lying between the harbour (of Argosfollows (11. ii. 625) =

toli) and the sea.

This was also the οι δ' εκ Δουλιχίοιο, Εχινάων θ' ιερέων

judgment of Pausanias, who states as Νήσων, αι ναίoυσι πέραν αλός, "Ήλίδος άντα.

a fact that in the olden times the Paleans

called Doulichians. Leake, vol. iii. p. 60. 2 Strabo, p. 456.


3 Paus. El. xv. 3, p. 490.


Doulichion may however have in- but with a continental appendage of cluded the whole, or nearly the uncertain site. And we have also the whole, island except the south-eastern group of islands, without any contiquarter.

nental appendage, which sent forth the III. This weight of testimony, persecutors of Penelopè, the pattern agreeable to the voice of both the

“Of perfect wifehood and pure womanhood.” 2 poems, may now be summarily compared with the actual geography. I But I have still to deal with the lines think we shall find that Homer person- (Od. ix. 25, 26) cited above ; which ally knew Ithaca; but there is no sign describe the position of Ithaca relaof his having been acquainted with tively to the other islands in a Cefalonia, farther than as a view from manner that has terribly bewildered the neighbouring island would show commentators. him the strait, the Bay of Samos, and The difficulties are these :the towering mass of the Black Moun- 1. What is the sense of chthamalè ? tain. As he believed Doulichion and Commonly corresponding with the Samos to be in different political com- Latin humilis, and meaning low, how binations, he may naturally have re- can it be applied to Ithaca, which is garded that bay itself as the mouth of a rough, sharp, and high in its outline ? channel, severing them into two islands. 2. What is the sense of panupertatè ? He may have heard of the very re- Does it refer to vertical altitude ? or markable if not unique harbour of does it mean the farthest in a partiArgostoli. He may have heard that, cular direction along the sea-surface ? as Strabo himself reports, near the as in Od, iii. 170, 172, we have the Palean district the sea often over- expressions below (kabút ep0) Chios, flowed the neck which united it to the and above (unéveppe) Chios, for two rest of the island, thus actually divid- sea-routes. ing it into two. The long and rather 3. What is the meaning of apos narrow tract on the west, marked Gópov (zophon), with the correlated off partly by the hills and partly by phrase προς "Ήω τ' Hέλιόν τε ? the harbour, agrees in form with the I cannot think the opinion worth etymology of the name Doulichion, discussion which holds that avtý means from dolichos, long. Thus we seem to anything but Ithaca; and it also seems have, in the actual geography, all to me a waste of time to argue on the separate elements that might Strabo’s interpretation of chthamalè account for the error into which as meaning close to the mainland. So Homer fell. We cannot expect him, I limit myself to the three questions as I have said, to be in positive agree

above-named :ment with the facts; but we may 1. With respect to the adjective expect him to use, and he always does chthamalè, the word appears to me use, partial knowledge and the reports hopeless if we are bound to construe of informants in a manner not irra- it low. But I do not admit the obligational, though not infallible; and these tion. As humilis means, like humus, reports of informants, again, which the

ground, so chthamalos without we gather from the indications of his doubt is related to whatever is chamai. text, we gather under the limitation of I venture, however, to ask why chthabeing bound to suppose them related malos should not mean sloping groundto, though not accurate transcripts of, wards, or aslant ? I think we have a the actual surfaces.

good example of this use where the We have now therefore got a view of coast over Charybdis is compared with the dominions of Odysseus : insular, the rock of Scylla (in very fair con1 Ταπεινόν ισθμόν ποιει, ώστυπερκλύζεσθαι

formity, as I have seen, to the local πολλάκις εκ θαλάττης εις θάλατταν.-Strabo, ,

features of the straits of Messina), ibid.

2 Tennyson.

3 P. 454.

and described as ground on which the that darkness which precedes the sunwild fig-tree could grow, in contrast rise, as well as follows the sunset. with the side of Scylla, actually pre- This we may perceive from the relacipitous. It is accordingly called tionship on the one hand between xoapalótepov, more aslant (Od. xii. zophos and Zephuros, on the other 101-3). Why not give the same sense between euroers and Euros. In the here, and say that Ithaca “lies in the present case, however, the express opsea, slanting downwards,' namely, from position to Eos distinctly proves that Mount Neritos, which has just before zophos indicates a region in the western been described as its conspicuous mark segment of the horizon. But what is and chief elevation ?

material to remark is this: first, 2. Next, as regards mavumeptátn, it Homer's indications are not usually of is impossible, I think, to assign to it particular points of the compass, but the sense of vertical altitude. Neither of wide arcs on the horizon ; secondly, the eye of the poet nor the reports of the zophos of Homer means an arc witnesses could well give him an reaching from due west northwards, account which would lead him to say just as his Eās means an arc reaching the Ithacan hills of two thousand feet from due east southwards. Indeed were the highest in the group of is- Zephuros is much more a north-west lands, when at so short a distance they than a west wind, for it blows from are towered over by the Black Moun- Thrace (Il. ix. 5) upon the Ægean; tain, with its elevation of five thousand and Euros, its opposite, with Notos, the feet, in the neighbour island. It is so opposite of Boreas, includes a strong conspicuous an object, so isolated by element of southing. And some greatly superior height, as to make the ground for these ideas would be natuidea quite inadmissible. We must, then, rally found in observing the points of take the phrase 'highest of all’to mean the heavens at which the sun set and farthest in a given direction, like the rose respectively. I do not say broadly ‘higher than Chios,' 'lower than Chios,' that zophos means north-westwards, or which I have already cited: and the Eos south-eastwards; but these renquestion thus remains, in what direc- derings would perhaps be quite as near tion was Ithaca the highest or farthest? the mark as those of due west and due 3. It is freely held that zophos in

Any rendering, to be Homeric

. Homer, as connected with a point of must be in this case elastic. the compass, simply means the west. Considerations of this kind have This is an opinion which I think re- of late been much overlooked. But quires both relaxation and limitation. Nitzsch, publishing in 1826, renders In Od. xii. 81, we have zophos ap- (in loc.) após cópov by gegen nordwes. parently indicating the same quarter ten. Schreiber 1 admits that após ýédcov as Erebos; the cave of Scylla was meant southwards : and Strabo ? Προς ζόφον, εις "Έρεβος τετραμμένον

so far as to translate Cópuç by Arctos


the North, and πρός ήω τ' ήέλιόν τε by and the Erebos of Homer was certain

the quarter from which the wind ly in the east. The word appears to Notos comes, and quotes Ephoros: as have been imported, like so much else, giving the opinion of “the ancients ” especially of what concerns the Under- to the same effect. world, from Egypt; and to be the Now the main axis of Ithaca bears base of the Homeric word Eremboi about N.N.W. and S.S.E., and that of (Od. iv. 84) and of our word Arabia. Cefalonia, running along its mountainIn truth, as I have elsewhere endea

line is nearly the same; but in actual voured to show, neither east nor west was in the mind of Homer wholly Ithaca, oder Versuch, &c., Leipzig, 1829, dissociated from the idea of darkness



2 Strabo, Book x., p. 454. 1 Homeric Synchronism, p. 227.

3 Strabo, Book i.,


p. 17.

geography five-sixths of Cefalonia lie graphy, the Thesprotians could not south of the southernmost point of touch at Ithaca at all on the way to Ithaca, while the northernmost point Cefalonia. But with the changes of of Ithaca lies farther north than any the axes, which is here imputed to part of Cefalonia. If we suppose the Homer's conception, the northern expoet to have mis-measured the bearings tremity of Ithaca would have lain on of these axes by the not extravagant their route. amount of (say) thirty degrees, he We may now, therefore, suppose would suppose them to point a little to ourselves to have got both the comthe southward of N.W. and the north- ponent parts of the group with which ward of S.E. And with his ideas of the Odyssey is concerned, and the posizophos and Eös, he might then be tions of the islands relatively to one entirely consistent with himself in another and to actual geography.

It saying “ that Ithaca, slanting ground- remains to consider the inland topowards from the heights of Neritos, lay graphy of Ithaca, an island in which on the sea-surface farthest to the north civilised mankind has an undying and west: while the other islands interest. were variously situated to the south- There appears to be no ground for ward and eastward."

reasonable doubt, first that the deThis, then, is the amount of error scriptions of the poet are founded upon under which I suppose the poet to the real Ithaca; secondly, that he have laboured. It is not an arbitrary founded these descriptions, in the most imputation. On this basis the text is important points, upon his personal coherent and accurate. It seems more


The first of these proreasonable to ascribe to him a small positions is made good by his conformisapprehension, than to adopt the mity to the truth upon the generaother alternative, which is his total outline and hilly character of the ignorance of the geographical posi- island, its two principal eminences, tion of these islands. Such ignorance its very remarkable land-locked harwould have been strange even if he bour, and lastly, the strait which had seen nothing of them from per- divides it from Cefalonia. I should sonal experience, stranger still if, as rest the second


certain I think will appear, he had certainly particularity in the topical notices, been a visitor at least of Ithaca. And which he could not well have acquired there is another local condition which at secondhand. this hypothesis (I admit it to be no Apart from these minor features, more) will entirely satisfy.

the poet has given us at least two A ship, on its voyage from the Thes- groups of independent phenomena, by rrotian land to Doulichion, arrives on which he may be tested. its way thither at Ithaca, and more- In the first group, we have a harbour over at an agricultural part of Ithaca : so completely land-locked that vessels Ιθάκης εύδειέλου έργ αφίκοντο (xiv. 344). may ride without moorings (xiii. 97

This agricultural district must have 101). Now the great harbour of Molo been in the northern part of the has three openings on the south. On island; and it could only be the plain the middle and principal one lies the described by Colonel Leake as a tri- town of Vathi; and it is as completely angle between the three harbours of shut in (I speak in the capacity of an Polis, Trikės, and Aphalès. In this eye-witness) as a small lake, say the passage the Thesprotians reach Ithaca lake of Nemi. It has also the rocky at the close of the day (éoméploi) : so projections at the entrance which are that the poet had a just idea of the mentioned by the poet. Of the other distance from the Thesprotian land. two, Dexia is chosen by Sir William If, however, we take the actual geo- Gell? to represent the port of Phorcūs, Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 38.

2 Gell's Ithaca, chap. v.



and he believes that he has found the mounted through the town to the cave there : while he very fairly states palace from the harbour. that Strabo declared there was no cave 7. In going from the city to the in his time. Leake prefers the inlet residence of Laertes, Odysseus and of Schino, to the eastward of Vathi, as his party descend (karéßav, xxiv. 205). exactly corresponding to the poet's Now if we find that all these indidata.1 But this harbour of Phorcūs cations converge, and fall upon some is localised by its proximity to Mount one point of the island for its capital, Neritos (xiii. 345), which Athenè we can hardly be wrong in placing it points out to the bewildered Odysseus there; and so complex a concurrence in order to assure him that he is in will surely make good the proposition his own country. It answers that

that the poet had himself visited the purpose; and must therefore have

spot. Let us proceed to try them. been a marked feature of the island. We have in the name Troiè an inNow an inspection of the map of stance where the same word designates Ithaca shows at once that three inlets, the chief town and the territory. In particularly Dexia and Vathi, are the case of Ithaca, nearly all the epidirectly under Mount Marovugli, also thets, which are numerous and approcalled Mount Stefano, one of the two priate, refer to the territory. It is greatly elevated points of the island, sea-girt, goat-feeding, ox-feeding, picand probably corresponding with the turesque, conspicuous, craggy, rough: Neritos of the poet. Thus we have the not to quote other phrases. In Od. harbour and the mountain over it in iii. 31, Ithaca is úrovńcos—under accordance with the topography of the Mount Neïon. Here the expression Poem.

is equivocal; but it probably relates More important, because to the city, since the poet treats searching as a topographical test, is Neritos as the conspicuous mountain, the more complex grouping connected so that the island could not properly be with the capital. In regard to it, the huponeïos. But also in Od. xxii. 52, poem supplies us with the following Ithaca is tüktimévn, well-built. In this particulars :

the single instance where the epithet 1. Though, as we have seen, the attaches it grammatically to the city, island is not without local names, the the word is joined with demos (as capital has usually no name, except in Od. i. 183). that of Polis, “ the town.” 2. It is situated upon a harbour

όφρ' Ιθάκης κατά δήμον εκτιμένης βασι(Od. ii. 391).

λεύει: 3. The maritime access to it from the rich demos, as it is called in xiv. the Peloponnesos was by the strait 29, meaning apparently the town with which divides Ithaca from Cefalonia. the adjoining district. But as a general

4. It was under Mount Neïon (Od. rule, I believe the simple word Polis iii. 81).

is used to signify the chief town. 5. There was a harbour called Rei- When, therefore, we find the name thron, at a considerable distance from of Polis still attached locally to a the town, in the rural district (ért? harbour in Ithaca, one of the only two äypov, i. 186), which was also under harbours on the western side of the Mount Neïon.

island, our two first marks agree

well 6. Live-stock arrive at the capital with the facts as they are. by the ferry from the neighbouring The proof of the third mark is, that island without any sign of their tra- the suitors placed their ambush midversing any distance after landing, way in the Samian strait, to intercept and thus to all appearance they merely Telemachos when on his

from Pulos in the south east. 1 Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 32.

capital had been on the eastern side of

way back

If the

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