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it.

was

He was,

Salisbury, BP K. sd the BP of Salisbury retired, and Halifax fell ill partly would do more hurt than 20 people could do

through vexation. It was rumoured good. K. said, April 21, '89, hee wished hee knew everybody else as well as hee knew the

that his illness was the result of disBP of Salisbury. K. said, June 17, '89, the appointment at not being made B of Salisbury was dangerous ; had no Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Halifax principles.”

assured Burnet that he had been Seymour Sir Edward to mee blamed the BP for refusing to read the declaration ; told

offered this post, but had refused me La Dartmouth was a shallow monster ; A note in our MS., under the that La Rochester was the last of mankind, heading of Lord Tirconnell, leads us insolent in prosperity, dejected in adversity ; to doubt this assertion, as Halifax told mee, some time after K. William's coming over, that hee intended to indite half a score

not sufficiently compliant in Roman Catholics to get their forfeitures.” regard to the Catholics. Sir Edward Seymour was one of the

Sunderland pressed Barillon that the leading members of opposition in King

French might march towards Collen (Cologne)

when they went to Philipsbourg." James's parliament, and was one of the first to join the Prince of Orange This note proves the treachery of on his arrival in England.

Sunderland to both King James and however, far from pure in his public the Prince of Orange. According to life, as the above note shows. He Lord Macaulay, Sunderland attached had been Speaker of the House of himself to the Prince about the middle Commons, and, according to Burnet, of August, 1688, which was before was the first Speaker who had not been the King of France turned his troops bred to the bar. It is said of him from Cologne to Philipsburg. Had that he understood the House of Com- Sunderland's advice been taken, the mons so perfectly, that he could decide frontiers of Holland would have been the fate of a question from the faces threatened, and the Dutch expedition of its members; and that when he probably prevented. was a partizan of the Court, and saw

“Mr. told mee that he knew it next a motion going against it, he would to a demonstration that Father Peters, though misstate the question, and so delay it, it was in some kind irregular, hath been forced till the party had gathered itself to say two masses in a morning, because L together. Another characteristic story know of one another.”

Sunderland and La Moulgrave were not to is told by Lord Dartmouth.

" When

La Sunderland moved K. Charles to put Sir Edward was Speaker, his coach away the Queen and his brother from him, broke at Charing Cross, and he ordered the K. replyed to him, My Ld I am a Rogue the beadles to stop the next gentle

in little things, I have my fraylties, but I will

not bee a Villaine ; this the K. told again to man's they met, and bring it to him. the Queen." The gentleman in it was much surprised to be turned out of his own

Several proposals of a similar kind

made coach, but Sir Edward told him it was

by his courtiers to

Charles II. The Duke of Buckingmore proper for him to walk in the streets than the Speaker of the House

ham once had the audacity to suggest of Commons, and left him so to do

that the queen should be kidnapped without any further apology."

during a masquerade, and sent to the

plantations. The king replied, someLa Sunderland came to mee, when L what in the spirit of the above, that Essex quitted his place in the Treasury, to it was a wicked thing to make a poor conjure mee from the K. to take it: La Hide lady miserable only because she was came along with him and joyned in it. Hee told mee, at the same time, if I would take it,

his wife, and had no children by him, hee would be answerable that in three months which was no fault of hers. I should have the White Staffe.”

La Sunderland said at his table that This was in 1679, when the King

rather than not gaine the majority of the

House of Lds, if hee was the K. hee would refused to call a parliament. Essex create La Feversham's troop Peers.”

were

This relates to the end of the reign Prince of Orange's fleet. James at of James II., when the king was at- once asserted all his old principles, tempting to pack a House of Com- and Sunderland made the only reparamons, and had determined to violate tion which could save his credit with parliament. Lord Dartmouth, in one the King, that of becoming Catholic. of his notes to Burnet's history, tells

L. P. told mee the French Embassathe same story. “ The old Earl of

dour sent him to the Duke of York to Bradford,” he writes, “ told me he perswade him not to declare, and that hec dined in a great deal of company at would bring him as good casuist's opinions the Earl of Sunderland's, who declared

as were to convince his conscience in it. The publicly that they were now sure of

D. replyed the French Embassadour was a

Rogue and had no religion, hee forgave my their game; for it would be an easy Lds moving it, because hee knew hee meant matter to have a House of Commons well, but charged him never to repeat it." to their minds, and there was nothing else could resist them. Lord Bradford

The Duke was at first desirous to asked him if they were as sure of the

keep his conversion a secret, but House of Lords, for he believed they

was not allowed by the Pope to do would meet with more opposition there

so. Having once declared himself a than they expected. Lord Sunderland,

Roman Catholic, he remained firm. turning to Lord Churchill who sat

In 1682 Charles II. was most anxious next him, and in a very loud voice,

that the Duke, then in Scotland, should cried, Oh, Silly, why your troop of

attend the Episcopalian Church merely

for form's sake. The Duke refused, on guards shall be called to the House of Lords.'” It is curious that Lord

the grounds that such conduct would Sunderland's son should have been one

not be consistent with his conscience. of the warmest supporters of the cele

Here we shall stop, at all events for brated bill of 1719 for restricting the

the present. A great number of notes numbers of the peerage. He desired

have necessarily been omitted, and we to defend the House of Lords from

are well aware that many people would the scandalous abuse of large creations

have preferred that the space devoted of

to our own remarks should have been peers. The MS. continues that

occupied with further extracts from

the manuscript. But it has not been "After L. Sunderland was turned out, La so much our object to lay the entire Dover came to Lord) P(eterborough), and manuscript before the public, as to told him though hee had not been well with draw attention to its significance and La Sunderland, yet he must do him a favour, and assured him hee would not offend the

historical value, in the hope that some King by it, hee must send to his Priest in information may be derived as to its Northamptonshire to go to Althorp, because origin and history. With this view my Lady Sunderland would not let him have we have extracted those passages which a chappell. Lady Sund. said her Ld never was a Papist, but only appeared so, that he

seemed most characteristic, and in might do the better service."

transcribing them, have adhered to

that order in which the writer himself Sunderland became Catholic in the has placed them. In short, we have very last moments of the reign of only tried to enable the reader to form James II. He had for some time been some independent opinion of the auadvising the King to make concessions thenticity and character of the MS., to the people. The King was half and if this object has been attained, inclined to comply, till a false report we shall remain satisfied. arrived of the destruction of the

Hugh F. ELLIOT.

464

THE COLOURS OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS.1

II.- THE COLOURS OF PLANTS. be better to introduce the analogous

word Chromophyll as a general term The colouring of plants is neither so

for the colouring matters of the vegevaried nor so complex as that of ani

table kingdom. mals, and its explanation accordingly

Light has a much more decided acoffers fewer difficulties. The colours

tion on plants than on animals. The of foliage are, comparatively, little

green colour of leaves is almost wholly varied, and can be traced in almost all cases to a special pigment termed dependent on it; and although some

flowers will become fully coloured in chlorophyll, to which is due the general green colour of leaves; but the

the dark, others are decidedly affected recent investigations of Mr. Sorby and foliage is fully exposed to it. Look

by the absence of light, even when the not a simple green pigment, but that ing therefore at the numerous coloured

substances wbich are developed in the it really consists of at least seven dis

tissues of plants; the sensitiveness of tinct substances, varying in colour from blue to yellow and orange.

these pigments to light; the changes These differ in their proportions in

they undergo during growth and dethe chlorophyll of different plants;

velopment,

and the facility with which

new chemical combinations are effected they have different chemical reactions; they are differently affected by the physiological processes of plants by light; and they give distinct

as shown by the endless variety in the

chemical constitution of vegetable prospectra. Mr. Sorby further states

ducts, we have no difficulty in comprethat scores of different colouring matters are found in the leaves and

Åowers hending the general causes which aid of plants, to some of which appropriate table world, or the extreme variability

in producing the colours of the vegenames have been given, as erythro- of those colours. We may therefore phyll which is red, and phaiophyll here confine ourselves to an inquiry which is brown; and many of these

into the various uses of colour in the differ greatly from each other in their chemical composition. These inquiries rally enable us to understand how it

economy of plants; and this will geneare at present in their infancy, but as

has become fixed and specialised in the the original term chlorophyll seems scarcely applicable under the present table kingdom.

several genera and species of the vegeaspect of the subject, it would perhaps

In animals, as we have seen, colour 1 In the first part of this paper I used the is greatly influenced by the need of term “ voluntary sexual-selection” to indi

protection from or of warning to their cate the theory that many of the ornaments of male animals have been produced by the

numerous enemies, and to the necessity choice of the females, and to distinguish it

for identification and easy recognition. from that form of sexual selection which ex- Plants rarely need to be concealed, and plains the acquisition of weapons peculiar to

obtain protection either by their spines, male animals as due to the selective influence of their combats and struggles for the posses

their hardness, their hairy covering, or sion of the females. I find that Mr. Darwin their poisonous secretions. A very few thinks the term “voluntary” not strictly cases of what seem to be true protective applicable, and I therefore propose to alter it

colouring do, however, exist, the most to

or “perceptive," which seem conscious free from any ambiguity and make not the

remarkable being that of the “stone least difference to my argument.

mesembryanthemum," of the Cape of

Good Hope, which in form and colour and to have little if any relation to closely resembles the stones among the special requirements of each which it grows; and Dr. Burchell, species. But flowers and fruits exwho first discovered it, believes that hibit definite and well - pronounced the juicy little plant thus generally tints, often varying from species to escapes the notice of cattle and wild species, and more or less clearly reherbivorous animals. Mr. J. P. Mansel lated to the habits and functions of Weale also noticed that many plants the plant. With the few exceptions growing in the stony Karoo have their already pointed out, these may be tuberous roots above the soil, and these generally classed as attractive colours. so perfectly resemble the stones among The seeds of plants require to be diswhich they grow that, when not in persed so as to reach places favourable leaf, it is almost impossible to dis- for germination and growth. Some tinguish them (Nature, vol. iii. p. 507). are very minute, and are carried abroad A few cases of what seem to be pro- by the wind, or they are violently extective mimicry have also been noted, pelled and scattered by the bursting the most curious being that of three of the containing capsules. Others very rare British fungi, found by Mr. are downy or winged, and are carried Worthington Smith, each in company long distances by the gentlest breeze. with common species, which they so But there is a large class of seeds closely resembled that only a minute which cannot be dispersed in either examination could detect the differ- of these ways, and are mostly conence. One of the common species is tained in eatable fruits. These fruits stated in botanical works to be “bitter are devoured by birds or beasts, and and nauseous," so that it is not im- the hard seeds pass through their probable that the rare kind may stomachs undigested, and, owing proescape being eaten by being mistaken bably to the gentle heat and moisture for an uneatable species though itself to which they have been subjected, in palatable. Mr. Mansel Weale also a condition highly favourable for germentions a labiate plant, the Ajuga mination. The dry fruits or capsules ophrydis, of South Africa, as strikingly containing the first two classes of seeds resembling an orchid. This may be a are rarely, if ever, conspicuously comeans of attracting insects to fertilize loured, whereas the eatable fruits the flower in the absence of sufficient almost invariably acquire a bright nectar or other attraction in the flower colour as they ripen, while at the itself; and the supposition is rendered same time they become soft and often more probable by this being the only full of agreeable juices. Our red haws species of the genus Ajuga in South and nips, our black elderberries, our Africa. Many other cases of resem- blue shoes and whortleberries, our blances between very distinct plants white mistletoe and snowberry, and have been noticed-as that of some our orange sea-buckthorn, are examples Euphorbias to Cacti; but these very of the colour-sign of edibility; and in rarely inhabit the same country or every part of the world the same phelocality, and it has not been proved nomenon is found. The fruits of large that there is in any of these cases the forest-trees, such as the pines, oaks, amount of inter-relation between the and beeches, are not coloured, perhaps species which is the essential feature because their size and abundance renof the protective "mimicry" that der them sufficiently conspicuous, and occurs in the animal world.

also because they provide such a quanThe different colours exhibited by tity of food to such a number of the foliage of plants, and the different animals that there is no changes it undergoes during growth danger of their being unnoticed. and decay, appear to be due to the The colours of flowers serve to general laws already sketched out, render them visible and recognisable

No. 216.-VOL. XXXVI.

H H

as

by insects which are attracted by one plant would often be conveyed by secretions of nectar or pollen. During insects to the stigmas of some other their visits for the purpose of obtaining plant in a condition to be fertilized these products, insects involuntarily by it. This mode of securing crosscarry the pollen of one flower to the fertilization seems so simple and easy, stigma of another, and thus effect that we can hardly help wondering cross - fertilization, which, Mr. why it did not always come into acDarwin was the first to demonstrate, tion, and so obviate the necessity for immensely increases the vigour and those elaborate, varied, and highly fertility of the next generation of complex contrivances found in perhaps plants. This discovery has led to the majority of coloured flowers. The the careful examination of great answer to this of course is, that varianumbers of flowers, and the result tion sometimes occurred most freely in has been that the most wonderful one part of a plant's organization, and and complex arrangements have been sometimes in another, and that the found to exist, all having for their benefit of cross-fertilization was so object to secure that flowers shall

great that any variation that favoured not be self-fertilised perpetually, but it was preserved, and then formed the that pollen shall be carried, either starting point of a whole series of constantly or occasionally, from the further variations, resulting in those flowers of one plant to those of an- marvellous adaptations for insect ferother. Mr. Darwin himself first tilization, which have given much of worked out the details in orchids, their variety, elegance, and beauty, to primulas, and some other groups; the floral world. For details of these and hardly less curious phenomena adaptations we must refer the reader have since been found to occur, even to the works of Darwin, Lubboek, among some of the most regularly- Herman Müller, and others. We formed flowers. The arrangement, have here only to deal with the part length, and position of all the parts played by colour, and by those floral of the flower is now found to have a structures in which colour is most purpose, and not the least remark- displayed. able portion of the phenomenon is The sweet odours of flowers, like the great variety of ways in which their colours, seem often to have been the same result is obtained. After developed as an attraction or guide to the discoveries with regard to orchids, insect fertilizers, and the two phe it was to be expected that the irregu- nomena are often complementary to lar, tubular, and spurred flowers should each other. Thus, many inconspipresent various curious adaptations for cuous flowers — like the mignonette fertilization by insect-agency. But and the sweet-violet, can be distineven among the open, cup-shaped, and guished by their odours before they quite regular flowers, in which it attract the eye, and this may often seemed inevitable that the pollen prevent their being passed unnoticed; must fall on the stigma, and produce while very showy flowers, and especonstant self-fertilization, it has been cially those with variegated or spotted found that this is often prevented by a petals, are seldom sweet. White, or physiological variation - the anthers very pale flowers, on the other hand, constantly emitting their pollen either are often excessively sweet, as exemplia little earlier or a little later than the fied by the jasmine and clematis; and stigmas of the same flower, or of other many of these are only scented at flowers on the same plant, were in the night, as is strikingly the case with best state to receive it; and as indi- the night-smelling stock, our butterfly vidual plants in different stations, orchis (Habenaria chlorantha), the soils, and aspects, differ somewhat in greenish-yellow Daphne pontica, and the time of flowering, the pollen of many others. These white flowers

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