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The word place ought to have been pluralized as it refers to each tree. Compare : The porter shut the door in our faces. They have broken their hearts (Ships that Pass in the Night). They took their leave(s). See Günther, Manual 381. Roorda (Dutch and English Compared § 32) observes that the rule does not always hold good in the case of words that do not generally form a plural : We held our breath(s). You must always and always remain here. You never get further. The present tense should not be used in headclauses to refer to something future. See Kruisinga, Handbook, § 96 & $ 140.

12. You can't get to the ducks. Come at the ducks has a different meaning from that required in the text: Chickens . , if only he could come at them! (Windsor Magazine, January 1910. p. 316.). Skim the surface of the water is correct. Wild fowl skim the surface of the water (J. Butler, New Zealand, I. 27.). Caused his head to skim along the ice (Strand Magazine, April 1914. p. 425.).

13. Stuck the beaks should be their beaks. The possessive pronoun is the rule when the possessor is the subject of an active sentence: Het paard legde de ooren plat = laid back its ears. (Kruisinga, Grammar and Idiom, § 24 ff.). Bill would seem the more appropriate term in the light of Günther's remarks (Synonyms): The neb of a bird is called a beak (sometimes also bill) when it is very strong, pointed and adapted for striking, tearing to pieces, and pecking (birds of prey); when it is flattened, rounded, and weak it is always called bill (pigeons, ducks, geese). The word duckbill (vogelbekdier) seems to confirm this statement. But the curious bird Balaeniceps, which is remarkable for its enormous beak is popularly known by the name of both shoebill and skoebeak. Wanted to make them greasy. He lugged out a greasy notebook (Wells, Tono Bungay). “Whose plate-powder do you use ?” asked Helga, still busy with the greasy forks and spoons. (Mrs. Sidgwick, The Lanternbearers, p. 243.). I saw a great yellow face, coarse-grained and greasy, with heavy double chin (Conan Doyle, Adventure of Dying Detective). A greasy cloth cap (Strand Mag., Aug. 1912. p. 4.). A greasy-pole competition (mastklimmen] (Wide World Mag., Aug. 1911. p. 442.). They let them fall on the ground is good English.

14. Sleepy-heads does not convey the same idea as lie-abeds. A sleepyhead is merely a sleepy or lethargic person (N.E.D.) = Du. slaap kop. You have not seen it what I have done. The preterite is preferable. Het should not be translated. See Note 6.

13. Against the wind is right. He was skating in face of the wind : he had his fur collar turned up, his cap pulled low (Marjory Bowen, The Confession of Floris Heenvliet.). – Full in the sense of exactly, just: Kissed her full on the mouth. (E. Wallace, The Clue of the Twisted Candle, p. 119.). He was pointing the muzzle full at the queen. (Strand Mag., March 1903. p. 347.).

16. From his prostrate position is correct. – Sam and Peter woke up and, raising themselves in bed, looked at the dog. (W. W. Jacobs, The Understudy). Sack. The definition in N.E.D. runs : A large bag oblong in shape and open at one end, usually made of coarse flax or hemp, used for the storing and conveyance of corn, flour, fruit, potatoes, wood, coal etc.

17. Up there : Fred came to the foot of the tree. “You, up there,” he said, “come along down." (P. G. Wodehouse, The Mixer.).

18. No, Sipie, leave it alone.

21. Wine will have it would express a mere future; the speaker expresses his determination. She shall have the money, whether she likes it or not.

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(Little Lord Fauntleroy.). “You shall be of the party" he promised. (Oppenheim, Aaron Rodd, p. 67.).

23. It might be that the village policeman was prowling about. Farmer Basset was always prowling about with an ash-plant (Strand Magazine, Nov. 1911. p. 578.).

24. For the present.

25. As I watched him [i.e. a burglar) creep about the room it suddenly came to me that here was a chance of doing him a good turn (Strand Mag., Nov. 1915. p. 522.).

Good translations were received from Miss A. H., Flushing; Miss L. M. H., Santpoort; Mr. J. H., Bergum; Miss B. J. v. K., Delft; Mr. A. T. de M., Amsterdam; Sister Ph., Oirschot; Miss H. W. S., Rotterdam; Miss T., Hilversum; Miss J. v. d. V., Leeuwarden; Mr. J. V., Tuindorp; Mr. K. de V., Dokkum.

To lessen the interval between the setting of a new passage and the appearance of the translation and notes, the latter will in future be published in the number next following, instead of in the next number but one as has been done hitherto. For the convenience of new subscribers, the passage set in December is here reprinted. Translations may be sent to P. J. H. O. Schut, 94 Voorstraat, Brielle, up to February 20. They will be returned with corrections if accompanied by a stamped addressed envelope.

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1. Eindelijk mocht Ida dan uitgaan en werd, goed ingepakt, door Juf vergezeld op een korte wandeling voor haar gezondheid. 2. Het was niet erg prettig, maar de lucht was frisch en de verandering was wel aangenaam voor haar, ofschoon de straat niet zoo vroolijk bleek te zijn als ze vanuit het raam van de kinderkamer geschenen had. 3. 's Avonds werd Ida bij haar oom geroepen. 4. Ze was sedert ze ziek geworden was niet beneden geweest. 5. De gesprekken met den terughoudenden ouden heer waren altijd vormelijk en onbehaaglijk, waaraan Ida met een gevoel van verlichting ontsnapte en daar ze dien avond nog zwak van haar ziekte was, steeg haar zenuwachtigheid bijna tot angst. 6. Juf deed haar best om haar moed in te spreken: het was waar, Ida's oom was nu niet zoo'n opgewekte heer, maar denk eens aan dat lekkere toetje! 7. Wat kon een nette jonge juffrouw meer verlangen dan haar beste jurk te dragen en in de eetkamer studentenhaver te eten alsof ze de vrouw des huizes was? 8. „Toch vind ik het jammer voor het kind”, vertrouwde Juf de oude knecht toe, nadat ze Ida bij haar oom gebracht had, „want zijn uiterlijk zou een groot mensch schrik aanjagen, laat staan een kind. 9. En ga jij nu straks eens naar binnen, als je een excuus kunt bedenken, en laat haar een opgewekt gezicht zien, dan doe je een goed werk”. 10. Maar vóór de goedhartige bediende een aannemelijk' voorwendsel kon vinden om de eetkamer binnen te gaan, en Ida bemoedigend toe kon lachen van achter zijn meester's stoel, was Ida weer in de kinderkamer terug.

11. Ze had heusch getracht zich aardig voor te doen. 12. Ze had een onberispelijke nijging gemaakt bij de deur zoo zwak als ze was ze had heel waardig haar plaats aan het hoofd van de tafel ingenomen, en had vrij netjes geantwoord op haar oom's vragen naar haar gezondheid, en, verlangend het gesprek aan den gang te houden, hem verteld, dat de heg knoppen kreeg. 13. „Wat is er met de heg ?” had hij tamelijk bits gevraagd: en toen Ida haar lentenieuws herhaalde, scheen hij niet veel belangstelling te toonen. 14. Het hoorde niet tot het werk van den tuinman. 15. Ida zweeg verder maar en haar oom eveneens. 16. Hij had scherpe oogen en borstelige wenkbrauwen, van waaronder hij Ida vorschend op kon nemen, op een manier, die al haar tegenwoordigheid van geest deed verdwijnen. 17. Juist dezen avond vond zij zijn oogen meer op zich gericht dan anders.

.

Points of Modern English Syntax.

95.

91. It would be such a pleasant surprise to his sister to see her little daughter

bringing home her long lost sailor uncle. Mary Lamb in Selected Short Stories,

Second Series. What is the relation of sailor and uncle? Handbk. 1746. 92. The office was not at its normal. Bennett, Roll-Call, Part I, ch. 6, 3. Explain the use of normal. Handbk. 1774; compare ib. 1792. 93. For well or ill we have a Parliamentary system. Observer. 5/2, 1922.

What is unusual in the use of these adjectives as nouns ? Handbk. 1770. Explain the absence of the article. Handbk. 1775. 94. And it's not want of memory; for I declare I can see him this moment.

Stevenson, Dr. Jekyll, ed. Schutt, p. 13. What is the function of the common case in this moment ? It should have been mentioned in Handbk. 1857.

They kissed, and she shut her eyes. Bennett, Roll-Call, Part I, ch. 3, 3. Discuss the voice of kissed. Handbk. 1872. 96. I had gone to bed Henry Jekyll, I had awakened Edward Hyde. Stevenson,

Dr. Jekyll, ed. Schutt, p. 113. What part of the sentence is Henry Jekyll ? Handbk. 1884. 97. Why she thought of him thus suddenly she had no idea. Galsworthy, Freelands,

ch. 8 p. 98. What sort of clause is this ? Handbk. 1915 and 1925. 98.

How I could be any comfort to my father, struck me with wonder. Mary

Lamb in Sel. Stories, Sec. Ser. p. 4. Is this a subject- or an object-clause ? Handbk. 1915. 99. The news which one day reached Gabriel, that Bathsheba Everdene had left

the neighbourhood, had an influence upon him...... Hardy, Far From the

Madding Crowd, ch. 5. What sort of sentence is introduced by that here? Handbk. 1925. 100. Architecture, for instance, could not exist without engineering, which tells the

architect what he may venture to do and what he may not. Times Lit. Suppl.,

2/11, 1922. Does which introduce a continuative or a restrictive clause ? Handbk. 1929. 101. Throughout these changes Sophy had been treated like the child she was in

nature though not in years. Hardy, Life's Little Ironies. What is the rule for using the clause she was etc. without any connecting word ? Handbk. 1933. 102. He grew resolute. On the day of the party at the Benbows he had been and

carefully inspected the plot of land at Shawport, and yesterday he had made a

very low offer for it. Bennett, These Twain, I, ch. 6. Is this sentence an example of three coordinated sentences ? Handbk. 1977. 103. If in this matter Mr. Belloc's book is disappointing, it is equally unsatisfactory

in regard to another and even more important matter. Times Lit. Suppl. 30/3, 1922. Does if introduce a conditional clause? Handbk. 1988. 104. He knew nothing of their history, and wished to know nothing. Bennett,

Clayhanger II, ch. 1o.
Discuss this use of nothing. Handbk. 2024.
105.
As no

man of seven could reach the upper shelves, a pair of steps was provided for Darius, and up these he had to scamper. Bennett, Clayhanger, I, ch. 4. Explain the concord of a pair of steps with the verb and these. Handbk. 2042.

.

106. Good-bye, Mr. Derek. 'Tis quiet enough here now; there's changes. Galsworthy

Freelands, ch. 38. Explain is with the plural changes. Handbk. 2049. 107. Wedda, therefore, walked alone; but at her side went always an invisible

companion. Galsworthy, Freelands, ch. 14. Explain the place of went. Handbk. 2076. 108. (He) considered himself a hardened sort of brute, free of illusions. Bennett,

Clayhanger, I ch. 1. To what word is hardened an adjunct ? Handbk. 2096. 109. Well, Mr. Utterson, you are a hard man to satisfy, but I'll do it yet. Stevenson,

Dr. Jekyll, ed. Schutt p. 71. What is the function of to satisfy ? Handbk. 2101. 110. There is only one wish realisable on the earth ; only one thing that can be

perfectly attained : Death. Stevenson, Virginibus puerisque. Account for the place of realisable. Handbk. 2122.

Reviews.

Gotisch Handboek door DR. A. G. VAN HAMEL. Haarlem.

H. D.Tjeenk Willink & Zoon. 1923. 258 pp. Cloth F. 9.00. For more than forty years Gotic) has been an examination subject in our universities, and in the examinations for the B-diploma. There seems hardly room for doubt, therefore, as to the desirability of an introduction to the study of Gotic that is specially adapted to the needs of Dutch students. And Dr. Van Hamel, who has himself been through the university mill, has a thorough understanding of what these needs are. The result is that he has written a book that will probably drive all foreign handbooks out of the Dutch market.

The book is arranged in twelve chapters. After a short introduction on the history of the Gots and the provenance of our Gotic texts, there follow two chapters of a practical character on Sounds and Symbols and on Accent i. e. the rules of stress. The two next chapters, which conclude the first part, on Phonology, deal with the vowels and consonants from a historical point of view. In this part the author wisely restricts himself to languages that are known to most of his readers : Latin, Greek, and occasionally Sanskrit. In the second part, dealing with Accidence, the arrangement is somewhat different, the history of the forms being relegated to footnotes. The third and fourth parts deal, very briefly, with Word-formation and Syntax. An appendix provides specimens : selections from the four Gospels and a few pages from one of the Epistles and Skeireins, 30 pages in all. Finally there is a Glossary.

The mere enumeration of the contents will have shown that there is offered us here a book that provides everything that our students require. It has the additional advantage of taking more notice of the work of Dutch

?) The usual spelling in English books is still Gothic, although everybody knows that it is due to a mistake. The share that English scholars have taken in the study of Gotic is certainly no reason for following them in this conservatism. Besides, otic is no innovation, but rather a restoration : King Alfred and his contemporaries invariably use the form with a t: Gota, pl. Gotan.

scholars than foreign handbooks are apt to do; there are several references to articles that on account of the language in which they are written or of the periodical in which they appeared run a risk of being ignored by foreigners. The author also seems to expect that the Dutch character of his work will be emphasized by the use of Dutch instead of the international German terms. "Perhaps, however, he only does it in order to fall in with the terminology of his master, Professor R. C. Boer, the General Editor of the series of Oudgermaansche Handboeken, of which the present book forms the third volume. 1) In any case, the proceeding seems to us a mistake. By using klankwisseling for ablaut, klankwijziging for umlaut, we may hide or obscure the fact that the most important contribution to the progress of linguistic studies in the last hundred years has been made by German scholars : the fact remains the same. And for those who do not like the German pre-eminence there is only one way to destroy it: by producing work that is equal to the German work, both in quality, and, what may be even more difficult, in quantity. Consistency, moreover, would require the removal of all the Latin terms which remind us that it is through the intermediary of Latin civilization that we have learned the use of the terms of Alexandrine scholars.

Those who remember the complaints of the style of German books will ask if in this respect, too, the present book is an advance. I think that the answer of an unprejudiced reader of German scholarly books must be that the present book is very like them, not bad, not good if we compare a work like Meillet's Caractères généraux des langues germaniques. Dr. Van Hamel's style strikes me as curiously old-fashioned, and I am all the more inclined to believe that there is something in this impression, because the author's views on the development of speech are certainly often rather those of the eighteenth than of the present century. This shows itself most clearly in the part dealing with sounds. On p. 24 he declares of Wulfila : “Lange en korte vocalen onderscheidt hij acoustisch niet”. Of course the author means to say that Wulfila did not in his spelling distinguish length of vowels. But this is not an isolated instance, and sometimes it seems evident that it is not a question of style but insufficient knowledge of phonetics that has caused the statement to be untenable; thus on p. 78 he actually instances the introduction of the consonant of the plural preterite into the singular by sloeg from sloegen, as well as vroor from vroren. Several phonetic distinctions are as little intelligible as those of the early phoneticians recently discussed by Eykman in the Nieuwe Taalgids. When speaking of Indogermanic stops, he illustrates the palatals by means of English keen and geese. It is natural that the author's views on Gotic pronunciation are not quite satisfactory. Apart from details ?), the fundamental mistake is that he is practically unaware of the uncertainty that the reconstruction of a dead language must entail. He is even quite confident when explaining prehistoric sound-changes : on p. 151 he explains that the p of kunpa must be due to the participle kunps. The same remark might be made with respect to the discussion of ablaut (p. 61 f.). In the vexed question of the ai and au in words like saian and staua the author sides with Braune, but he explains ai in the reduplication as long æ as well. I cannot pretend that I understand all his arguments, and prefer Kluge's view: non liquet.

I am afraid my conclusion must be that the author is a 'paper phonetician',

) The first volume, Oergermaansch Handboek by Prof. Dr. R. C. Boer, was reviewed in É. S. I, 2, 25 ff. (April 1919).

2) For these there is no room in a periodical dealing with English.

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