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taking the long walks which are enjoyed by almost every one in England. There they make a pleasure of a five or ten mile tramp over hill and dale. With us, nowadays, it is a labor, and being always busy, we deem it a waste of time; and yet there never was a greater error. A pedestrian tour undertaken by young persons, while affording constant pleasure if one only keeps his senses open to Nature, is probably the most effectual mode of exercising the whole body. No other kind of exercise so thoroughly and economically gains that end, and so tends to keep at bay any hereditary tendency to pulmonary disease.

It is right to dwell upon this topic, because the proper kind and amount of exercise is a most important element for success in warding off consumption. As such it should be attended to by parent and guardian, and by the man or woman long after guardianship shall have been outgrown. Indeed, without a sufficiency of it during the whole of life, the person predisposed to consumption will have his or her tendencies in that evil direction increased many fold. It must generally be in the open air, and daily. No amount of physical exercise in-doors will be sufficient. It must be taken by both sexes, in all weather, unless during the most stormy, or when the person is temporarily, from any cause, decidedly and acutely ill. But this plea of invalidism must not be urged for any length of time; otherwise more trouble will arise from the confinement than from the exposure.

There are various kinds of exercise. Some are better than others. Some may become either directly or indirectly prejudicial.

I will name the following as among the principal means of exercise :-1. Walking. 2. Running, or Foot Racing. 3. Dancing. 4. Horseback. 5. Driving (open or closed carriage). 6. Gymnastic Exercises (hard, light clubs). 7. Boxing. 8. Bowling. 9. Rowing. 10. Swimming.

Walking. Of these the most universally applicable, and usually the best form of exercise, is walking. As stated above, unfortunately our climate with its snows and intense cold in winter and equally intense and depressing heat in summer, prevents


all of us from walking as much as would be useful or as much as can be done in some other countries throughout the year. . Whenever it is feasible, it probably exercises the whole body better than any other method. It becomes, however, very uninteresting, even in a large city, if made simply for health's sake. Therefore it is always well to combine with it another object, either of business or pleasure. Hence a profession that will compel out-of-door exercise is the best prescription one can give. I have in recollection now a case of a naturally feeble man who had very decided signs of pulmonary disease, with bleeding from the lungs. He was a newspaper-carrier when he called to see me after one of his bleedings. I feared, at that time, that exposure during the winter would be very pernicious and perhaps fatal to him. Under this exercise, however, taken daily in rain and storms of all weather, and by the use of cod-liver oil, he wholly recovered. Those of my patients who have most frequently recovered are they who, by advice, commenced years since, and still continue, several times daily, their "constitutional” walks around the "Com

” in Boston (about a mile). They will continue to

” do so while they live, because they know from experience now that not only their health, but their real comfort, depend upon a strict attention to that course. Omission of that exercise for a single day perceptibly affects them unfavorably. Two more obvious advantages arise from this course :

1. Every muscle in the body is gently and uniformly brought into action by the swing of the legs and arms, and consequently of the trunk in a vertical direction. The undulations made by the head, chest, and abdomen in a vertical plane are thus not only according to "Hogarth's line of beauty,” but also in that tending to perfect health. Every internal organ is gently stimulated to more robust action. The circulation goes more freely and uniformly.

2. Never, in a common walk, does the person breathe twice the same air, because he is constantly changing his position. This fact alone is of incalculable advantage. Some writers contend that the re-breathing of air once partially used is one of the most fertile causes of consumption.

The most favorable time for walking is undoubtedly about mid-day in winter, and in the morning and toward evening in summer. Late in the evening is less useful, because of the liability to dampness and coldness and absence of the sun's rays, which of themselves seem sometimes to put vigor into the animal frame, and their absence is correspondingly felt in a depression of the powers. Nevertheless, one cannot deny that there is a great energy sometimes given by a brisk walk in a cool, dry starlight or moonlight night, when the atmosphere seems not only free from all chilling moisture, but absolutely pure and infinitely exhilarating.

Running. Should we allow a consumptive child to indulge inordinately in any exercise, as, for instance, in running ? Ought older persons to do so for the sake of gaining a certain end, for example, reaching a certain horse-car or railroad terminus ? Fast running I think pernicious. It produces violent motions of the heart and too rapid breathing, and consequently, great tendency of the blood to the lungs. Violent palpitations are always produced, and a breathlessness at times ensues, from which the patient never fairly recovers. The heart, it is true, is usually the chief sufferer. I have distinctly in mind a case of heart disease that began after such an overexertion, and in consequence thereof, as I believe. Spitting of blood from the lungs has, at times, occurred. Neither of these effects tends to improve the general health, and not infrequently they injure the lungs, and therefore should be avoided by the consumptively inclined. Of course in the above remark I have intended only to condemn inordinate and forced running, continued for some time. I do not mean to prevent either child or adult from occasionally hastening

It would be utter folly to try to check the natural instinct of a child, which makes him run and leap for joy. But all long-continued, violent, rapid running should be avoided by the consumptively inclined, as fraught with possible evil, and therefore prejudicial to their perfect health.

his pace.

Dancing. At appropriate hours and for a proper length of time nothing can be better. It promotes grace and ease of motion and positive health if used thus properly. Carried far into the night, and under all the stimuli usually connected with our modern large dancing-parties, in which heat and fatigue of body are followed sometimes by long exposures to a bitterly cold atmosphere, it has not a single quality commanding the respect of one who would educate a consumptively-inclined child to perfect health. Not a few of my patients have referred to the dancing-party as one of the worst elements in causing the helpless state in which they have been when they consulted me.

Horseback Exercise. Perhaps nothing can be better for the system of one tending to consumption than regular daily exercise of this kind. It is more exhilarating than a walk. One changes his atmosphere more thoroughly. It does not fatigue as walking or running, and therefore can be continued longer than either of these. It stimulates the circulation, with less bodily effort. Hence from earliest times it has been recommended as a remedy for those who have actually consumption commencing. One gentleman whom I knew, and who died at an advanced age of another disease, considered that he owed his recovery from severe lung disease, and threatened consumption, chiefly to daily horseback exercise for two years, and a regular walk subsequently three times daily until his death. It is true that during all that time he continued to use daily, as he began at twenty-eight years of age, his two glasses of sherry wine. Some may doubt the value of the latter prescription. I do not, but believe that the two means contributed to the finally good result, one aiding the other till the perfect cure was arrived at. The late Dr. Jackson had great faith in this kind of exercise. One gentleman, a physician, who had frequent hemorrhages, and to whom Dr. Jackson had prescribed horseback riding in his every-day business, neglected it, and drove in his chaise instead. Dr. Jackson met him, and said, "You will have a hemorrhage until you follow my advice exactly. Leave your chaise and get on horseback.” That advice was followed, with cure as the result. Care in the selection of a horse is necessary. An easy pacer or galloper is better than a hard, square, solid trotter. The latter is apt to cause pains in the chest and undue fatigue.

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Driving. This is an easier kind of exercise, and may be used for those who are quite ill, or recently convalescent. But it is less healthful than either of the other methods. An entirely open carriage without any cover is the best kind of vehicle, except in the very coldest of weather. One open in front, as the chaise or buggy, phaeton, etc., stands next. The back and sides may be half thrown down, whereby the vehicle resembles the open wagon. The back should never be rolled up while the sides are crect, because the draught thereby produced will be liable to cause a cold, and consequent injury to the lungs. The closed carriage is the least valuable, and especially when the windows are allowed to remain shut, as they often are by some during the whole drive.

Gymnastics. Doubtless gymnastics may increase the power of the muscles; but I greatly doubt whether they are of great service in warding off phthisis. Some who had been stalwart gymnasts I have met with in consumption. It is also suggested that the fact, that after great exertion and training apparently to perfect health, they suddenly cease from all exercise, causes the system to suffer. The swinging of heavy clubs around the head cannot be recommended. Less exercise than that with the arms at times causes hemorrhage in those consumptively inclined. The lighter kinds of gymnastics, as used in some schools, may be of more service. Nevertheless, all of them, from their very violence, cannot be as appropriate as the methods previously named.

Boxing. Used carefully, this is a good exercise; yet there is often too much strain put on the heart and lungs, as in running, etc. Moreover, it may be questioned whether severe blows upon the chest are ever of use. Prize-fighters are said to be specially prono to consumption, and it is thought that the severe pounding they sometimes yet upon the chest contrib

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