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been in progress up to our own time, professors, ordinary and extraordinary, when it has gained the position we adjuncts and docents, with traininghave already claimed for it.
masters in music, drawing, gymnastics, The government and instruction of and horsemanship. Professors are the University are chiefly regulated nominated by the king, and adjuncts by academical statutes, the enactment and training masters by the chancelof which is vested in the king. The lor, while docents are appointed by existing statutes, which followed upon the chancellor. In these appointments those of 1852, were issued January 10, the sole principle prevailing is that of 1876. The governing body consists scientific proficiency. of a chancellor, pro-chancellor, rector, Candidates for a professorship consistorium majus, consistorium mi- must submit a dissertation and two nus, and treasury board. The chancellor lectures, all bearing on subjects per is elected by the larger consistory, on taining to the vacant chair. The disapproval of the king, and is charged sertation may be either in Latin, with the general concern of the acade- Swedish, French, German, English, or mic erudition, discipline, and finances. Italian; but the lectures must be The Archbishop of Sweden is ex oficio delivered in the mother tongue, one pro-chancellor. The larger consis- of them on a subject chosen by the tory is composed of all the ordinary candidate, the other on one selected professors, and the smaller one of the from amongst several presented by pro-rector and five fellows, one from the faculty or section. Judgments each of the three first faculties, and on the candidates having been given one from each section of the faculty of by both consistories, the pro-chancellor arts, all five elected every third year and the chancellor, all the documents by consistorium majus from amongst concerned are remitted to the king. the ordinary professors. Of both con- The nomination of adjuncts is subject sistories the academical librarian and to the same requirements as that of treasurer are additional members; the professors, though resting ultimately rector presides over both, and the with the chancellor. pro-chancellor is in all cases entitled With each chair, one or more docentto a seat. The rector is appointed for ships are connected. These appointtwo years by consistorium majus out of ments depend on the chancellor. As a the professors of two years' standing. matter of fact, the granting of venia As actual head of the university, he docendi often follows a doctor's degree. exercises control over all academical Where the two do not coincide, the matters and persons, especially the doctor qualifies himself by other treadisciplinary superintendence of the tises or publications, and pursues students. Matters relating to the special studies for one or two years financial state of the university are subsequent to taking his degree. committed to the treasury board, In no stage are tutorial-as understood composed of the treasurer and three at English or American universitiesordinary teachers, elected once in or disciplinary powers in the candithree years by the larger consistory. dates taken into consideration, nor do Special university departments are any general principles affect the final carried on by bodies of their own- result. such as the chancery or secretariate, On the whole, therefore, academical the university library, &c.
appointments at Upsala remind us There are four Faculties—Divinity, closely of those at German universiLaw, Medicine, and Arts. Each Faculty ties, one difference being that the "disconsists of its own professors, under putations” at the latter are, more or the presidency of a dean, which office is less, a mere ceremony, whereas with us held yearly by the members in rota- they are of the highest consequence, tion. The staff of teachers includes because the issue depends as much on
the defence as on the gist of the chemistry, mineralogy, geology, botany, dissertation. Again, competition in and zoology. German universities will, no doubt, Prior to the opening of each term on the score of their great number, all the instructors of the same faculty be keener than at Upsala, which, al. or section meet for the purpose of though it to some extent furnishes Lund drawing up a general programme, with professors, supplies its own educa- to be submitted to the consistorium tional staff from among former gradu- minus and published as a special uniates. The emulation from without versity catalogue.
rather from the secondary The academical year is divided into schools, since they are largely officered two terms—an autumn term, from by younger university teachers, who September 1st to December 15th, and sometimes compete for professorial a spring term, from January 15th to dignities. For this reason, and by June 1st. The first and last fortnights virtue of its numerous pupils, Upsala of each term are devoted to examinawill scarcely lack meet instructorial tions and other academical occupations,
to the exclusion of public lectures. With but few exceptions all chairs One week at Easter and another at are ate; those created by private Whitsuntide are also exempted from munificence are filled in accordance public deliveries. The vacations may with the particular provision of the be utilised by the students for acafounder. As to docents, the chancellor demic study; and, as a matter of is empowered to withdraw venia docendi fact, persons desirous of accelerating on the requisition of a faculty or sec- their university course stay throughtion and consistorium majus, whereas out the whole year, some with a view professors and adjuncts hold office of getting special assistance from during good behaviour.
teachers. All official masters receive their position from the teaching is communicated in the form chancellor, on recommendation of the of lectures, delivered in the rooms larger consistory
or halls of the university. The disThe main subjects of university in- courses of professors are given on struction are :-In Divinity-theologi- Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and cal cyclopædia, exegetical, systematical, Fridays, and those of adjuncts on historical, and practical theology. In Wednesdays and Saturdays; the doLaw-judicial cyclopædia, Roman law, cents read at their own discretion. The international and constitutional law, delivery occupies an hour, deducting political economy, history of law, and “the academic quarter,” as a necessary the system of Swedish law in all its interval for assembling. All official branches. In Medicine -- anatomy, lectures are gratuitous. No fees whatphysiology, medical chemistry and ever are paid for public university pharmacology, pathology and patho- tuition, and a student can in this logical anatomy, practice of medicine, respect pass his whole curriculum surgery, and ophthalmics, obstetrics for nothing. But no legal obligation and gynæcology, medical jurispru- is imposed upon him to attend, and dence, and state medicine, and the he accordingly does so at his own history of medicine. In the huma- choice and convenience. He has, of nistic section of the Faculty of Arts-- course, to give his name to the theoretical and practical philosophy, “reader," but the attendances are not history, and statistics (Staatswissen- recorded as in England, nor verified schaft), classical oriental and modern in any “Anmeldungsbuch of his European philology and esthetics. own as in Germany. Neither do they And in the Mathematical-natural scien- convey any particular benefit as retific section of the faculty-mathemat- gards tests to be passed, because the ics, astronomy, physics, mechanics, examiners take no notice of attendance, but merely of proficiency in the the student uses whatever works he candidates. The lecturer therefore pleases, and prepares himself for whatreads merely to students who are ever part of his subject, and to whatanxious to hear him, and who attend ever degree of proficiency he judges with a view to learn and improve most convenient. Informing the exthemselves. The lectures
aminer that he has devoted closer to female and male scholars alike, attention to some subject, or portion and even to non-academic citizens. of a subject, with a view of reAs a matter of fact outsiders, often ceiving a higher mark, the demand ladies, are also present, when the on the part of the teacher will be matter explained is of a kind to in- raised accordingly. However, in practerest them. Whenever the theme itself tice the student usually consults the involves it, the instruction exhibits an teacher as to the choice of books. elementary character, as in starting With few exceptions the students Arabic, Sanscrit, astronomy, geology, conclude their academic pursuits by an and other topics not taught in the examination, the time of passing which “intermediate" schools. But the num- depends upon themselves, since no ber of subjects falling within the scope judicial or customary prescriptions for of those schools is pretty extensive, and that end are in force.
The average the standard reached in them before age of the examined is scarcely to be matriculation such that the student is ascertained, for while a doctorate or prepared to enter directly upon his even a docentship may be obtained at academic career. In Sweden primary twenty-three, there may be undereducation is compulsory on all. On graduates who are mature and even the primary schools follow the “higher aged men. In fact, the university elementary" or secondary ones, which does not prevent any one remaining a I would gladly describe at length student at Upsala the whole of his if my space permitted. Those, how- life, if he prefers it. ever, who wish for such information Turning to examinations and dewill find it in a paper on
“ Education grees, there are at the disposal of the in Sweden," in the International Review, faculties of Arts, Medicine and Law, of New York.
the grades of candidate, licentiate, To return to the university, the and doctor, and in Divinity those of lecturer “ reads " either from manu- candidate and licentiate. The degree script or extempore, and the lecture of doctor in divinity, though it can be is supplemented by scientific exercises, obtained by dint of academic studies, in which ordinary teachers are bound is, as a rule, granted by the king. to give their assistance gratuitously. Female students are admitted to all Furthermore, all instructors are le- examinations except divinity and gally obliged to aid the students law. To obtain a doctorate in phiby private teaching, to be paid for on losophy, the candidate has to transthe part of the receiver, and carried on late from Swedish into Latin, as a in the form either of lessons or lectures. conditio sine qua non, and to undergo The payment amounts to two or three the “candidate-examination" in theoSwedish crowns (18 crowns = : 11.) an retical philosophy, history, Latin, and hour, for each party to a private Scandinavian or Northern languages. lecture course or “collegium,' In connection with either mathematics monly occupying as much time as or some one subject of natural science, the public one of a professor-say
professor-say and in addition to the obligatory sub20 crowns per term. The attendance jects, a candidate may take up extra at a lecture, private or public, will subjects within the entire province of vary from half a dozen to hundreds. the faculty. The examination is partly Neither for instruction nor exami- in writing and partly oral, and the nations are text-books prescribed, but candidate must satisfy the examiners
in each one of the obligatory subjects, and the judgment of the faculty or and obtain not less than eight merit section on it bears upon the defence units in all.
as well as the contents. For the disThe examination for licentiate in putation, the faculty appoints an oppoPhilosophy includes a good many sub- nent," whilst two others are selected by jects, arranged under seven "schools," the “respondent” himself; but any one of which the candidate may select present may take part in the debate. but one, or even some portion only of the antagonists, the "third oppo
Whatever division he chooses, nent" comes off not so badly, if he he must satisfy the examiners in be clever in joking upon the publicatwo subjects as necessary, and an tion, and thus amuse the audience; additional one as optional. As to the but the other two, in particular the mode of testing the candidate, the “faculty opponent,” have to assail in only difference between this and that earnest, and thus not only afford the just spoken of is that he has to com- author the best opportunity of showing pose a scientific treatise on some subject his ability, but also procure reputation approved by the professor. The exa- for themselves. The disputation is minee fails unless he receives“ appro- therefore of great moment.
It is atbation” for the dissertation, as well as tended by the dean or professors, who for all the subjects of the oral examina- have to pass sentence; and the former tion, with at least five merit units in may cause the contest to cease after the latter.
four hours. Degrees in Law and Students have to undergo a preli- Medicine are commonly conferred in minary examination before starting on an informal manner at the close of the professional university curriculum. spring term, whereas those in Arts take A medical student becomes a candi- place every third year, accompanied date in Medicine by proficiency in ana- by showy festivities. As far as the tomy, physiology, medical chemistry, doctoral degree in Arts is concerned, pharmacology, general pathology, and this festival, to borrow from anthe history of medicine; and so on for other essay of the writer's, may be the licentiate. Before admission to said to commence on the day when the such examination, the student must mothers, sisters, and sweethearts of produce certificates of his having the successful candidates meet for passed the prescribed exercises in the sake of twining the ornamental the laboratory and clinics, or attended wreath from the Linnæan laurel. to practical medicine, either with The following night is signalised by special charge of patients in a hos- serenades by the graduates and pital, or privately, or is able to super- their friends, while the celebration intend an apothecary's shop. In the proper on the following day is ushered faculties of law and divinity the de- in by the firing of cannon at the royal grees of candidate and licentiate are castle, and centres in the Parnassus, given on duly passed examinations; a large platform in the cathedral, cathat for a candidate covering all the pable of holding all those immediately subjects which belong to the respec- interested. There the recent graduates, tive faculty, and that for a licentiate the jubilee doctors, and the graduates evincing a thorough acquaintance with of fifty years' standing, are solemnly them, as well a certain range invested with the ring and laurel of practical experience in both. It crown, amid firing of guns, pealing of may be added, that the doctor's de- bells, organ-music, and all the usual gree, in all faculties, excepting that necessary features of such occasions. of Divinity, is bestowed on a disserta- These are followed by a dinner in the tion as the ultimate requirement. The greenhouse of the botanical garden, dissertation is to be composed, printed, and concluded by a ball in the large and defended publicly by the author, hall of the “ Carolina Rediviva.”
» In the means of acquiring literary nations, i.e. the students themselves, and scientific knowledge the university exercise a legal and moral restraint is pretty rich, though in antiquities over their members, the more beneand objects of art it is still somewhat ficial and effective as it springs from defective. In addition to a library of independent action and
and conscious 180,000 volumes and 8,000 manu- responsibility scripts, it possesses numerous scientific Besides furthering diligence, mocollections, laboratories, clinics, a bota- rality, and good order, the object nical garden, an observatory, &c., all of these bodies is to afford the stuin charge of professors and staff; as dents means of mutual assistance, by well as gymnasium, orchestra, draw- libraries, disputations, lectures, testiing and reading rooms, and so forth. monials, loans, recommendation to, or Apart from the university library, the granting of, “stipends," musical and “student corps" and each “nation" theatrical entertainments, and the like. has a library of its own. Academic Each nation has a house of its own, jurisdiction extends to a circuit of six with reading-room and library, drawmiles round Upsala, and concerns ing-room, assembly-room, offices, &c. merely such acts as involve the rela- These corporations unquestionably extion of the students to the university, ercise a most advantageous influence common, civil, and criminal suits fall- on the university life, the more so as the ing under the cognisance of the ordi- teachers also are members of them, nary law courts. The punishment the result of which is to encourage inflicted may be either simply a re- a more familiar and personal interproof and warning, rustication, or ex- course between them and their pupils. pulsion and loss of “stipend,” i.e. A “Nation” is made up of honorary scholarship. Additional penalties may and non-honorary members, the latter be inflicted when a student is found consisting of resident undergraduates guilty of any crime by a
graduates, the former chiefly court. And on the other hand, the elected from the teachers. Honorary rector is entitled to assist students members do not interfere in the affairs involved in criminal charges by pro- of the society, even when entitled so curing them professional counsel. to do, and their principal duties conSuch interference is, however, very sist in attending feasts to which it rare ; and, owing to the peculiar may invite them. The non-honorary constitution of the university, the or active members are divided into students have the right, as well as seniors, juniors, and recentiors. Rethe power, to maintain order amongst centiors--slightly resembling the Gerthemselves.
are freshmen who The agencies by which this is done have served their apprenticeship, and are the corporations or “ nations after two or more terms, are prointo which all of the students are moted to the rank of juniors. Out divided. Having entered the uni- of these the seniors are chosen in a versity, the students, whether male certain proportion to the whole of the or female, are under obligation to join nation, so as to form the very élite of one of the “nations” at their own it in character, knowledge, industry, option ; but any “nation" may ex- and experience. The management of clude those whom it deems unworthy the affairs of a nation is intrusted to of entrance, and the excluded have various boards; but matters of imto submit to special surveillance portance are transacted by the whole ordered by the rector. Furthermore, nation, presided over by its' “ curator." no academical testimonial will be The boards and officers are elected issued to any student, unless the by and out of the nation, commonly opinion of his or her nation has been
a year, and the curator from first ascertained. In this way the amongst younger academical teachers.