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the fearful scenes of her childhood, or tioned, and it was always to her equals, the poverty and privation of her youth never to her inferiors. She passed for and middle age. The courage which had being fond of money, but it was to supported her mother on the scaffold accumulate for her children-she had had not deserted her, she had gone no other interests. Life is singularly through what would have killed women simplified in these existences, bounded of another stamp. Reverses and dangers by their own room, absolutely despotic found her undaunted, ready as ever to as head of the family, and as completely risk life and fortune for her sovereign independent as to fortune, with the or her “idea," and rearing her children power of absolute disposal of it at will. to the same devoted loyalty.

With her inferiors, her dependants, The second Vendée proved that they above all, with her personal servantswere the equals of the Lescures and La the valet de chambre, a sort of Caleb Rochejaquelins of the first. To their Balderstone, who often filled the place children these women were tenderly of five or six of our servants, and her and even passionately attached; but lady's maid, an old woman like herself the tone of maternal authority-what- —she spoke with a familiarity which ever the age — of decision in all made my young eyes open wide at its family matters, and of undisputed contrast with our English home ways. sovereignty at home, never ceased She said vous to her husband if she but with life. A prominent feature in still had one, but would tutoyer her them was the strength and constancy servants. The distance in her own of their friendship, and this has been mind was too immeasurable to fear a trait in French character in all times. any possible advantage being taken of Their time, their house, their fortune this freedom. The devoted attachment if required, is devoted to their friends; of these servants through the perils they will leave all to nurse them in ill- of the Revolution, through exile and ness, to console them in sorrow. Mme privation, justified the system. Ill. de Staël, in L’Influence des Passions, paid, ill-fed on the remains of their places friendship in the rank of a master's table, snatched behind a passion, and devotes to it one of her screen in the ante-room, harder worked most eloquent chapters. These friend- than our servants could conceive posships used to be carried on without sible, lodged anyhow, anywhere, they interruption from the convent days. still preserved the old feudal feeling One of them told me that for sixty years of clanship and reverential devotion she and her friend had never failed to to the family they and their forefathers meet on the same anniversaryand spend had served time out of mind. a month or two together, although It must be said that to them the dwelling a long distance apart. Proud family were affectionately kind, nursed of birth rather than of rank or social them in illness, took a part in all their position—which, as she never went out concerns, danced at their weddings, of her house, she only valued for the were godparents to their children, and court it brought her-she loved to showed them that lively interest, that recall the hauts faits of her ancestors, human sympathy, worth far more than and the history of her family. But she the gold they perhaps had not to give, equally valued that of others; she held although the old age of these retainers that noblesse obligeshe might commit was never left without provision. Many many sins, but never a meanness; and of the great families being poor, the would sacrifice any interests to the number of their domestics was small, honour and glorification of her name ! although the dependants and members Haughty she was undeniably, some- might be numerous ; but the one whose times cruelly, insolently so; but it convenience was never neglected, who was the naïf haughtiness of one who was honoured with personal intercourse never has had her superiority ques

and long conversations with his noble

mistress, was the cook-always a man, came the first guest, yielding the place for the cuisinière only belonged to the in turns to each arrival. The other bourgeoisie.

elderly ladies had their work at a My Grande Dame was invariablyfond table apart, where the visitors came of her dinner, rather boasted of being to pay their devoirs; and—again gourmande. The Princesse de Poix used apart--the young women and girls of to hold as an axiom, que le signe distinctif the family, perhaps at a tea-table, a d'une femme bien née, c'est de se connaître novelty then beginning to come in, en cuisine. French ladies mostly satisfy although not much understood, for a this requirement. They drink very girl friend said to me one day, “Comlittle wine, generally de l'eau rougie, ment va ta maman ?" “ Mais bien ; no tea or coffee after dinner, but they pourquoi ?” “Ah! c'est qu'elle prenait are not afraid of a tiny glass of the du thé hier.” They still considered it delicious liqueurs that

that are served as a tisane and medicinal. Politics round in such numbers at a French were not talked at these houses, for the house.

simple reason that the Grande Dame Whatever the variety of character had none but loyalty. To her there between them, there is one point in was but one party— Monarchy; but which all agree, love of conversation. one danger-Democracy. La Charte The Grande Dame's real enjoyment was something Louis XVIII. had kindly in life was her salon. By this term is given to his people, but was never to meant a reception held every evening, interfere with his good pleasure of where the guests never expect food, sending away one set of ministers or invitation after their first intro- for another, or passing any laws or duction. The salons I speak of were,

enactments. Her code was neither I imagine, rather restricted to their Liberal nor Conservative, but les Gentilown circle. I was too young at the hommes et la Canaille. Strange as it may time to go into society, so it is only seem to us, such was her world of ideas from what I heard from my young from 1804 to 1830. There were in Paris friends, and from those I have since at that time, as later, many salons, all seen, that I can trace the difference differing in their society, literary, politiwhich seems to have existed between cal, artistic, diplomatic, scientific, even the past and the present society. The theatrical ; some receiving the young halo of veneration which surrounded and brilliant world, some devoted to the aged grandmother, the heroine, the the graver questions of the day, some victim of catastrophes and misfortunes, combining on one day in the week all of which perhaps history offers no parties, all specialities-except les enother example, made her and her tastes nuyeux. It would be far beyond my and amusement the one object of the scope to enter into details of them. family reception ; but they were not so There is a charming volume called Les amusing to others, with the exception Salons de Paris, written, I believe, by of the Hôtel Beauvau, and one or M. E. de Girardin, which may entwo isolated cases. Still they were lighten English people as to a form very agreeable ways of passing the of society which does not exist and evening, judging from the few which never can flourish in England. survived the reverses of 1830. The During the last ten years of the old lady sat enthroned in her comfort- Restoration these salons constituted able arm-chair, the only one in the the chief société of the noblesse. Louis room—people did not loil as they do Dix-huit, infirm and selfish, did little now. A fauteuil, that is one of those towards restoring the brilliancy of little stiff-backed articles with straight former days. Few courtiers survived short


see ranged the emigration. My Grande Dame's round the old state rooms in French husband, if still alive, was a chambellan, palaces, was placed near her, to which but probably too old to attend Court,



certainly too old to give life to it. they went to masked balls; it was They led a very dull existence. Too said that, worst of all, they learnt poor to give fêtes themselves, and avoid- English, and that, ignoring Waterloo, ing the new nobility, they only went some of them actually visited Lonto the Court or Embassies, and occa- don in the season, bringing back sionally to the Rothschild's and Del- English fashions in horses and carmar's, as neutral houses.

riages, and even the taste for clubs, The gloom of Charles Dix's Court, which before then were mere political after the assassination of the Duc réunions. The parents wisely felt de Berri, closed the door to all but that the next generation must prothe friends and adherents of the old gress with their times; they had too order of things. The young generation much sense to attempt to stem the began to horrify their parents by torrent. The grandmother in her their indifference to such dull amuse- salon, though shorn of the pomp of her ments and wearisome favours. The former stately existence, impoverished, young widowed Duchesse de Berri, but surrounded by her children's love after a few years of seclusion, attempted and care, attended as dutifully as ever to give again some animation to the by the young reformers themselves, Tuileries, but she failed, and who can glided away her last days, scarcely wonder that, unheeding the royal realising the changes around her. She frowns, she collected around her the re- was growing very old, she had no bellious youth of the noble Faubourg, longer vigour to use her restraining and with them sought, in the brilliant influence, had she retained it. To her circle of the Palais Royal, the pleasures darkening sight the cloud which was denied them in the stern and solemn lowering over the Monarchy bore no Tuileries With her young cousins- threat. Few of them lived to see the the Duc de Chartres, growing into Bourbons a third time dethroned, driven manhood with the promise he so well to exile or death. Before the Revokept of being the handsomest and most lution of 1830 most of them died charming man of his day; with away, and with the accession of the the Duc d'Aumale, and the rest of Régime Bourgeois ended the Grande the gay young troupe, they rode, they Dame de l'Ancien Régime. drove ponies, they read books à l'index,

Augusta L. CADOGAN.



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