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Lowell side into two canals belonging to the "Proprietors of the Locks and Canals on the Merrimack River." The canals convey the water to the various manufacturing corporations.

The heights of the water in the river at Lowell on the various days when examinations were made were as follows at 6.30 A. M. :

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Two or three weeks previous to the November examination there had been quite a freshet, owing to heavy rains. At this time, however, the amount of suspended matter was very small.

C. Ilunt's Falls.—Just below Lowell the Merrimack is joined by the Concord, a stream small in comparison with the river into which it flows, but not of inconsiderable size. It furnishes power (in all about 500 horse-power) to several manufacturing establishments. Below the junction of the Concord and Merrimack are "Hunt's Falls," where the river flows rapidly over a bed strewn with boulders. The water at this point was of necessity taken near the shore. The current is rapid, however, even close to the banks, and samples were taken from both sides of the stream, As the factories are on the right-hand side of the river, and as the Concord enters on the same side, the character of the water is here very different at different parts of the current.

D. Above Lawrence.-From Hunt's Falls the river flows to Lawrence where it encounters the dam of the Essex Company, and is thus diverted to furnish power to the various manufacturing establishments. The locality from which the specimens were taken was about half a mile above the dam, near the boundary between Lawrence and Methuen and Andover. At this point the river is some 800 feet wide, and the

depth of the water at different points was found to be as follows:

.

.

At a distance of about 100 feet from south shore,

200 400 600

27 ft. 37 66 36 66 23 66

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E. Below Lawrence.-A short distance below Lawrence the canal which furnishes water to the larger corporations enters the river on the north side, and at about the same point the Spicket River also joins the Merrimack. The Spicket is a small stream. It receives drainage from some manufactories, and some sewage from dwellings. The canal on the south side of the river empties into the Shawshine River, which, in its turn, empties into the Merrimack somewhat below the mouth of the Spicket. The station ” chosen was below the mouth of the Spicket, and above that of the Shawshine. At this point the surface of the river is dotted over with bits of wool and cotton; the water is covered with a greasy film, and sometimes thickly strewn with flocks of soap-suds.

From what has been said of the magnitude of the manufacturing operations carried on upon the banks of the river (and nothing has been said of the very great number of paper-mills, grist-mills and small factories upon the numerous brooks and small streams which empty into the river), we might at first sight suppose that the effect would be to make the water very foul, and to cause it to be unfit to use for

any domestic purpose. Inspection of the Tables I. and Ia. (as well as of the Table Ib., in which are collected mean results) will show that such is not the case; and if we observe the mean result of the examination of eleven samples taken from the river just below Lawrence, where to the eye it is the most filthy, we shall see that the amount of dissolved solid matter is very small.

TABLE I.-E.camination of Merrimack River. [Results expressed in Parts per 100,000.]

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0.0044 0.0113
0.0044 0.0113
0.0043 0.0091
0.0048 0.0091
0.0047 0.0153
0.0060 0.0150
0.0047 0.0104
0.0044 0.0100
0.0045 0.0111
0.0010 0.0131
0.0053 0.0100
0.0051 0.0113
0.0010 0.0087
0.0044 0.0093
0.0053 0.0117
0.0010 0.0080
0.0073 0.0289
0.0047 0.0247
0.0047, 0.0206
0.0049 0.0240
0.0044 | 0.0347

66

2.40
3.56
2.24
2.96
1.76
2.08
1.56
1.80
1.60
3.60
2.48
2.08
2.60
4.64
3.84
9.80
3.40
2.76
3.16
3.20
4.36

1.78
1.44
1.72
1.68
2.32
1.84
1.44
1.84
1.96
0,96
2.00
1.68
1.40
1.44
1.92
1.16
3.08
3.32
2.61
2.80
3.6+

4.18
5.00
3.96
4.64
4.08
3.92
3.00
3.64
3.56
4.56
4.48
3.76
4.00
6.08
5.76
4.96
6.48
6.08
5.80
6.00
8.00

0.16
0.14
0.14
0.14
0,14
0.16
0.10
0,12
0.12
0.14
0.20
0,16
0.16
0.16
0.16
0.18
0.28
0.24
0.22
0,22
0.38

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6910
7011
7112

Under Central Bridge,

Lowell,

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1.89

10918 Monday, Sept. 8, 73,
11013

Below Lowell at Hunt's
1373 Wednesday, Sept 10, 73, . Falls. Right-hand side
12013

of 1904 Thursday, Nov. 13, 73,

: 1

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1 Entrance to new canal. At surfaee. : Opposite Inlet-chamber, 100 feet from shore. The unfiltered water gave, inorganic, 2.00; organic, 2.40; total, 4.40. 3 Entrance to new canal. Strong wind blowing.

* Opposite Inlet.chamber. At surface.

• Opposite Inlet-chamber, 6 feet below surface. 6 Entrance to new canal. 7 Taken by Geo. E. Evans. 7 feet below surface.

& Under centre of left-hand span. 11 feet below surface. • Under centre of left-hand span. 6 feet below surface. 10 Under centre of middle span. 14 feet.

11 Under centre of middle span. 6 feet.
12 Under centre of middle span. 10-12 feet.

13 These samples were taken from the shore. The current is, however, very rapid even close to the banks.
14 Taken about one-half mile above dam. Middle of river. 15 Taken about one-eighth mile above dam. Middle of river. 16 Just above dain, Middle of stream.
17 Just above dam. 6 feet below surface.

18 One-half mile above dam. About 200 feet from south shore.
19 Just above dam. Middle of stream. 6 feet below surface.
20 Two other determinations in the middle of the stream, made at localities but slightly removed from each other, gave 1.85 с.c. and 1.83 c.c., respectively, at a tempera-

ture of 19.25° C.
21 Just above dam. Middle of stream. 12 feet below surface.

29 Just above dam. About 200 feet from north shore. 6 feet below.
23 Same as No. 145.
24 Same as No. 146. 6 feet below.

25 Same as No. 147. 12 feet below.

26 Same as No. 148. 14 feet below. 27 Taken near right-hand shore. 14 feet below. 28 Taken near middle of stream. * Taken near left-hand bank. Centre of most rapid current.

TABLE I.— Examination of Merrimack River-Continued.

SOLID RESIDUE OF FILTERED

WATER.

Oxygen, cubic centi

meters to the liter.

Temperature in centi

grade degrees

Organic and

Volatile.

Total.

Chlorine.

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150% Thursday, Sept. 18, 73, 151, 152 16792 Thursday, Sept. 25, '73, 16833 16934 117 Wednesday, Sept. 10, '73, . 118

Below Lawrence, just

above the mouth of the Shawshine River,

0.0024 0.0100 0.0010 0.0140 0.0035 0.0148 0.0027 0.0150 0.0013 0.0110 0.0020 0.0120 0.0026 0.0101 0.0040 0.0127

3.30

2.60 2.36 3.16 2.96 3.16 2.68 2.72 2.84

1.96 1.84 2.04 1.36 1.24 1.76 2.08 2.00

4.56 4.20 5.20 4.32 4.40 4.44 4.80 4.84

0.20 0.20 0.20 0.16 0.16 0.16

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Between Lawrence and

Haverhill,

0.18

1.74

DATE

LOCALITY.

" Albuminoid Ammo

Number.

Ammonia,

Inorganic.

nia."

30 Abou 200 feet from south shore.

$1 Taken at different points near the north shore. In the current. * Abou. 250 feet from north shore. 4-5 feet below.

82 About 250 feet from north shore. 84 About 250 feet from south shore.

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