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the island, it would have been absurd sign of his having traversed any disthat they should wait for him on the tance after landing. Again we are western side. We seem thus driven driven to placing the capital on the east to place it on the western side ; and side; but it might, so far as this head there is no port for it on that side, is concerned, be either at Polis or at except the ports of Polis and Aeto.

Aeto. Aeto lies at the narrow neck of Seventhly, the capital, doubtless for Ithaca. But there is no islet at all security, was on an eminence; for the in the Samian strait near, or to the party descend, when they set out south of Aeto; and consequently that from it to visit the Orchard of site is wholly incompatible with the Laertes. But that spot is not distant; ambush of the suitors. Other dis- for they arrive at it rapidly (ráxa, xxiv. crepancies, as we shall

see,

confirm 205). It was rich (kalós) and carefully this exclusion of Aeto from the ques- inclosed (7ɛtvypévus), and looked after. tion,

This would naturally imply that the Fourthly, we have found that the spot was in the undulating valley near town of Ithaca was under Neïon. This the city, probably on somewhat higher is true of the spot which I call Polis; ground (Od. xi. 187). But this again but not of Aeto, which is under the is fatal to the site of Aeto; for it is rival hill called Merovugli or Stefano. removed by some six or eight miles

Fifthly, the harbour named Reithron from the fertile vale. was (1) far from the city, (2) by the It appears then that these seven agros or rural district, (3) also under marks, like so many witnesses, render Neïon. If the capital were at Aeto, an united testimony to the effect that there is no harbour which answers the capital was on some knoll or hillock these conditions. The great Port Molo looking down upon the northern valley might be said to be under Neïon; but of Ithaca, on the slopes of the mountain it is shut in by the hills, not upon an now called Anoi, and having Port Polis open district; nor is it far from the for its harbour. city, but close to it, as the isthmus is The errors which we need impute to only half a mile across. On the other Homer then are not, after all, many, hand, these conditions are all satisfied nor serious. in the case of Polis. At Phrikès, in 1. He is perhaps hardly warranted the north-east corner of the island, is in treating Neritos as the one great a harbour, which is under Neïon, is far and conspicuous eminence of the island; (about three miles) from the city, and for it has an elevation of 2,135 feet, is upon an open cultivated district, only slightly in excess of Neïon, which namely, the triangular plain of Leake,

has 2,066. who observes that there are but two 2. He is wrong, as we have seen, to fertile valleys in the island : 2 at Vathi some extent in describing the position in the south, and under Oxoi in the of the islands relatively to the points north. This latter is the triangular of the compass as he understood space.

them. Sixthly, when Philoitios, the cow- 3. He is wrong in the unimportant herd, appears before the palace in Od. description of Asteris as the island in xx. 185, with a cow and goats, we are the strait towards Samè: for the only told that the ferrymen had brought island in that strait is Dhascalio, a him over the strait, and there is no small rock wholly unsuited to an

ambush. Leake's map places Reithron in the harbour 4. His idea of the limits of Douof Afales near Phrikes. But this would take lichion is rather vague and indeterMentor much farther off his course; and would be much less in accordance with the expres

minate, than erroneous. We cannot say sion “under Neïon."

confidently whether it included the Leake, vol. iii. p. 33.

eastern coast of Cefalonia north of

428 The Dominions of Odysseus, and the Island Group of the Odyssey. Samos. Whether it did or not, he lands (xv. 103) he tells his crew he naturally speaks of the strait itself will go by the cultivated district and in connection with the latter name, the abode of the herdsmen, and afterbecause the bay of Samos gives the wards “come down” to the city. most convenient and usual access to The two mountains were covered the island.

with forest. Elato still retains a name It is quite unnecessary to seek taken from the firs, although they positive identifications for the swine have disappeared. It was (einosiphulsteading (so to call it) of Eumažos, lon) leaf-waving (ix. 22), and clothed or the orchard of Laertes. It might with wood (xiii, 351); and in like suffice to say that no question of manner Neïon was (huleën) woody or difficulty arises in connection with sylvan (i. 186, üi. 81), and in the them. But it is well to make one woods the swine found the acorns and remark on the first-named of the two. mast on which they fed (xiii. 409). Nowhere in the poem does it at all Naturally, then, their breeding place appear

that Eumažos dwells at a would be upon the hill, from which a distance from the Polis. But the

sharp (xvii. 204), but seemingly therepassage which describes the walk of

fore not long, descent led to the town. Odysseus to his dwelling from the The olive-tree (Od. xiii. 102) we port where he had been landed is shall hardly expect after 3,000 years so expressed as to give the impres- to find : though I have seen, near sion that he had to traverse rugged Argostoli, the shell of an olive-tree, ground, over a succession of high points. thirty-six feet in circumference, which Athenè instructed him about the route: may have been of any imaginable age. and “he mounted the rough path Of the grotto near the harbour of along a wooded tract, over eminences" Phorcūs, I have never known a satis(Od. xiii. 1–3). It will be observed factory identification; and this is how fully this agrees with our general really the principal hiatus in the comresults, which place Polis in the north parison between the poems and the of the island, as we now find the facts. For as to the fountains, it must abode of Eumažos was at a distance be borne in mind that the disappearfrom the south.

ance of the woods, in which the swine Again, all this is in harmony with of Eumaïos fed, must have greatly imthe directions of Athenè to Telemachos poverished the springs and streams for his return. He is ordered to sail of the island. At Athens, exhausted by night, and to keep away from the from the same cause, the classic islands (xv. 33, 4); that is, instead of Ilissos may be seen in winter-time, as following the east coast of Zante, I can myself testify, with scarcely southern Cefalonia and Ithaca, as he water enough to furnish a ditch two would naturally have done, to hug the feet wide. mainland, and then strike across to the I offer this paper as my contribunorth end of Ithaca ; on nearing it, tion towards solving a vexed question not to go himself to the city, but to of Homeric geography. In offering it, send his vessel there, and himself to I express the hope, that some worshiprepair to the dwelling of Eumaños. per of the Poet may yet be induced to Thus we have further proof that the undertake on the spot, with the whole capital was on the west: while he evidence of the text fresh in his mind, lands at the first point he touches a closer and more comprehensive exa(xv. 36):—

mination, than has yet been made, of Έπήν πρώτην ακτήν Ιθάκης αφίκηαι,

the topography of Ithaca in all its

material points. and has no great distance to travel in order to re ch Eumaños. When he

W. E. GLADSTONE.

YOUNG MUSGRAVE.

where everything was known to him. PART X.

“Good-bye, Mary-good-bye, Lily," CHAPTER XXIX.

he said, waving his hand. He had

his own little portmanteau with his NELLO'S JOURNEY.

name on it, a new little silver watch RANDOLPH MUSGRAVE drove from the in his pocket—what could child want door of his father's house with a sigh more? Lily, though she was his sister, of relief, yet of anxiety. He had not was not a sensation like that watch. done what he meant to do, and affairs He took it out, and turned it round were more critical than when he went and round, and opened the case, and to Penninghame a few weeks before; wound it up (he had wound it up

twice but it was something at least to be this morning already, so that one turn out of the troubled atmosphere, and of the key was all that was practicable). he had arranged in his own mind what Nothing at the Castle, nothing in the he should do, which was in its way a society of Lily, was equal to this. He gain, as soon as the breath was out of compared his watch with the clock in the old man's body-but when would the druggist's in the village and found that be ? It was not to be desired, it fast; he compared it with the clock Randolph said to himself piously, that at the station and found that slow. his father should linger long; his life He did not take any notice of his was neither of use nor comfort to any uncle, nor his uncle of him ; each of one, and no pleasure, no advantage them was indifferent, though partly to himself. Io lie there speechless, hostile, to the other. Randolph was motionless, as much shut out of all at his ease because he had this child, human intercourse as if he were al- this troublesome atom, who might do ready in his coffin—what could any harm though he could do no good, in one desire but that, as soon as might his power; but Nello was at his ease, be, it should come to an end ?

through pure indifference. He was He did not pay very much atten- not at the moment frightened of his tion to his small companion. For the uncle, and no other sentiment in moment, Nello, having been thus se- regard to him had been developed in cured and brought within his power, his mind. As calm as if Randolph had no further importance, and Ran- had been a cabbage, Nello sat by his dolph sat with knitted brows ponder- side and looked at his watch. The ing all he was to do, without any par- watch excited him, but his uncle ticular reference to the child. Nello Thus they went on, an unsympathetic had left the Castle easily enough; he pair. Nello stood about on the plathad parted from Mary and from Lilias form and looked at everything, while without any lingering of emotion, get- Randolph took the tickets. He was ting over it as quickly as possible. slightly hurt to hear that a half-ticket When it came to that he was eager was still enough for himself, and to be off, to set out into the world. moved away at once to the other side The little fellow's veins were full of of the station, where the locomotive excitement; he expected to see he enthralled him. He stood and gazed did not know what wonderful things, at it with transport.

What he would what objects of entrancing interest, as have given to have travelled there soon as he got outside the little region with the man who drove it, and

was

leave Uncle Randolph behind! But nature, which appeared now and then still Nello took his place in the in the wavering of the train, over the train with much indifference to

newspaper

his uncle was reading. Uncle Randolph. He was wholly What a long time it took to read that occupied with what was going on be- paper! How it crackled when it was fore and about him : the rush across opened out !

How tired Nello grew country, trees and fields flying by, of seeing it opposite to him! And he and the stations where there began to grow cramped with sitting; always something new, the groups of his limbs wanted stretching, his mind people standing about, the rush of wanted change ; and he began to be some for the train, the late arrival hungry. Randolph, who scorned the just as the doors were shut of those poor refreshments of the railway, and who were too late. These last made thought it better to wait for his meal Nello laugh, their blank looks were so till he reached home, did not think funny-and yet he was sorry for them; of the difference between himself and for what a thing it must be, he thought, the child. They travelled on and on to see other people go rushing out over through the dulness of the afternoon. the world to see everything, while you Nello, who had been so cheerful, felt yourself were left dull at home! He disposed to sleep, but was too proud remembered once himself being left to yield to it; and then he began to with Martuccia in the still, deserted think of his sister and the home he house when all the others had gone had left. It is natural, it is selfish, to the festa ; how he thought the to remember home when we miss its day would never end—and Martuccia comforts ; but if that is not of the thought so too. This made him sorry, higher nature of love, it is yet the very sorry, for the people who had religion of the weak, and not despised lost their train. It did not occur to by the great Succourer who bids men Nello that it might be no festa he was call upon Him in time of trouble. going to, or they were going to. What Nello's heart, when he began to feel could any one want more than the tired and famished, recurred with a journey itself? If you wearied of pathetic trust in the tenderness and seeing the trains rush past, and count- in the certainty of the well-being that ing the houses, now on one side, now on abode there, to his home. another, there was the endless pleasure When they stopped at a lively, of dashing up to one station after bustling junction to change their direcanother, when Nello could look down tion, things mended a little. Nello with fine superiority on the people ventured to buy himself a cake, his who were not going, on the children uncle not interfering, as they waited. above all, who looked up envious, and “You will spoil your stomach with envied him, he felt sure.

that sweet stuff,” Randolph said, but By and by, however, though he he allowed the child to munch. And would not confess it to himself, the they had half-an-hour to wait, which delights of the journey began to pall : of itself was something. Nello walked his little eyes grew fatigued with about, imitating Randolph's longer looking, and his little mind with the stride, though he did not accompany continuous spectacle of those long, his uncle ; and though he felt forlorn flying breadths of country; and even and very small among the crowd, , the stations lost their charm. He marched about and looked at every would have liked to have somebody to thing as the gentlemen did, recovering talk to, and cast one or two wistful his spirits a little. And suddenly, glances to see whether Uncle Randolph with a great glow of pleasure all over was practicable, but found no encou- him, Nello spied among the strangers ragement in that countenance, pre- who were hurrying to and fro a face occupied, and somewhat lowering by he had seen before; it is true it was

me.

only the face of the countryman who well as being bonnie to look at. Look had accosted him in the chase, and at him! what a bonnie head he has, with whom he had but

a small

and an eye as meaning as your own.” acquaintance, but even this was some- “A pigeon !” said Nello, with a cry thing in the waste of the unknown of delight. “Oh, I wish I might have that surrounded him. The boy rushed him! Do you think I might have him? up to him with a gleam of joy upon I could put him under the seat, and his small countenance. “I

say, have nobody would see the basket; and you come from home ?”

then when we got there“Yes, my little gentleman,” said “Ay, that's the question—when you Wild Bampfylde. “I'm taking a

got there." journey like you, but I like best to “I would say—it was my-fishing tramp on my two legs. I'm going no basket," said Nello.

He said they further in your carriages that give went fishing; and nobody would know. you the cramp. I reckon you're tired I would say Mary had-put things in too."

it: nobody would ever find out, and A little,” said Nello; “but that's I would keep it in my room, and buy no matter. What have you in your seed for it and give it water, and it basket ? is it another rabbit? I gave would live quite comfortable. And it mine to Lily. They would not let me would soon come to know me, wouldn't bring it though I wanted to bring it. it? and hop about and sit on my shoulSchool you know," said the boy, seri- der. Oh, let me have it; won't you ously, " is not like home. You have let me have it? Look here, I have to be just like as if you were grown up a great deal of money,” cried Nello, there. Little—you cannot help being turning out his pocket; "five shillings little ; but you have to be like as if to spend, and a sovereign Mary gave you were grown up there."

I will give you money for it, as Ay, ay, that's the way to take it,” much money as ever you please said the countryman, looking down “Whisht, my little lad; put back with a twinkle in his eye, half smiling, your money and keep it safe, for you'll half sad, at the small creature beside have need of it. I brought the bird him. “ The thing is to be a man, and to give you. If they're kind folks to mind that you must stand up

like they'll let you keep him. You must a man, whatever happens. If one hits keep him safe, and take care he has you, you must hit him again, and be his meat every day; and if they're sure not to cry.

unkind to you or treat you bad, put “Hit me,” said Nello—"cry? Ah, you his basket in the window and you do not know the kind of school open the lid, and puff! he'll flee away I am going to-for you are not a and let your friends know." gentleman,” he added, looking with “ But I should not like him to flee selfish condescension at his adviser. away. I would like him to stay with “I like you just the same," said Nello, me always, and sit on my shoulder, “but you are not a gentleman, are and eat out of

my

hand.you? and how can you know?”

“My little gentleman,” said Bamp“The Lord forbid !” said Bamp- fylde, “I'm afraid your uncle will fylde, “one's enough in a family. It

Try to understand. If would be ill for us, and maybe for you you're ill-used, if they're unkind, let too, if I were a gentleman. Look you the bird fly, and he'll come and tell here, my little man. Look at the bonnie Mind now, what I'm saying. bird in this basket-it's better than He'll come and tell us. your rabbit. A rabbit, though it's one never read in your story-books—" o' God's harmless creatures, has little “ Then it is an enchanted bird," said senge, and cannot learn; but this bonnie Nello, looking down, very gravely, into thing is of use to God and man, as the basket. Lily had read to him of

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