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for upon both the duties levied by the that all which the Colonial Office can Spanish Government are so high as to do to terminate the innumerable petty be practically prohibitory. That it is disputes between the commanders of the bounden duty of the English Go the Spanish Guarda-Cortas, and the vernment to take every precaution for English officials, shall be done; what which it can be reasonably held re- other legislation than the ordinance sponsible against the surreptitious ex- will meet the necessities of the case ? port of tobacco, &c., from an English Here we may turn with advantage fortress, may be readily admitted to the suggestions of the Gibraltar But even then it has to be shown that merchants themselves. If Hei the proposed ordinance satisfies the Majesty's Government consider it conditions of the case. Its clauses will advisable to adopt precautions for the certainly prove effectual in preventing purpose of avoiding any suspicion Gibraltar being for the future a centre of complicity with, or connivance of the smuggling trade. But smug- at, the proceedings of smugglers with gling into Spain will not be at an end; Spain, the Gibraltar executive it is only the basis of operations which would appear to have the remedy in its will be changed. The causes of the own hands. There is only one point illicit trade in tobacco between English in Gibraltar at which merchandise can and Spanish territory may be described be landed or shipped-a small wharf as the inferior quality of tobacco im- near the northern extremity of the ported by the Spanish Government, Rock, whence the only entrance to the the duty imposed on all privately- town is through the port known as imported tobacco, which is so high as water-port, which is closed at first practically to create a government evening gun-fire. The three other monopoly, and the corruption pre- points at which the rock is accessible, vailing among the Spanish revenue are the Ragged Staff, used as a landing officials. Twenty-five years ago there place for officers of the army or were precisely the same inducements navy, and civilians who have permits to smuggling as at present. Marshal from the governor ; the New Mole, Narvaez took the question up, and where government stores are housed; during his administration in 1851 and and, on the east side of the Rock, 1852, so completely did the Spanish Catalan Bay, where there is a fishing custom-house officers do their work village and military guard, but where that the contraband trade was at a no merchandise of any kind is landed stand-still. It is thus clear that if or shipped. It should further be the new ordinance becomes law, Eng stated that on the north front there land, the champion and representative are numerous ship-building yards and of Free Trade, will have admitted the sheds, a steam factory, stores for cattle, responsibility which devolves on her and forage for the supply of the as mistress of Gibraltar of assisting garrison ; that in Gibraltar Bay are an administration so corrupt and in- hulks and storeships, held by traders capable as that of Spain in perpetuating under licenses granted by the govera system of the most rigid protection. nor. All these of course furnish a The collateral results of the policy will considerable amount of cover for conbe fatal to much of the legitimate trade traband articles. Now, as the buildof Gibraltar, and largely destructive ings and gardens on the north front of the vested commercial interests of of the Rock are held by special perthe place.

mission from the War Office, it would But it may be asked, what is the al- surely be possible to prohibit the ternative? If it be granted, as it can- deposit of tobacco in any of thesenot indeed but be granted, that there the penalty for breach of such an are certain reasonable responsibilities order being the withdrawal of the which Great Britain should fulfil, and permission. Nor could there be any difficulty about inserting a clause in it in one or two places—would be inevery hulk or store-ship license, pro- adequate for the discharge of such hibiting their use as receptacles of moral duties as we owe to Spain in tobacco.

consequence of our possession of GibThere are also certain provisions raltar, it is difficult to see what prima which, if properly enforced, could facie justification for the new ordiscarcely fail to be effective. The nance can be urged. The policy which port regulations of Gibraltar forbid has been recommended above would any boat or small craft moving about amount to loyal co-operation on the the bay after sunset without special part of the English with the Spanish permission. This order has become a authorities-surely the utmost that in dead letter, and the consequence is, this matter can be morally claimed or that, as the Gibraltar memorialists expected. The policy initiated by the point out, “Spanish boats, including ordinance will involve a grave injury craft engaged in smuggling enterprises, to the commercial rights and opporand Spanish revenue cruisers, have tunities of British subjects residing at for many years been in the habit of Gibraltar--if not at the dictation of traversing British waters unchecked in Spain, yet in deference to Spanish feelany direction, and at any hour of the ing, and in consequence of the shortnight.” If the existing water police comings of the Spanish government. of Gibraltar is not sufficient for the The spirit animating So material a purpose of checking this habitual concession is closely akin, however violation of a local law, it should be different its manifestation, to that increased at the expense of the colony. which prompted the negotiations for The space to be patrolled is very the restitution of the Rock to Spain a limited, and as has been already said, hundred years ago. What it is now there is only one small wharf from in reality proposed to do is to establish which boats can leave the town. It at Gibraltar a custom-house system, would be possible to supplement these which will not only bring in no reprovisions by a new enactment of a venue to the colony, since no duties very obvious character. If it is are to be levied, but which will involve thought that when all which has been considerable expense. The chief renow suggested was done, there was venue of Gibraltar consists at present any danger of ships leaving Gibraltar of port charges, and is assessed at ostensibly on legal voyages, smuggling about 120,0001, a year. These charges tobacco into Spain, it would be will at once be reduced if effect is perfectly practicable to compel them given to the ordinance. Ships and to take bills of health, these bills be- customers of all kinds will be warned ing delivered only on the production off Gibraltar, trade will dwindle, and of a documentary assurance from the property which, if capitalised, would consul who represents their nation- amount to two millions sterling, will ality, that their papers are in order. be depreciated according to the esti

That the “habitual depredators on mate of the Gibraltar Exchange the Spanish revenue" are not British Committee by one-third. The Times subjects, but Spaniards, is admitted suggests that the ordinance may at by Lord Carnarvon, who further least have the effect of securing to declares that one nation cannot be England the benefits of the “most expected to “assist another in the favoured nation" clause-to which enforcement of its fiscal laws.” Unless, Germany has just been admitted, and therefore, it is demonstrable that the under which England is, by the Treaty plan now suggested—that of putting of Utrecht, entitled to come in the the legal machinery which is already matter of imposts on goods of British available into operation, and at the manufacture. But, as the Pall Mall same time, if necessary, supplementing Gazette (August 14th) remarks-“If

England is under the moral obligation arriving at an accurate knowledge of contended for by the Colonial Office, the facts of the case. It may be we have no right to make our fulfil- doubted whether most of the difficulment of it a matter of barter with the ties which have been experienced in Spanish government; and if the Spanish the government of this dependency, government are not bound to give us whose character is so strangely mixed, all the advantages of the most favoured are not the result of misconception nation, it is scarcely dignified to go to and ignorance. To promote a better them in a bargain-making spirit, and understanding between the civil inhabioffer, in consideration of certain con- tants of Gibraltar and the home governcessionary laws, what we have declared ment, the former petitioned, for a to be our duty."

Consultative Council, without legisIt appears, then, on a review of the lative or administrative attributes, in whole evidence, that, whether it is or the days of Sir Robert Gardiner. The is not in the nature of things desir- idea is one for which the advocacy of able for Gibraltar to possess only a it by Sir G. C. Lewis, in his treatise military status, the place actually has On the Government of Dependencies, a civil and commercial existence; that should secure some attention, Amongst this commercial existence is recognised the advantages of such a scheme is men, by the mere fact of the Rock coming tioned the fact that "it would provide within the jurisdiction of the Colonial an authentic organ through which the Office; that the ordinance which is local government and the home authonow hanging over Gibraltar commerce rities could easily learn the opinion of would inflict a definite injury on those the intelligent and proprietary classes “British interests” of which we have of the dependency." The Colonial recently heard so much; and that, Office does not appear to be opposed while admitting a moral claim-out to the formation of such a body in the side the ordinary claims of interna case of Gibraltar. But there is the tional law-on the part of the Spanish arbitrary veto of Mr. Jorkins to be government, the ordinance would by considered in the shape of the alleged no means improve the feelings which resistance of the War Office. A Conexist between the British community sultative Council would-such is said on the Rock and the Spanish popula- to be the opinion of Pall Malltion in the neighbourhood. Further, soon acquire a legislative power, and the precedent which it would estab- form a co-ordinate authority with the lish might be dangerous to English military governor. As Sir G. C. commerce in other parts of the world; Lewis remarks, it could only do this for instance, at Hong Kong, which, “by the sufferance of the governor like Gibraltar, is a free port. If it and the home authorities." Properly has been, as seems to be the case, regulated it would be an assistance, decided that Gibraltar shall preserve and not an obstacle, to the authority its colonial attributes—in other words, of the governor, would provide him its commercial opportunities-the one with information on points on which question to be solved is, how, with the he is now ignorant, but for which he least prejudice to them, we can dis- is responsible, and would do much to cover a satisfactory modus vivendi with complete the fusion between the civil Spain? The alternative plan to the and military elements of the populagovernment proposals, which has been tion. That the impending ordinance is sketched here, at least deserves exa- an experiment cannot be denied ; that mination.

it is a necessary experiment has yet to The custom house officers, on whose be shown. report the ordinance is based, admit that they had much trouble in

T. H. S. ESCOTT.

480

THE UNIVERSITY OF UPSALA.

The University of Upsala, Sweden, enumeration a fair proof of its comhas within the last few days cele- parative merits, it would little befit brated its fourth centennial anniver- one of its own alumni, whose duty is sary, having been inaugurated on the rather to give a picture of the present 21st of September, 1477. Among status of his alma mater, leaving to Scandinavian universities the first in others to pronounce upon it an impartial age, it ranks first also as to number of judgment. Anyhow, the writer venteachers and students. In both re- tures to assert that Upsala has conspects it compares favourably with its tributed a fair share to scientific twenty sister institutions in the Ger- researches, and much more than a fair man empire, inasmuch as out of them share to popular education. It is a only those of Berlin and Leipsic pos- noteworthy fact, that as early as the sess greater forces of instructors and reign of Charles XI.-a contemporary learners, and those of Freiburg, Greifs- of the English revolution—the most wald, Heidelberg, Leipsic, Rostock, part of Swedish men and women could and Wurzburg priority of foundation, read print; and statistics show that while the university of Tübingen is a at the present time even of criminals twin of that of Upsala. Even were of all ages only three per cent-pro the universities of Austria, Russia, bably mostly minors — are totally and Switzerland added to those of the without school training. In addition, German empire proper, Upsala would a fact worth mentioning is that Sweden be outstripped by Prague and Vienna does not possess any “governing class, only in professoriate and scholars, and but that the people itself, by elected by them and Basel in age. But what assemblies or chosen deputies, manages ever inferiority academic education in its own affairs within the local com. Sweden exhibits in comparison with munities as well as the State at large. the most cultivated State of Europe The Swedish Diet, though elected will be compensated for when we con- mainly from the rural population, sider the proportion of the whole nation challenges other legislatures as regards which pursues university studies; its discreet and patriotic management for from this point of view Sweden of all that relates to the promotion or is not only equal to Germany, but diffusion of science and culture. The even superior, the number of its part that Upsala University has undeacademical teachers being relatively niably played in educating the whole somewhat greater than those in Ger- nation may, assuredly, outweigh some many, while that of students is as dozens of scholars of world-wide 1 in 2,175 instead of 1 in 2,580. So celebrity. far the position of Upsala rests on B efore entering on his descriptionobvious historical and statistical facts, in which the writer has to beg the inBut as an institution of learning it dulgence granted to one who is using cannot be judged by such material a foreign tongue-it will not be unbestandards. No doubt, more scientists coming for an English reader to be than Linné and Berzelius have lived told that the essential features of within its precincts between Messenius this university are, first, that it and Rudbeck in the time of Gustavus is an institution for knowledge, and, Adolphus, and Upström, Angstrom, secondly, that it is national. It and Theorell, who but recently have searches after truth in all its forms, gone to rest. But even were such regardless of utilitarian application;

and leaving the technical and practical cheapest possible rate. All the public to other institutions, contents itself instruction is wholly gratuitous, and with the theoretical. Even in the sufficient to all the students who avail professions themselves practice only themselves of it and work in earnest. so far falls within the university Books and scientific appliances are course, as the subject taught is a also free, and at the disposal of the matter of empiricism instead of one of students. No “idle" Fellows—the pure science, but yet the practical men English institution of Fellowships is in all the professions receive their totally unknown in Scandinavianecessary scientific outfit there. On drain the financial resources; but the other hand, it has but little to do whatever means for the promotion of with discipline and education proper, learning the university owns is beand does but indirectly train useful stowed upon the most prominent of and honourable members of “society." its pupils, with preference to those of In no sense is it a tryst, where the straitened means, where merits are select youths of the nation meet with equal. Consequently, it affords all a view less to study than to form con- students an equal chance of first-rate nections, or to spend comfortably some education at the lowest price, and years of leisure-life. If there be such thus has raised many a man who, they are rare exceptions, the great from the lowliest home, has ascended bulk of the students devoting them to the highest places in the State or selves earnestly to books and lectures. Church. This accounts for the deIn its pursuits after knowledge the votion with which all classes-meuniversity is entirely free both in chanic, farmer, and tradesman no less teaching and learning. No compul- than clergyman and nobleman — are sory drill by recitation of set text attached to their institutions of learnbooks takes place, nor do the pro- ing, and prone to grant to them all fessors waste time either in marking pecuniary assistance at their command. the students down or up, according to Upsala University was founded in daily shown proficiency, or in watch the year 1477, by Sten Sture the Elder, ing their egress and ingress in duly then Regent of Sweden, with the aslicensed lodgings or university build- sistance of the Archbishop of Upsala, ings. The teachers within their respec- and the consent of Pope Sixtus IV. tive spheres are at liberty to teach what Its first privileges were modelled after they choose and how they choose, being those of Bologna and Paris. In fact, responsible only for their own work, it was rather an enlarged cathedral but not for that of their disciples. school, and continued for nearly 150

But, besides this, the University years to be a university in name more of Upsala is a national institution than in reality. For some time it was in the widest and truest sense of even totally supplanted by a Jesuit the term. No class in the com- College at Stockholm. Its slow and munity is excluded from partici- precarious growth is closely connected pation in its benefits, but throwing with the disturbed circumstances of the its gates open to all, it receives the whole State, internal and external, resons and daughters of the poorest and ligious and political. Theuniversity first humblest farmer or artisan with the exercised the power of confering degrees same impartiality and affection as in the year 1600, and was first placed those of the wealthiest banker or the on a firm basis by Gustavus Adolphus proudest nobleman, and, save in divi- (1611-32), who endowed it with his nity and law, women are exactly on the own library and estates, and furnished same footing as men. Meddling in no it with professors worthy of the name. private affairs of the students, either From the time of Gustavus Adolphus, as regards lodgings or dress, the uni- who may thus rightly be styled its versity leaves them free to live at the second founder, Upsala University has No. 216.-VOL. XXXVI.

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