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The general superintendence is vested (97,6821.), a great part of which was in an inspector, chosen by the nation derived from donations—200,000, for from the ordinary professors, and ap- instance, from estates granted by proved of by consistorium minus. Ad- Gustavus Adolphus. Of the expenses mission to, and membership of, a a good deal is due to salaries, those nation, is subject to a payment, of a professor being 6,000, and of an averaging in each case fifteen crowns adjunct from 2,400 to 3,000 crowns a term. In fine, it may be stated that per annum. In the faculty of divinity all the business of the nation is regu- the teachers derive their paymunt lated by statutes made by itself on from prebends or pastorships. Having sanction of consistorium minus. There completed their sixty-fifth year, both are in all thirteen nations, one repre- professors and adjuncts are entitled to senting Stockholm, and the others the pensions, amounting in the former case different dioceses and provinces of the to 4,500, and in the latter to 2,500 country, the number of members in
Docents have no salaries, but each varying from twenty-two to two receive their income partly by stipends hundred and three.
-of 750 or 1,000 crowns a year--and The nations together form the
together form the partly from fees for private instruction. "student corps" which, again, has There are about 550 scholarships or authorities and business of its own. stipends given either by the univerThe general charge of the corps is sity, other authorities, or the student lodged in a chairman-nominated by all unions. They are founded principally the students, commonly out of the pro- by endowments of private charity for vince of younger university teachers,-. support of students, or for encourageand a directory elected by the nations ment of scientific travels. In the latter from amongst themselves in propor- case they vary from hundreds to tion to the number of their members. thousands of crowns, and in the former The departments are superintended by from under one hundred to several special officers or comunittees, all chosen hundreds. They are bestowed on by and from the student corps
itself. various conditions, amongst which inLike each nation, the student corps dustry, morality, and the poverty of has a flag or standard of its own, to the receiver preponderate. During be used on public occasions.
his tenure of the scholarship the In the autumn term, 1876, there student is subjected to the control of a were at Upsala :
special inspector, generally a professor, Medi. Philo
appointed in conformity with the regulogy.
cine, sophy. Total, lations of the testator. Professors.
If we look on the university life as Adjuncts. 3
5 13 22 Docents
3 45 51
such, it has in times past not been
wanting in peculiarities and eccentriTotal
cities, as the following account of a Students. 361
deposition " or initiation of freshmen 172 776
in 1716 will convince the reader. There were also four training mas- “ The master of ceremonies or depoters, and six academical chairs were sitor,'" so the description runs, “ made vacant. The number of students given the freshmen put on garments of above is somewhat lower than the various materials and colours. Their average of previous years.
faces were blackened, the brims of The financial position of the uni- their hats bent down, and long ears versity, though trifling as compared and horns fastened to them, long pigs' with that of Oxford or Cambridge, tusks put into the corners of their is rich for so poor a country as
mouths, which they were compelled to Sweden. In the year 1872 the total keep there, like pipes, under penalty income amounted to 1,758,286 crowns of being caned. Their shoulders were
5 1 2
covered with long black cloaks. In whom he had polished, washed, and this garb, more horrid and ridiculous brushed, to enter upon a new life, to than that in which the victims of the contend against wicked institutions, Inquisition were led to the stake, the and to give up bad habits, which were depositor' drove them with a stick apt to disfigure their mind, not less from the room of deposition,' like a than the various parts of their disguise drove of cattle, into the auditory. had disfigured their bodies." There he arranged them in a circle In our own time the student life, round himself, made faces and out- though not without its peculiarities, rageous courtesies to them, ridiculed
will not compare with that of old, their odd attire, and finally addressed perhaps not with that of them in a serious harangue. He spoke German, English, or American stuof the vices and follies of youth, and dents. At least we search in vain at urged the necessity of their being Upsala for an academic youth who, reformed, chastened, and polished by like his German contemporary, bears study. He then propounded several in his face the marks of many a hardquestions to them; but the tusks in fought duel ; or whose soul is, like that their mouths prevented them from of an American, occupied by dark, speaking distinctly, so that their ut- fanciful ceremonies; neither do we terances rather resembled the grunting meet with a single one who has carried of swine. Consequently, the depositor from the cricket-field or the boat-race addressed them as such, struck them the envied prize of an athletic triumph lightly on their shoulders with his
cane, so valued at Oxford and Cambridge. and reproached them. Their teeth, As to dress, too, there is little or said he, indicated intemperance in nothing about an Upsala student eating and drinking, on account of to distinguish him from nonwhich young people are apt to have academic youth of his own social their intellects clouded. Then he position. His confrater at Oxford pulled a pair of wooden tongs out of and Cambridge, for instance, is imà bag, and choked and shook them mediately recognisable from the outside until the teeth dropped out. He then world by a mediæval, monastic attire continued by saying that if they were which gives him the semblance of a docile and diligent, they would lose man in holy orders. Visiting Camtheir inclination for intemperance and bridge, I was at first struck at the gluttony just as they had lost their sight of the quaint cap and gown or tusks. Then he tore the long ears surplice, thinking “how many goodfrom their hats to intimate that they looking candidates for the Church would have to study diligently in order there are here.” A German student not to resemble jackasses. He then differs from his countrymen—at least took the horns from them as a symbol when belonging to a "corps” or “union.” of brutal coarseness, and at last If he be a “Bursch," he will exhibit took a plane from his bag. Every a cloven nose or lip-perhaps bothfreshman had to lie down, first on his
other scratch or scar on stomach, then on his back and both his face, indicating him as one of the his sides, and in each of these positions leading spirits among the students of he planed their whole body, saying that his alma mater. He commonly wears a literature and art would polish their coloured head-covering, and a ribbon minds in a similar way. After various to match surrounding his breast; and other ludicrous ceremonies, he filled
chargirter," or in “wichs" a large vessel with water, which he (complete student rig), has “kanopoured over the freshmen's heads, nen” (bluchers) and spurs; tight afterwards roughly wiping them down white leather breeches, “peckesche" with a coarse rag. To conclude the (black embroidered velvet jacket), farce, he admonished the company "paradeschläger ” (dress-sword), large
leather gloves, ribbon, and either mocracy. In both large and small “ cerevis"
“ barret”- the one an assemblies the business is carried on embroidered velvet cap scarcely big in the most commendable way, and enough to cover an infant's head, the debates may often serve as models the other a velvet head-gear, pro- in regard both to substance and vided with an embroidered roll or form. The “student corps,” preceded lap, with a buckle and two plumes on by a flag of its own and the colours the left side. Compared with English of the different nations, takes the lead and German students, the Upsalians, in celebrating the patriotic and reliconsequently, make but a poor show, gious anniversaries of Swedish history, for in winter they are dressed like such as the union between Sweden and other mortals, and only in summer Norway (Nov. 4th), the accession of time don a cap of a somewhat aca- Gustavus Vasa (June 6th), the death demical peculiarity. This head-dress of Charles XII. (Nov. 30th), and of of velvet, with the top white, the Gustavus Adolphus (Nov. 6th). It brim black, and a blue and yellow also celebrates, at the beginning of badge in front, not unfitly marks the spring term, the “Knutfest,' out the wearers as the chosen sons of a general memorial day in honour of Apollo.
the “fathers," and of any Scandi. With reference to the teachers, navian celebrities who may have died the only apparent distinction between during the previous year. them and other gentlemen is a dress The gatherings of a “nation" coat, with a velvet collar on which of a twofold character: either for is embroidered two lyres and a laurel business, or for enjoying life. In the wreath, to be worn on academic and former the “curator presides over other solemn occasions.
the whole of the nation, and every As the students thus usually re- member is obliged to attend under pain semble the “ Philistines” in apparel of a fine, unless prevented from doing and outer appearance, they can also so by reasons to be approved of by the socially mingle with them, though president. A general attendance is no doubt choosing rather to join ensured also by the fact that the company amongst themselves, and matters transacted concern individuals more specially so within the same more directly than those debated in “nation.” Their peculiar transactions the corps meetings. The whole of the and habits of life, such as they are, students form, so to speak, a “United will be found in the gatherings of the States” on a small scale, a democratic students as corps
nations." federative republic, where the corps In the former capacity they meet for authorities and affairs are the excepbusiness in
large hall of tions, and the “national” ones the the university buildings, under the rule. A “nation," therefore, not presidency of the chairman or speaker only manages the affairs kindred to of the “corps,” and with a right in those of the student corps, but elects every student of participating actively officers, enacts rules and regulations, in what is carried on; or they sit as decides upon the budget of the bodythe “student directory," for the pre- perhaps on the reparation of its paratory consideration of questions to “parliament house," or on the buildbe determined upon by the assembly ing of a new one, on the purchase of at large. When in “directory” the books and newspapers, and so forth; meeting is made up of some thirty and will often have to give testimonials to fifty of the most influential, ex- of study and character, to grant loans, perienced, and conservative students; stipends, and the like. Untimely or in the “corps” of some hundreds or hasty decisions are the less to be feared, perhaps a thousand; the decisions as the votes, with hardly an exception, thus depending upon the pure de- are graded-as, for instance, three in a
senior, two in a junior, and one in a abode for Apollo, Bacchus, and the recentior. The debates may be pro- Muses. But sometimes the festival is longed during whole sessions. In each of a general character, when the hononation there
there are, naturally, both rary members, students, and other friends of “the old, good, and expe- outside persons are invited as guests rienced,” and “radicals," who look of the nation, or of its individual “ the new
straightforward in the members, and when only a part of the face without fear and anxiety. As far festivity is played off in the nationas my own experience reaches, the house, and the other part, usually the “national” meetings distinguish them- sexa” proper, in a restaurant of larger selves for high parliamentary manners
dimensions. and mature determinations, and form The following narratives of the a practical school for training the first festival of my own nation, at students in judicious, business-like which I, as a new-fledged freshman, transactions, in praise of which too was a party on entering the university much can hardly be said. The deci- in 1859, and of the last general student sions, once taken-are faithfully acted one, before I left Sweden in 1874, will upon by the whole corporation, with- give the reader some idea of Upsala out fear of reaction” or coup
d'état. students' revelries in their more exIn the same way, scientific meetings, travagant and frolicsome manner. either of a nation or of particular About midday, on a wintry February academic societies, carry on their day in 1859, my comrades and I left the business, the students endeavour- nation's house in sledges to be carried ing earnestly, by disputations and to Old Upsala. Deep snow covers the deliveries, to draw attention to, frozen ground, a boreal chill pervades or solve questions pertaining to, the air, and but a feeble sun throws various branches of learning. But some pale beams on the jolly comsuch earnestness expires with the panions. On such a day it was but a term; and, just as Mr. Toots, at the natural precaution to have tasted some end of the half, “threw off his alle drops of the academic " nectar giance and put on his ring, and hap- before we started, and even to have pening to mention the Doctor in casual a provision of it for our journey. This conversation shortly afterwards, spoke was not without adventures, For on of him as · Blimber,'” so, half an hour account either of the runaway habits after the close of the parliamentary of our spirited steeds, or because or scientific session, the circumspect the drivers understand less how to philosopher, or conscientious censor, or manage them than the punch-glasses, grave legislator, will turn out to be we have pushed on not so very
far a gay, heedless freshman, enjoying ere the sledge upsets and some of himself at a glass of "Swedish punch,
are rolling in the accompanied by cheerful laugh, song, snow. At length, however, all-ladies music, theatricals, dancing, aud other and gentlemen, runaway and steadyamusements.
reach the goal, and burdened with old All the different kinds of merry Northern mead in mighty silverstudent amusements centre in the plated horns, presented by former “student-sexa” and its appurten- Swedish princes, laboriously climb the ances. Of course, this can vary inde- wide-renowned hills of old Upsala. finitely as to number of partakers On their tops, with an extensive view and breadth of arrangements, but round the very cradle of the Swedish the more characteristic features are nation, with a blue-skyed heaven above, not difficult to trace. The battle- and Odin, Thor, and Frei “ buried" field of fun is generally the sena- beneath, songs resound and horns torial - philosophical hall just men- circle among the brothers to the honour tioned, now transformed into of the vernacular gods, who still
speak and sing in the “Eddas,” and however, the contents of the dishes of the “ Fathers” who a thousand are far more important than the years ago brought forth rich dishes themselves, and truly there terial and intellectual harvests out was plenty to calm the most ravenous of the desolate wildernesses of the appetite.
appetite. Polyphemus himself need North. On
return we not have left this table of vast warmed by several dances, the writer dimensions unsatisfied ! Beef, veal, himself being engaged in a Swedish mutton, pork, hare, chickens, partridge; waltz by a native-born Englishman salmon, eel, herring—even “Norwegian from Oxford. Whether Terpsichore herring in paper" - pike, sardines; laughed or wept, no
cheese, butter, bread; potatoes, spinbut the performers themselves were ach, radishes; compote, tart, cake, greatly pleased. A free-and-easy sweetmeats ; apples, walnuts, raisins, luncheon too, similar to a “sexa," oranges; chablis, hock, sherry, Borthough not on so large a scale, deaux, muscat, and “Swedish aqua precedes the entrance into the vita.” A liberal host, indeed! And theatre, where other members of the so watchfully as he cares for us all nation are acting a French vaudeville. throughout the supper! The table Intense applause on the part of the pub- never lack anything whatever, but lic testifies to the ability of the players, assiduous waiters are busy suppleand the ladylike graces and loveliness menting the old provisions and bringof the student actresses” must have ing forth new ones continually. I caused keen heart-pains to many a hardly disparage the hospitality of Philistine spectator. By the way, I Penelope by applying Homer's descripwill notice here that most nations have tion to our restaurateur : a theatre of their own fairly well appointed, and furnishing the students
“With sheep and shaggy goats the porkers
bled, or twice a year with scenical
And the proud steer was on the marble entertainments. The piece-the parts spread ; for women inclusive- is throughout With fire prepared they deal the morsels acted by students only, even when
Wine rosy-bright the brimming goblets ladies are present among the public.
crowned." By the
prominent studentartists public dramatic performances Of the whole fabric of drinks and are also given at the theatre of Upsala, dishes at such a supper as this, and even outside the city.
the first in honour and moment are The doors of Thalia finally closed,
the “Swedish” bread and brandy, those to the “sexa" hall are thrown They form the essential part, and open, and into it we march to the air without them the most experienced of a student song mingling with the chef, with all the gastronomic wines tones of a band playing in the gallery. and meats of Paris, would be unA table of vast dimensions down the able to bring an Upsala “sexa' middle of the room contains the pièces into existence. The Swedish brandy, de résistance, but other small ones are made from potatoes, rye, or barley, ranged at intervals along the walls. The is of different sorts, and that comlatter are covered by milk jugs, beer monly used at “the bread - andand porter bottles, tumblers, and such butter table," and called “Talu like primitive matters; but the big brandy," is, when good, both anione is dressed in a festival, gentle- mating and of excellent taste. It manlike way, bouquets, flowerpots, and aims at giving an appetite, and does trees out of the Linnæan botanical not fail in its aim. At a “sexa it is garden mixing with silver and porce- the first to be “mouthed in,” and “the lain plates on a ground of shining whole" may be followed by the half," white. To a hungry soul like myself, “the third,' and so forth, these expres