Page images

In early youth, who sooth'd my wo?"
Who mourn'd when sickness laid me low,
But whisperd “ mercy deals the blow ?”

My Mother.
Who taught my simple heart the way,
In feeble accents first to pray ?
Who watch'd my slambers, cheerd my day?

My Mother
Who strove to teach my heart to glow
With gratitude, and melt at wo?
Each selfish feeling to forego ?

My Mother
Who liv'd in peace and died in faiths;
And blest me with her latest breath?
Who grasp'd my hand and smil'd in death!

My Mother.
O! shade of her I held so dear!
Thy lov'd remembrance still I bear
In my sad heart-thou livest there,

My Mother,


Jesus, saving his people from their sins, by H. will be seasonably attended to. The Editors hope often to receive the fruits of his pious study.

C. Y. A. on the state of literature in New-England, contains matter for two or three very profitable numbers.

Philologos, No. 6, is reserved for another month.

Letters to a lady in high life will be admitted, if upon careful perusal, they are found sufficiently interesting for publication.

Review of M'Farland's historical view of heresies, and of other late publica. tions, will appear in our next No.

Biographical sketch of President Davies is just received.

We are happy to find on our files such rich materials for future numbers. Our correspondents

will accept our cordial thanks. We request that they continue their labours for the diffusion of knowledge and piety. It would give us great pleasure, could we consistently gratify them in every instance. But they must consider that our first object is, to render the publication useful, and that of such a variety of matter as we have before us, a part must be left. We are under sacred obligations to make the selection and to perform the whole ardu. ous work according to our best judgment, and an invariable regard to the cause of Christian truth and holiness. Rather than be biassed by personal regards, by the hope of favour, or the fear of reproach, we ought to relinquish the work, or commit it to the hands of more faithful men.


Messrs. CUSHING & APPLETON, Salem ; Thomas & WHIPPLE, Newbury. port; W. BUTLER, Northampton ; WHITING & BACKUS, Albany: GEORGE Richards, Utica; Collins & PERKINS, New York; W. P. FARRAND, Philadelphia ; Isaac Beers & Co. New Haven, 0. D. Cook, Hartford BENJAMIN CUMMINS, Windsor, Vt. ; JoszPK CUSHING, Amherst, N. H. ; Mr. Davis, Hanover, N, H.; Rev.ALVAN HYDE, Lee, Mass.; J. KenneDY, Alexandria.




No. 16.] SEPTEMBER, 1806. [No. 4. Vol. II.



(Concluded from p. 106.)


The principles of reformation vided they did not obscure the which the people in various design of the ordinance. He orparts of Germany had imbibed, dered communicants to submit rendered them impatient of those to examination, required multiplied superstitions which knowledge of the nature and end were still practised, and solici- of the institution, and of the adtous to obtain a more simple and vantage expected to be derived scriptural ritual. They looked from it, as the qualification of adto Luther as the best fitted to mission, and appointed both organize a system of worship kinds to be administered, and which might supersede the use that those who would take only of that which he had proved to be one, should have neither.* so universally corrupted ; and The Bohemian reformers, with a prudence which, in gener. named Picards or Waldenses, not al, marked his conduct when he only corresponded with Luther, had time for deliberation, or but sent one of their pastors to was not inflamed by passion, he hold a conference with him ; in introduced such changes as si- consequence of which, he en. lenced the clamours of the multi- tertained more favourable tude, while every thing, in any opinion of their sentiments than degree tolerable, was allowed to he had formerly done. Having remain. In baptism, the lan- found one of their treatises On guage only was altered, though the Real Presence of Christ in the two years afterwards, when the Sacrament, he composed a short reformation was more advanced, treatise on the subject, which he many of the ancient ceremonies dedicated to them, and in which, were retrenched. In the Lord's though he censured their docSupper, none of the rites were trine on this point, and their adabolished, but such as related to herence to the seven popish the false notion of its being a sa- sacraments, being yet uninflamed crifice, and to the adoration of with a controversial spirit, he the host ; though pastors were left to judge for themselves, pro- • Seckend. $ 136. Vol. II. No. 4.



[ocr errors][ocr errors]

did not regard them as heretics, der the name of Clement VII. but as Christian brethren. About who adopted a very different the same time, he wrote to the method from his predecessor, in Calixtins, who, though they re- terminating the religious distained all the rites of the Romish putes of Germany, determining church, except the restriction of to support all the abuses of the the communion to one kind, church, and to resist every were, for this heresy, denied proposal for the meeting of a ordination to their priests by general council. He deputed the bishops of the country. He Cardinal Campegius as his leendeavoured to open their eyes gate to the diet of Nuremberg, to the abuses which prevailed, which met in February, 1524, and contended, that the circum- with orders to procure the restances of their situation warrant. establishment of the edict of ed them to dispense with popish Worms, to delay answering the ordination, and to give to their hundred grievances formerly own teachers the authority of produced, and to elude the reordained pastors.*

quest. of a free council. His enHitherto none bat monks had deavours were ineffectgal ; he requitted their cloisters, and re- tired mortified wïth his reception, nounced their vows; but during and enraged at the decree which this year, nine ladies of quali- was passed ; and which, though ty left the convent of Nimpt- marked with an inconsistence schen in Misnia, convinced by which can be explained only by the writings of Luther, of the the distraction of opinion which nullity of their religious obliga- pervaded its framers, defeated tions, and of the truth of the the wishes and plans of the biedoctrines which he espoused. rarchal court. It ordained, that Among them was Catharine de the edict of Worms should be Bore, whom this reformer after- obeyed, as far as possible ; that wards espoused. They were the Pope should, without delay, conducted to Wittemberg, where convoke an assembly to dicide on an asylum was provided for them the subjects of dispute; that in the by Learnard Coppe, one of the interim, the diet to meet at Spires magistrates of Torgaul, who, in should give them an attentive exconcert with Luther, devised amination ; while every prince means for their subsistence, af- should select men of knowledge ter their parents were in vain and integrity, who might prepare entreated to receive them. Lu- means of accommodation.* Luther also wrote their apology; ther was not more satisfied than and paved the way for their the Pope was with this decree. example being followed by oth- He published it along with the er nuns in similar circumstan- obnoxious edict to which it gave ces.t

some authority; and in marginal Adrian died in September, notes, a preface, and a concludand was succeeded in the Ponti- ing address, treated all who ficate by Julius de Medicis, un- should sanction its execution as

ferocious savages, and a new * Seck. $ 154. Beausoh. tom. iii. p. 55-60. Seck. $ 153. & ad. 1. Seckend. Sect. 58, 5 162, 163.

race of giants raising their arms Erasmus, the friend of learning against Heaven; lamented the and of learned men, who had blindness of Germany in obscur- long been urged to take a decided ing the truth, and opposing its part against the reformation, own salvation ; deplored the con- alarmed by the threats of his ene. duct of the Princes in riveting mies, who were ready to deabout their own necks the chain nounce him as a heretic, and of bondage, which they had al- allured by the flattering expresmost thrown off ; and reproach- sions of favour which Rome held ed the Emperor, and the Kings out to him, notwithstanding the of England and Hungary, with remonstrances of his best friends, claiming the title of Defenders published a treatise on Free-will, of the Faith, while they exerted designed to be a refutation of themselves to subvert it.*, Luther's sentiments on that sub

Carlostadt, who had lived in ject. It was received with great obscurity since his connexion coolness by the popish party, with the fanatics of Zwickaw, who scarcely knew whether to retired this year to Orlamund, consider it as favourable or hoswhere he established his opin- tile to their cause ; and with ions, and procured the abolition great indignation by the friends of images, mass, and other Ro- of Luther, who resented the mish superstitions. Luther, asperity and contumely with with a violence unworthy of his which it treated him. It was an character, followed him thither, effort of complaisance, and it had and the result of the conference its reward. It was not answer. was an order for him lo leave the ed till 1525.1 states of the Elector. He with- In October, 1524, Luther redrew to Strasburg, and extended nounced the habit and name of an the interests of the truth in that Augustine monk, and assumed corner. He maintained that the habit and name of Doctor ; Christ is present in the Supper, and in June, 1525, married Cathin a figurative or representative arine de Bore, a lady of noble manner only. Luther, on the birth, who had renounced the contrary,

asserted the real veil, and left her convent from a substantial presence under the conviction of the truth. This elements. Zuinglius and Oe. step astonished his friends, and colampadius defended Carlostadt, opened the mouths of his enewhich' Luther no sooner knew, mies, They represented inthan he wrote against them in continence as the secret motive the bitterest and most abusive of hiş enmity to monachism, and style. This was the origin of the church which supported it; those fatal disputes, which so long and accused him of having lived divided the first reformers ; re- in impurity with her before their tarded the progress of the refore marriage. Though his innomation, and at length produced cence was unquestionable, the a lasting schism in the Protes. coldness which his best friends tant church.t

discovered in vindicating him, In the month of September, united to the handle which it

Seck. $ 165.

Ib. 174.

Seck. 179.


gave to his enemies, made such mercy in a small treatise Against an impression on his mind as re- the Celestial Prophets ; which, quired all the affection and elo- under the appearance of conquence of Melancthon to

demning the new fanatics, seems move.

to have had little other object Amid the fatal commotions in than to reproach Carlostadt, and 1525 and 1526, occasioned by refute the iconoclasts. In it, he the revolt of the peasants in argued for the continuation of the Germany, who rose against their term mass, for which Carlostadt masters, and with a frenzy im- had substituted the word supper ; pregnated in some minds by fa- for the elevation of the host, naticism, and in others by li- though he acknowledged it was centiousness, endeavoured to not practised by Christ; and for subvert the distinctions of rank the real presence, which he exand property, and equalize the plained by affirming that the bowhole mass of the people, Lu- dy of our Saviour is united to the ther was firm in the cause of or- elements, as fire with red hot der, and exerted himself to re- iron. Carlostadt was anxious for establish tranquillity on the reconciliation, offered to retract, principles of truth. The pre- declared his abhorrence of Muntext of Christian liberty, by cer's sentiments, and at length which some of the revolutionists effected an accommodation with justified their conduct, he suc- his adversaries. But the concessfully refuted ; and on the troversy with Zuinglius imone hand besought the people to mediately succeeded, and contin. consider, that they were not im- ued for a long series of years ; partial judges in their own cause; during which Luther often had that they could not authorize conferences with the Sacramentafrom the gospel a spirit directly rians of Switzerland, and mani. opposite to its precepts, which fested a spirit of intemperance enjoin obedience to magistrates, which led him more than once to even though capricious and un- forget the precepts of Chrisjust ; that patience, not resist- tianity, and to oppose the prosance, was the duty of Christians, pects of tranquillity which were and that they ought to seek re- enjoyed. In the life of Zuinglidress by lawful means only : and us, we shall have occasion to on the other, censured the consider more fully the reasonprinces' as the cause of these ings and conduct of his antagonist disturbances, and exhorted them on this point. to remove that iron rod of op- During 1526, Luther was enpression, which they had so long gaged chiefly in reforming the lifted up against the rights and mode of conducting the worship happiness of their subjects.t and ceremonies of the church.

The unfortunate Carlostadt He established the use of catewas still in Germany, despised chisms, in which the creed, the by some, and hated by others. decalogue, and the Lord's pray. Luther had treated him without er were explained ; the reading

and exposition of Scripture from • Seck. lib. 1. $178. lib. ii. 55. † Ib. lib. ii. p. 1–14.

# Seckend. $ 9, and ad.

[ocr errors]
« EelmineJätka »