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Observations. 1. At last then, Ida was allowed to go out. The Dutch particle – dan - does not express inference and had better be left untranslated. You are a tailor then ? said his worship. (Douglas Jerrold, Men of Character, II. p. 128.). Why did you go there then? (E. M. Forster, Howard's End, p. 258). "Ha", said the Countess hastily, “that rumour then is true, Janet ?” (W. Scott, Kenilworth.). See Poutsma I. p. 400. Tucked up to their very chins (L. Sterne, Tristram Shandy, Ch. II.). I dreamed I was in bed and Betty was tucking me up. (A Bad Boy's Diary.). The storeman tucked up their feet in a piece of old blanket. (Katherine Mansfield in The Adelphi I. 1.). – Might go out. Except in subordinate clauses the preterite might is almost regularly replaced by was (were) allowed, permitted. (Poutsma I. 77.). See Kruisinga, Handbook § 383. On ordinary days she was only allowed to play with children of her own rank. (Oscar Wilde, Birthday of the Infanta.).

Constitutional is a colloquialism which originated at the English Universities, according to the Oxford Dictionary. On a short walk is correct. To accompany her on her walk. (Miss Mc. Naughtan, The Expensive Miss Ducane, p. 12.). He took a walk twice a day for his health's sake on principle (Leys, Wolf in Sheep's Clothing.).

2. The air was crisp = bracing. The crisp mountain air (Ships that Pass in the Night, p. 55.). It was a hard frost, that day. The air was bracing, crisp and clear. (Dickens, The Chimes.). -- Although the street did not prove

. quite that happy region it had looked from the nursery window. Yet it seemed, as each month passed by, the house was not so merry and happy as before, something was fading and vanishing. (Walter De la Mare, The Almond Tree). Not as merry as. According to some grammars not so . . . as marks inferiority, not as ... as simply expressing inequality. That this rule does not invariably hold good will appear from the following quotations : "You are a wicked man”. “I am very sorry. But I am not as bad as you think (George Moore, Esther Waters). Your associations with W. cannot be as strong as my own. (Gissing, Demos, II. 141.). Her embarrassment was evidently not as great as his own. She smiled with friendliness. (Gissing, The Unclassed.). The nursery's window. The genitive is reserved for the names of living things and of personified objects, apart from its occurrence in adjuncts denoting measure. We cannot say the table's leg, but we may speak of the dog's leg.

3. That evening Ida was called to her uncle. 4. Since her illness.

5. Conversations. Formal-Ceremonious. Formal differs from ceremonious in that a formal person tries too hard to conform to rule in his whole bearing, as well as in his bearing towards others, while a ceremonious person magnifies too much the conventional rules of social intercourse ; thus both are opposed to natural ; formal to easy, and ceremonious to hearty or friendly. (The Century Dictionary.). To make conversation too stiff, formal and precise. (J. Addison in Spectator, No. 119.). To enter a room with a most ceremonious bow. (Cowper, Letters.). Reticent-Taciturn. Reticent is that form of silence known as 'reserve in speaking', taciturnily signifies a deeper and more habitual reserve, and is usually regarded as a somewhat disagreeable quality. I am not naturally reticent, shy, diffident, timid (Cassell's Magazine, June 1910. p. 197). He seemed vaguely reticent as to the dog's breed. (Royal Magazine, Sept. 1907. p. 394.). Eustacia was reserved and lived very much to herself. (T. Hardy, Return of the Native, l. 137.). I talked with him, but not easily: he was taciturn. Or he may have been feeling his way. (A. Bennett, Those United States, p. 250.). — Used to be formal would imply that Eustacia had dropped her uncle's acquaintance. E. S. VI 1924.


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6. Did her best to hearten her. Heartening them with the sunshine of his cheerful talk. (Pearson's Magazine, Oct. 1909, p. 408.). - A lively (jolly) gentleman. Ellen wasn't exactly what you would call a lively, jolly woman, but when things were going well - as now – she was generally equable enough. (Mrs. Belloc-Lowndes, The Lodger). Was not a downright jolly gentleman. Downright is often used to soften down a statement: she was not downright wicked, but flighty = niet bepaald.

niet bepaald ... Exactly is employed in ironic statements to express the opposite quality: He is not exactly clever = he is stupid. Exactly as a "down-toner": A servant, not exactly dirty but unattractive, let her in. (D. H. Lawrence, The Lost Girl). The word toetje is simply a colloquialism for 'dessert' and could not possibly be rendered by the singular a sweet'. Would Baby like a sweet ? (Windsor Magazine, No. 248. p. 330.).

7. What could a well-behaved young lady desire more than is correct. A prim young lady. Prim usually suggests unpleasant qualities, the Century Dictionary defines ‘affectedly nice', 'stiffly precise'. The term is not applied exclusively to women. The prim spinster (Conway, Slings and Arrows, p. 35). Captain S., a prim old party (Windsor Magazine, Dec. 1908. p. 105.). That governess was a prim old person. (Stevens, Magdalene, p. 8.). Two thin, little girls, looking excessively proper and prim (Anstey, Vice Versâ, p. !20.). A prim, decorous old lady. (Strand Magazine, Aug. 1894.) She lifted a prim hand to strike. (Century Magazine, March 1901. p. 674.) Decent, dainty, genteel, young: None of these adjectives seem appropriate. Thar, wearing her best frock. As a special case is referred to the Gerund appears to be less suitable. To quote Sweet (N. E. G. § 2326) "the infinitive seems to bring out more strongly the attributes of phenomenality — action and quickness.” See

also Kruisinga, Handbook & 656. – As if she was. The subjunctive of the verb to be should always be used after as if and as though in educated English, that is unless a fact is stated. See Poutsma's Mood and Tense of the English Verb. p. 5. - The lady of the house is good English.

8. Though I think it a pity for the child, confided Nurse. After direct quotations there is as a rule no inversion when the verb expresses a general meaning. See Kruisinga's Handbook g 2084. When she had left Ida with her uncle. His looks are enough to frighten a grown person. Mien is correct, but very dignified. A mien expressive of indecision (Scott, Kenilworth). In figure, dress and mien he seemed to belong to a station in society. (Cooper, The Prairie Ch. I.) With the mien of a lady (Grant Allen, African Millionaire, p. 317.). The dog came back to me with the most downcast and humiliated mien. (Century Mag., Nov. 1900 p. 57.) Auray was drinking coffee with an unruffled mien. (Mrs. Sidgwick, Lamorna, p. 61.) – To

Το say nothing of = om niet te spreken van. I tried to teach him French, but to say nothing of the shortness of the time he had I found him very unequal to it. Melodrama and novels, to say nothing of shilling shockers. (Strand Mag., Sept. 1908 p. 276.) He would miss the sham bull-fight, to say nothing of the puppet-show. (Oscar Wilde, Birthday of the Infanta.) I won't guarantee that she'll weather even a Gravesend gale, let alone the mountainous waves of the mighty Atlantic. (Harmsworth Magazine, 1901. p. 576.) It is hard to get a gardener who can prune a gooseberry bush, let alone raise a cucumber (Guardian, Jan. 20, 1892). – A grown up, an adult. All the grown-ups would laugh at him for it. (Pearson's Mag., Nov. 1920). Price's Night Light is an insurance against nocturnal alarms, a safe inexpensive illuminant. Its safe steady glow conveys a sense of security to child and adult alike. (Advertisement.).

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9. Go you in. The subject of the imperative usually precedes its verb: You notice the view from the windows! (Said by an English guide.). You go your way and I'll go mine (P. White, The Corner house p. 43.). But: Run you to the door! (Hornung, Raffles, p. 227.). The inverted order may help to soften down the command. More examples are given in Kruisinga's Handbook § 2184. In the nature of things the subject is not expressed as a rule, as it always denotes the person addressed. When expressed it frequently marks a somewhat contemptuous emphasis in prohibitions e.g.: Don't you throw out dirty water, till you get in fresh! (B. Shaw, Fanny's First Play.). Don't you go and tell him the secret. (Onions, Advanced Syntax, § 156.). If you can hit upon an excuse. In the fittest words I could hit upon. (Pearson's Mag. Aug. 1901, p. 154.) He hit upon the following way of ridding himself of the annoyance. (Strand Magazine, April 1904. p. 480.).

There's a good fellow. Shove a bit of coal on, there's a good chap (j. D. Beresford, Housemates.). Well, you know best, but don't talk now, there's a good fellow. (G. Sims, Tales of To-day. p. 287.). Occasionally there's is followed by other expressions as in: "What was that noise, Nanny ? Do tell me!" "Why, a train, of course. There's a mollycoddle! (Compton Mackenzie, Sinister Street, I. p. 3.).

10. Good-hearted: As Helen Adair, the good-hearted, high-spirited heroine, Miss Alma Taylor is full of life and happy laughter. (Daily Mail, Jan. 26. 1924.). – Pretence is usually found in a bad sense. A pretence is the holding forth of that which is false: as, his grief, admiration of a picture, piety, was all a pretence; selfish or ulterior purposes may be connected with the matter, but not necessarily so: as 'to obtain money under false pretences'. A pretext has something else in view, and makes it seem right or natural, or hides it out of sight; the man whose friendship is a mere pretence will trump up some pretext to escape from each claim upon him for help. That which is used as a pretext may or may not exist. (Century Dictionary.). - Once more: Once more in Mr. Coleman's bedroom Patsie locked the door behind him, and his brain and hands worked rapidly. (Jessie Pope, Patsie's Christmas.). – Back in the nursery.

11. She had honestly endeavoured to be good.

12. Bobbed (dropped) a curtsey. The little girl was on the very point of dropping a courtesy. (Harper's Magazine, Dec. 1912. p. 88.). I don't know what call she had to blush so when she made her curtsey. (Thackeray, Virginians, XXII.). Bobs her an awkward curtsey. (George Egerton, Discords I.). Near the door By the door At the door. The last two express closer proximity. Mr. R. white as a sheet was standing at the door. (Oppenheim, Game of Liberty.). At the door the two exchanged a kiss. (Pett Ridge, Thanks to Sanderson, p. 222.). Went out at the opposite door. (Elizabeth and her German Garden, p. 163.) The Doctor stood by the door to shake hands with them. (Anstey, Vice Versa.) Thus 'He sat by me' means 'close to me'. 'He sat near me' might indicate an intervening object or person. I tiptoed up to the door and looked through the crack by the hinges. (Hutchinson's Magazine, Dec. 1920. p. 614.). — Doorway: Appeared to be sheltering themselves from the wind in the doorway of a house. (Strand Magazine, Oct. 1903. p. 371.). Listening in the doorway. (Times Weekly, 24. 9. 1920.). The maid-servant was standing in the doorway. (Strand Magazine, Nov. 1906. p. 578.). "It's good”, declared W. at the doorway (Pett Ridge, Sanderson, p. 225.). – Replied prettily. - Informations after her health. Wrong for two reasons! The word information never occurs in the plural and does not signify a request for enlightenment, as in Dutch.

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Keep the conversation going is correct: I endeavoured to keep the convérsation going. (Strand Magazine, X. 377).)

13. What's the matter with the hedge. Tartly: "Don't you think father looks rather seedy?” “I've been thinking so a long time”, said miss Pinnegar tartly. (D. H. Lawrence, The Lost Girl, Ch. VIII.). "You have no evidence that she wasn't respectable". "We have no evidence that she was”, said Anna tartly. (Mrs. De la Pasture, The Grey Knight, p. 137.). – He seemed to show not much interest. Not is usually placed before the infinitive: I advise you not to do it. Not in a split infinitive: I don't see how you had the heart to not ask us. (Baroness von Hutten, Pam, p. 91.). She wanted not to vex people (E. M. Forster, Howard's End, p. 90.). "She did not want to vex people” would slightly affect the meaning. See Kruisinga, Handbook, $ 335.

14. Part in the sense of essential or integral portion: Affection is part of insight. (Quoted from the Oxford Dictionary). O Queen, it is part of the art of war to be well prepared when in an enemy's camp. (Dunsany, The Queen's Enemies.).

15. Ida thought she'd better keep silence (silent). Thought better to keep silent. English usage requires that a noun clause or an infinitive playing the part of an object should be anticipated by it. In expressions like "He thought fit to interfere" the adjective and the verb form one idea.

16. Bristly eyebrows: hardly appropiate; the O.E.D. defines: set with bristles, or short stiff hairs. Å bristly boar. - He could scrutinize Ida. This would be taken to mean that he was able or in a position to look keenly at Ida. – Which made her lose all her presence of mind is correct.

Good translations were received from Miss B., Ederveen; Mr. S. B., Middelburg; Miss A. H., Flushing; Miss A. H., Amsterdam; Mr. J. W. H., Almelo; Mr. J. H., Utrecht; Mr. J. H., Bergum; Miss Th. A. v. 't H., Utrecht; Miss L. v. I., Waalwijk; Miss M. J., Eindhoven; Miss B. J. v. K., Delft; Mr. F. C. A. K., 's-Hertogenbosch; Mr. J. L., Utrecht; Mr. J. L., Giessendam; Mr. H. v. L., Twijzelerheide; Mr. A. T. de M., Amsterdam; Sr. Ph., Oirschot; Mr. M. P., Rauwerd; Miss M. P., Utrecht; Miss H. W. S., Rotterdam; Miss T., Hilversum; Miss M. V., Leeuwarden; Mr. J. V., Rotterdam; Mr. P. W. K. Z., The Hague.

Translations of the following text should be sent to P. J. H. O. Schut, 94 Voorstraat, Brielle, before May 1st. They will be returned with corrections if accompanied by a stamped addressed envelope.

De Dief.

1. Van heel klein al had Gerrit er vermaak in gehad stil te stelen, juist op de gevaarlijkste plekken. 2. Nu nam hij alleen wat hem beviel, maar toen, nog jong, nam hij elk onbeheerd ding mee. 3. Telkens werd het hem toen afgenomen, kreeg hij duchtig ransel, omdat hij het nog niet goed wist te verbergen of handig genoeg weg te kapen. 4. Op later leeftijd werd hij voorzichtiger. 5. Hij leerde wachten met het geduld van een kat, die op een muis loert, tot hij de kans schoon zag en dan toespringen en alles vergeten, om te hebben, te hebben. 6. Eerst had hij, als eenmaal de dingen van hem waren, er niets meer voor gevoeld, maar weldra ging hij zijn schat zorgvuldig bewaren, wat een nieuwe hartstocht in zijn ziel wakker riep. 7. Hij kon zich geen rekenschap geven van dien drang om te stelen: zóó zag hij iets, zóó greep hij het, zonder na te denken of te aarzelen. 8. Langzamerhand stelde hij in niets anders meer belang. 9. Zijn grond ging elk jaar in waarde achteruit, zijn zoons bestalen hem, zijn hypotheek en schulden liepen op, zijn inkomsten verminderden. 10. Er was niets, dat hem bij zijn werk hield: z'n steellust ging hem boven alles ... ontzettend van genot, van stil genot.

11. Eens had hij in een angstbui, die hem in zijn jonge jaren soms bekroop, aan dominé in het geheim bekend, dat hij dikwijls dingen wegnam, zoo alleen maar om ze te hebben. 12. De oude dominé had hem duchtig den mantel uitgeveegd en hem de deur gewezen. 13. Gerrit in zijn boersche domheid en blooheid had niets verder gezegd. 14. Kort daarop preekte dominé in de kerk tegen stelen, dreigde alle dieven met de hel en stelde hen voor als monsters van slechtheid. 15. Dat maakte Gerrit bijna dol van angst, vooral omdat de strenge oude dominee hem onder de preek voortdurend had aangekeken. 16. 'n Tijdje had Gerrit weerstand geboden aan de verleiding, maar zijn begeerte vrat al dieper in en liet hem geen rust. 17. Als hij iets zag, dat hij verlangde te bezitten, laaide de oude hartstocht weer op. 18. Dan de greep ... 19. Als het gedaan was, voelde hij zich opgelucht; een weldadig gevoel verving de spanning.

20. Door dominee's gedreig had Gerrit er nooit meer tegen een mensch over durven praten, ofschoon hij bij tijden wel gewild had. 21. Alle weken ging hij stipt naar de kerk, alsof hij onweerstaanbaar erheen getrokken werd om te hooren, wat hem te wachten stond.

Convention and Revolt in Poetry. By JOHN LIVINGSTONE LOWES,
Professor of English in Harvard University. Constable (or

Houghton Mifflin). 1919 - 12/6. A fine book, full of sound scholarship, and inspired by good taste, excellent sense and wide sympathies. A book to be warmly recommended to those whom the modern literary chaos threatens to strike with bewilderment. A book written in a clear and engaging style, proclaiming that the author, who is obviously an enemy of cryptic, pseudo-profound utterrances, is completely one with his subject. Occasionally, indeed, he is somewhat timorous. He need not have so very eagerly desired to steer clear of metaphysics', 'the perilous edge of which' he keeps skirting so circumspectly. And though I am very loth to do so, I cannot but deplore the fact that Professor Lowes pays too much lip-service to that much-abused word beauty. Evidently Edgar Poe's spirit is mighty yet, and uses the professor as a medium when he writes: 'The end of art, whose essence is restraint, is not to make us grieve, or love, or hate, or flush with anger, or grow pale with rage. It is to stir us with the sense of an imperishable beauty...' This is a position which I cannot possibly adopt. I agree that the essence of all art is restraint, but the object of an artist is the conveyance of his emotions, and if he succeeds in doing this with a minimum of apparent effort the result will as a matter of course be aesthetically satisfactory. A.E. Housman does not aim at stirring us with the sense of an imperishable beauty when he writes (A Shropshire Lad, XLIX, second stanza):

Oh, 't is jesting, dancing, drinking

Spins the heavy world around.
If young hearts were not so clever,
Oh, they would be young forever :
Think no more; 't is only thinking

Lays lads underground.
Hardy does not want to stir us with the sense of imperishable beauty
when dealing with a subject sadder than the Crucifixion itself, namely
Peter's denial of Christ ('In the Servants' Quarters', Coll. Ed. page 359, 360) :

"Man, you too, aren't you one of these rough followers of the criminal ?
All hanging here about to gather how he's going to bear
Examination in the hall.” She flung disdainful glances on
The shabby figure standing at the fire with others there,

Who warmed them by its flare.

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