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statement of man's condition, as under the curse of the law; but it is connected with language, which implies the actual salvation of every human being. P. DVII. 1. 1. Neither, &c. The willingness then to good is from ourselves, and not, in any degree, from the Holy Spirit. This used to be called Pelagianism. The riches of virtue.' How different from the language of the Scriptures! Finding a readiness.' "The preparations of the "heart in man-is of the LORD." "LORD, thou "hast heard the desire of the humble; thou wilt prepare their heart, thou wilt cause thine ear to "hear."" If God should wait, till men made their own hearts ready, to do what is good in his sight, before he gave them grace; their case would be hopeless. Like the river spoken of by the poet, it be said of the disinclination of fallen men to what is spiritually good;


'Labitur et labetur in omne volubilis ævum.'


"For it is God that worketh in us both to will and "to do of his good pleasure."

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men from the curse, and give the promised blessing to all. Vol. iii. p. 274.'

can willingness,

Vol. iii. p. 328.'

''Neither the grace of the Spirit is sufficient for those who ⚫ have not willingness; nor, on the other hand, without this grace, collect the riches of virtue. Not that he forces those who are unwilling, but that finding a readiness, he increases it by his grace." He called the good "will of God, his good pleasure." "He wills that all men should "be saved, and come to the knowledge of the truth." ' p. 332.'

Vol. iä.

2 Ps. x. 17.

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P. DVII. 1. 12. 'He suffered, &c." Holy angels have a created nature: Adam had, when made in the image of God; and even the man Christ Jesus had the same. Did these want the same remedy as sinners do? Even the animal tribes, and indeed every being in the universe, has a created nature, God alone excepted. But only rational, responsible agents, who were condemned sinners, and depraved in heart, needed the remedy. A theologian, who writes thus at random, is a very unsuitable person to determine religious controversies; which require peculiar exactness, precision, and perspicuity of language. The general inattention to this, is one grand reason, why controversies are so seldom terminated in a satisfactory manner.


P. DVII. l. 15. All men, &c.'2 Why is it said, ' as it were a ransom? The Scriptures do not use this hesitation. "Who gave himself a ransom for "all."-The last clause favours the actual salvation of all men.


P. DVII. 1. 22. 'The devil, being created good, • voluntarily fell into wickedness,' says Theodoret. But was not the case the same with Adam? 66 By "one man sin entered into the world, and death by

''He suffered for all; for whatever things have a created 'nature, stood in need of this remedy. Vol. iii. p. 404.'

2. All men being under the power of death, he not being sub'ject to death, as God, for he has an immortal nature, nor as · man, for he had not committed sin, which causes death, gave 'himself as it were a ransom, and freed all men from its slavery.

Vol. iji. p. 471.' 3 1 Tim. ii. 6.


"sin; and so death passed upon all; because all "have sinned." The wickedness of his posterity also is voluntary; in choosing evil, they need no one to incline their hearts;" they are in themselves fully inclined. It is only in respect of choosing what is good in the sight of God,' that they need to be made willing by preventing grace; and then they become voluntary also in obedience.


P. DVII. 1. 26. 'It does not belong to a just God ' to punish him who is necessarily wicked.' If necessarily means involuntarily; no such character ever did or can exist; for no creature can be responsible for what was involuntary. But the necessity arising from a totally depraved nature, left finally to itself, is of another kind.

With Theodoret his Lordship closes his quotations from the fathers; but he adds a few Latin quotations, from more modern writers, in which some things may properly be noticed.

P. DVIII. 1. 9. Et eo, &c."1


'' And in this respect, there is the less need of this labour; seeing the great Calvin himself acknowledges not obscurely that this was the opinion of antiquity. (B. 2nd. Inst.) And God moves the will, not as it was for many ages delivered down, that it should be of our choice, to obey or resist the motion of God.'-' For lest thou shouldst think, that this is to be understood of the school-divines, he presently shews, that he speaks <of those ages, in which especially the christian religion flourished throughout the world. For he subjoins, 'That, therefore, so often repeated by Chrysostom, must necessarily be rejected; whom he draws, he draws as willing. He names Chrysostom alone but it did not escape that most learned man, that this was taught by other fathers also.' (Vossius.)

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P. DIX. 1. 11. • Beza also acknowledges the An⚫ticalvinism of the fathers prior to Augustine.' In proof of this position his Lordship produces a passage from Beza, as quoted by Vossius; in which he ascribes the source of the opinion, that men are elected on the foresight of their faith and works, (which he calls turpissimum errorem,) to Origen.' His Lordship then observes, The opinion, here "attributed to Origen was held by the fathers prior to 'him-and also by Augustine himself, in the ' early part of his life.' That is, before he had more fully examined the subject: and then he judged otherwise, and published his retractations. It was likewise held by the writer of these remarks, in the early part of his life; and perhaps even by Calvin himself. For the doctrine of God's predestination is not congenial to human nature, and is seldom received, even as a notion, without instruction and study. The subject of the fathers before Origen, and before Augustine, will be considered, in the eighth chapter of the Refutation, On The Histo'rical Account of Calvinistic Doctrines.'

The reference is made to Rom. ix. 39: which must be an error of the press.

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The very title of this chapter is formidable to a Calvinist. The writer of these remarks, however, feels no alarm or perturbation: but hopes to be enabled by divine grace, with much composure to examine the contents of it; and to make such remarks as are needful on the occasion.

P. DXI. 1. 9. It is well known, &c."1 This is so well known even to those, who have comparatively but a slight acquaintance with ecclesiastical history; that authors, almost with one consent, consider it as futile in any man, to attempt disproving their sentiments, by quotations from ancient writers; though many of them, when it can serve their purpose of running down an opponent, or an opposite party, speak, as if a quotation from the fathers were as conclusive as a text of Scripture: nay, more so; for the text of Scripture, even contrary to its literal

''It is well known by those, who have any acquaintance with ' ecclesiastical history, that many other doctrines of the gospel


́ were corrupted in the apostolic age, and in the age immediately 'succeeding.

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