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The Life of William Cobbett. By G. D. H. COLE. With a Chapter on Rural Rides. By the late F. E. GREEN. 9 X 6, ix. + 458 pp. Collins. 1924. 18s. n.

Journals of Dorothy Wordsworth. Edited by WILLIAM KNIGHT. New Edition. Complete in one volume. With Portrait. Crown 8vo. Macmillan, 1924. 8d. 6d. net.

Some Notes on Sir Walter Scott. By JOHN BUCHAN. English Association Pamphlet no. 58. 9/4 X 6, pp. 20. Milford, 1924. 21— net.

Byron. By ETHEL COLBURN MAYNE. (Second edition, revised.) 9 X 6, xvi. +248 pp. Grant Richards. 1924. 10s. 6d. n.

Tennyson and Matthew Arnold, Sir Walter Scott, Wordsworth, Shelley, Dickens, and Thackeray, the Brownings. By OLIVER Elton. 96 pp. Arnold, Cloth, 7/4 X 51/4, 2s. 60. n. each; paper, 7% X 43/4, 1s. 6d. n. each. 1924.

These essays are chapters, revised for separate issue, from the writer's "Survey of English Lite-
rature, 1830-1880,” published in 1920.
Die englische Literatur des 19. u. 20. Jahrhunderts. By BERNH. FEHR. In: Handbuch
der Literaturwissenschaft, hg. v. 0. Walzel. (Just publ.: Lief. 13.]

Thomas Lovell Beddoes. By GRETE MOLDAUER. Wiener Beiträge zur englische Philologie
LII. 8vo. x+148 pp. Wien: Braumüller, 1924.

Taine und die englische Romantik. By KATHLEEN MURRAY. 8vo, VII +78 pp. München u. Leipzig: Duncker u. Humblot, 1924.

The Political Novel. Its Development in England and in America. By M. E. SPEARE. Crown 8vo (7"/X5). XX378, with frontispiece. Oxford University Press American Branch. 1924. 10s. 6d. net.

The Dickens Encyclopædia: An Alphabetical Arrangement of References to every Character and Place mentioned in the Works of Fiction, with Explanatory Notes on Obscure Allusions and Phrases. By ARTHUR L. HAYWARD. 10X7, xii.+174 pp. Routledge. 1924. 15s. n.

Robert Louis Stevenson: Man and Writer. A Critical Biography. By J. A. STEUART. In Two Voluines. 93.X63/7. Vol. I., 351 pp. Vol. II., 304 pp. Sampson Low. 1924. 328. n.

Robert Louis Stevenson and France. By CHARLES SAROLEA. Simpkin, Marshall. 1924. 78. 6d. n.

Robert Louis Stevenson : His Work and His Personality. 8X5"/, x.+251 pp. Hodder and Stoughton. 1924 7s. 6d. n.

This is the fifth volume in the “Bookmoan Library" series.
Samuel Butler (1835-1902). By C. E. M. JOAD. (Roadmaker Series) 7°/X5/, 195 pp.
Leonard Parsons. 1924, 4s. 6d. n.

De Engelsche Literatuur Sinds 1880. Door A. G. VAN KRANENDONK. 18X12 c.M. pp. 143.
Uitgevers-Maatschappij Elsevier”. Amsterdam, 1924. Price f 1.40; geb. f 1.90. (See
Review Dec. 1924.)

Mark Twain's Autobiography. With an Introduction by ALBERT BIGELOW PAINE. In Two Volumes. 93/.X63/4. Vol. I., xvi.+368 pp. Vol. II., 365 pp. Harper. 1924. 42s. n.

Henry James at Work. By THEODORA BOSANQUET. 8/2X5%, 33 pp. Hogarth Press. 1924. 28. 6d. n.

The Life and Letters of Emily Dickinson. By her niece, MARTHA DICKINSON BIANCHI. 9X64/4, 386 pp. Jonathan Cape. 1924. 7s. 60. n.

The Wessex Novels of Thomas Hardy. An Appreciative Study. By RYNDALL WILLIAMS. 79/4 X 5/4, 167 pp. Dent. 1924. 6s. n.

The English Novel of To-Day. By GERALD GOULD, 78/4 X 5%, 224 pp. John Castle. 1924. 78. 6d. n.

The Life of James Elroy Flecker. From Letters and Materials provided by his Mother. By GERALDINE HODgson. 9 X6, 288 pp. Oxford: Blackwell. 1924. 12s. 6d. n.

American Poetry Since 1900. By Louis UNTERMEYER. 91% X 6/4, Xv. + 405 pp. Grant Richards. 1924. 12s. 6d. n.

From Whitman to Sandburg in American Poetry: A Critical Survey. By BRUCE WEIRICK. 78/4 X 5'/,, xiv. +245 pp. Macmillan Company. 1924. 9s. n.

Discoveries: Essays in Literary Criticism. By JOHN MIDDLETON MURRY. 8/2 X 6, 314 pp. Collins. 1924. 7s. 6d. n.

In Memoriam. Adolphus William Ward. Master of Peterhouse (1900-1924). 83/4 X 6*/. xxviii. + 173 pp. Cambridge University Press. 1924.

The Letters of Olive Schreiner. 1876-1920. Edited by S. C. CRONWRIGHT-SCHREINER. 9X6, xiii. + 410 pp. Fisher Unwin 1924. 21s. n.

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Joseph Conrad: A Personal remembrance. By FORD Madox FORD. 81% X 3/5, 256 pp. Duckworth. 1924. 7s. 6d. n.

A History of the Birmingham Repertory Theatre. By BACHE MATTHEWS. 74/4 X 54/4, xv.+250 pp. Chatto and Windus. 1924. 7s. 6d. n.

LANGUAGE. De Etymologie van ontberen, ohd. inbëran, ags. onberan en ogberan. Door Dr. G. Ch. VAN LANGENHOVE. Overdruk uit de Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklijke Vlaamsche Academie, jg. 1923. 24 pp. Gent, Drukk. W. Siffer, St. Baafsplaats.

Abriss der angelsächsischen Grammatik. By EDUARD SIEVERS. 6th ed. 8vo, iii. +66 pp. Halle (Saale): Niemeyer, 1924.

A Short Historical English Grammar. By Henry SWEET. Corrected impression. Pp. xii.+ 264. Milford, 1924. Price 4/6 net. (A review will appear.)

An Elementary Historical New English Grammar. By JOSEPH WRIGHT and ELIZABETH MARY WRIGHT vii.+ 224 pp. Milford, 1924. 7/- net. [A review will appear.]

Studies in Prefixes and Suffixes in Middle Scottish. By ELISABETH WESTERGAARD. 89% X 53/4, 135 pp. Milford. 1924. 12s. 6d. n.

Shakespeare-Grammatik. Von W. FRANZ. Dritte verbesserte auflage. Heidelberg 1924. Carl Winter. Fr. 14.50, geb. 17.--. (See Brief Mention Dec. 1924).

Proverbia Britannica. By ARCHER TAYLOR. Reprinted from Washington University Studies, Vol. XI, Humanistic Series, No. 2, pp. 409-423, 1924.

A reprint of 335 proverbs from the collection printed by Gruter in his Florilegium Ethicopoliticum, 1611. Die Mundart im Englischen Drama von 1642-1800. By ADOLF WEISS. 8vo, 85 pp. Giessen: Engl. Seminar der Univ., 1924.

Die Sprache in Frances Burneys Evelina. By Karl BÜTTNER. 8vo, 36 pp. Giessen: Engl. Seminar d. Univ. 1924.

A Concise Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. By ERNEST WEEKLEY. 8 X 54/, xx. +983 pp. Murray. 1924. 78. 6d. n.

An abridgement of the author's "Etymological Dictionary of Modern English,” published in 1921, and reviewed in E. S. V, 33. The Oxford English Dictionary: Vol. X. Ti-Z. Unforeseeing - Upright. By W. A. CRAIGIE.

Whisking-Wilfulness. By C. T. ONIONS. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1924. 10s. and 5s. resp. (See Brief Mentions Dec. '24 and April '25.]

The Pocket Oxford Dictionary of Current English. Compiled by F. G. FOWLER and H. W. FOWLER. 63/4 X 4, xvi. + 1000 pp. Milford. 1924. 3s. 6d. n. (See Review.)

Curiosit of English pronunciation and accidence for the use of chers and st ents. By Max HENRY FERRARS. (2. improved ed.) 8vo, 52 pp. Freiburg i. B. Bielefelds Verlag, 1924.

Streitbergfestgabe. Hg. v. d. Direktion d. Verein. Sprachwissensch. Institute an d. Univ. Leipzig. 40, XV + 441 pp. Leipzig, Markert & Petters, 1924.

Includes Max Deutschbein, Das Resultativum im Neuenglischen. Max Förster, Ablaut in Flussramen. (Minutely discusses the river:names: 1. Wye and Wey, 2. Esk, Exe, Esshe, Ash, Axe

and Usk. Some Questions of Phonetic Theory. Chapter VIA. The Mechanism of the Cochlea (con tinued). By WILFRID PERRETT, Reader in German in the University of London. Pp. 81.97. Cambridge, Heffer & Sons Ltd. 1924. Price 1/6 net.

Idealen en Grenzen. Redevoering bij de aanvaarding van 't hoogleraarsambt aan de Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden, op de 19de November 1924, uitgesproken door Dr. J. H. KERN. Pp. 32. Wolters, 1924.

A Grammar of Spoken English. On a Strictly Phonetic Basis. By HAROLD E. PALMER. Pp. xxxvi + 293. Cambridge, Heffer, 1924. 12/6 net. (A review will appear.)

Memorandum on Problems of English Teaching. By HAROLD E. PALMER. Pp. 95. Tokyo, Institute for Research in English Teaching, 1924.

S. P. E. Tract No. XVII. Four Words. Romantic, Originality, Creative, Genius. By LOGAN PEARSALL Smith. 9 X 6, 48 pp. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1924. 3 s. 6d. net. Tract No. XVIII. 9X 51/2, 26 pp. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1924. 2s. 6d. net.

Includes H. W. Fowler on Subjunctives. A Vocabulary of the Anglo- Manx Dialect. Compiled by A. W. Moore, with the cooper. ation of Sophia MORRISSON and EDMUND GOODWIN. 9 X 6, xii + 206 pp. Milford, 1924. 25 s n. 9 London, Sidgwick & Jackson, Ltd. Annual Subscription, 10 s. 6 d. net. Published quarterly.

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PERIODICALS. Nieuwe Taalgids. XIX, 1. Jan. 1925. Includes: W. H. Staverman, Een Nederlandse Bron van de Robinson Crusoe. (Pp. 16-26.)

Neophilologus. X, 2. Jan. 1925. Includes: F. P. H. Prick van Wely, Kantteekeningen bij H. Poutsma's Grammar of Late Modern English, II, Section I, A: Nouns, Adjectives and Articles. (II). - W. van Doorn, An enquiry into the causes of Świnburne's failure as a narrative poet. With special reference to the 'Tale of Balen'. (II).

The Review of English Studies. *) I, 1. Jan. 1925. R. W. Chambers, Recent research upon the Ancren Riwle. – 0. Elton, The present value of Byron. – L. L. Schücking, Shakespeare and Sir Thomas More. H. Granville-Barker, A note upon chapters XX. and XXI. of The Elizabethan Stage. D. T. B. Wood, The Revels Books : the writer of the "Malone Scrap". - E. K. Chambers, Elizabethan stage gleanings. G. Thorn· Drury, Some notes on Dryden. Allardyce Nicoll, The rights of Beeston and D'Avenant in Elizabethan plays. Notes and Observations. Reviews.

Summary of periodical literature. Modern Language Review. Oct. 1924. Includes: E. D. L a borde, The style of The Battle of Maldon. - W. J. Lawrence, Thomas Ravenscrofte's Theatrical Associations.

R. P. Legros, André Chénier en Angleterre. - V. M. Jeffery, Italian and English pastoral drama of the Renaissance, III. E. Allison Peers, The literary activities of the Spanish ‘Emigrados' in England. II. [The reviews include one by R. B. McKerrow of van der Laan's Progressive Form.]

The Quarterly Review. Oct. 1924. C. E. Lawrence, The Personality of Geoffrey Chaucer. The Edinburgh Review. Oct. 1924: Lord Ernle, A bookbox of novels (1688–1727). – M. Sadleir, Henry Kingsley : a portrait.

The Contemporary Review. Dec. 1924. E. A. Sonnenschein, What is Blank Verse ? The Adelphi. Jan. 1925. J. Middleton Murry, Poetry, Philosophy and Religion.

A. Ingleby, The quarrel between Coleridge and Wordsworth. The Fortnightly Review. Jan. 1925. M. Wilson Disher, The influence of the Nursery on the Stage.

Revue Anglo-Américaine. II, 2. Déc. 1924. Includes: L. C a za mian, L'ouvre de James Joyce. – H. Peyre, Les sources du pessimisme de Thomson, I.

, Revue de Littérature Comparée. V, 1. Janv.- Mars 1925. Includes: LongworthChambrun, Influences françaises dans la Tempête de Shakespeare. - L. Cattan, La Venise de Byron et la Venise des romantiques français. A review of Kalff, West-Europeesche Letterkunde, I-II, by Th. de Ronde.

The Yale Review. XIV, 1. Oct. 1924. Includes: J. de Bosschère, Charity in the Work of May Sinclair. - C. B. Tinker, Rasselas in the New World. – G. M. Ťrovel. yan, History and Literature. D. Martin, Mr. Galsworthy as Artist and Reformer.

Id. XIV, 2. Jan. 1925. Includes: Th. Moult, The Life and Works of Joseph Conrad. A. Feuillerat, Scholarship and Literary Criticism.

Modern Language Notes. XXXIX, 8. Dec. 1924. Includes: T. W. Baldwin, Shake. speare's Jester: the dates of Much Ado and As You Like It. C. E. Whitmore, Mr. Hardy's Dynasts as tragic drama.

Modern Philology. Nov. 1924. A. C. L. Brown, The Grail and the English Sir Perceval, VI. R. C. Williams, Two studies in epic theory. E. Brugger, Loenois as Tristan's home. – H. E. Smith, Relativism in Bonald's literary doctrine. J. S. P. Tatlock, Levenoth and the grateful dead. – E P. Hammond, Charles of Orleans and Anne Molyneux.

Studies in Philology. XXI, 3. July 1924. Includes: M. P. Tilley, Pun and proverb as aids to unexplained Shakespearean jests. H. Fletcher, Milton and Yosippon. Id. XXI, 4. Oct, 1924. Includes: W. J. Lawrence, Jobn Kirke, The Caroline actordramatist. – J. F. Shipley, Spenserian prosody: the couplet forms. - A. D. Snyder, Coleridge's cosmogony: a note on the poetic “world.view”. R. P. McCutcheon, The "Journal des Scavans” and the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society".

G. McG. Vogt, Richard Robinson's “Eupolemia” (1603). Journal of English and Germanic Philology. XXIII, 4. Oct. 1924. Includes: K. Malone, The historicity of Arthur. M. W. Bundy, Shakespeare and Elizabethan psychology.

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A Guide to English Studies.

The Study of Present English. It is clear that the future English master needs a sound practical knowledge of the language he intends to teach. There would be hardly any need in a purely Dutch periodical to insist upon this, for the truth has never been seriously disputed in our country. But things have been different in Germany, and it is not so certain as we could wish, that Holland will not repeat the mistake of Germany in the neglect of the living language in the teaching of foreign languages in the universities. If Holland has escaped from this undoubted evil for the secondary schools, it is not due to the wisdom of the University professors but to the fact that the teaching of modern languages has up to very recent times been independent of the University. This may have contributed to keep the scholarly standard lower than it would otherwise have been, but it must be acknowledged that it has saved the schools from masters who did not know the language they were expected to teach. The merit of having done more than any other of his colleagues in Germany to remove this obstacle to the real progress of modern studies in his country belongs to Professor Viëtor, who in 1887 published the now well-known Einführung in das Studium der englischen Philologie. In the second edition (1897) he expresses his satisfaction that the standpoint which ten years before had made him a lonely figure among the German professors of modern languages was supported by respected colleagues. Of course Viëtor was punished for his independence: he never left the little university of Marburg.

Viëtor's defence of the practical study of the living language had a weak spot: he defended it only on "practical" grounds. This enabled, indeed naturally encouraged, his opponents of charging him with advocating "examen-philologie” (Elze). The charge was perfectly intelligible in a scholar of the type of Elze, who was interested in the scientific, chiefly literary, study of his subject, and knew little, and perhaps cared less, for the needs of the schools. He thought that it was not the duty of the university to provide a practical training, and this was quite defensible in a country where the university diploma does not carry the right to teach. But it is defensible only as long as one is ready to agree that the practical knowledge of the living language is a practical necessity only. It has, however, been shown, partly by bitter experience, that such a knowledge is an unavoidable part of the equipment of any real student of a modern language. It is especially the development of the study of Romance languages that has brought the necessity home to us ?). But the practical study of the living language is not an end in itself; for the scientific study of a modern language it is only a means to its theoretical study. The practical and the theoretical study must be combined to become useful as the foundation both of the historical and the general study of language.

The question whether the scientific study of a language is necessary or desirable for the future master is one to which different answers are possible, at least to which different answers have been, and are being, given. In Holland and Germany the answer is in the affirmative, in England it seems to be in the negative. With regard to England I may refer to the Report of the Government Committee on Modern Studies (His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1918. Price 1/6), and for a confirmation from a private scholar the February

-) See Delbrück, Grundlagen der neuhochdeutschen Satzlehre, 1920.

E, S. VII. 1925.

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number of Modern Languages (the organ of the Modern Language Association), where the reader will find an interesting Presidential Address by Dr. Ernest Barker. There are some people in Holland who would probably see the linguistic standard lowered without regret. To quote a characteristic indication of the tendency: when there was a question of establishing lectureships for modern languages in the University of Groningen ?) one of the professors declared to the intended lecturers that it was not necessary to teach the university students grammar and phonetics so elaborately as was required for the secondary state-examination (A-diploma). One of the men wittily answered: “Ah, I see, Professor, what is wanted is a sort of University Mulo ?)”. Those who wish to see how greatly the schools and the pupils may benefit by masters who are properly trained in language as well as in literature may compare the results attained by our schools with those of some other countries. They will also be strengthened in their conviction that we should be unwise to make fundamental changes if they read an admirable article on the teaching of foreign languages in the Gedenkbundel of De Drie Talen published last year; we refer to the essay by Mr. J. H. Schutt: Enige Opmerkingen over het Onderwijs in de Moderne Talen.

In the following notes on the study of present English the practical and the theoretical study will be treated separately; this does not mean that they should succeed each other in the teaching; on the contrary, both have their best effect if the two are taught concurrently.

The Practical Study of Living English. What is the ideal of the young student who, after leaving school, takes up the systematic study of present English? I believe it should be: to speak English like a native. What does this entail ? In essence it requires the student to live his life over again in the terms of the foreign language, from the nursery to the university. That this is impossible I am ready to grant; that the ideal can be lowered I must emphatically deny. It necessarily means that the stage of learning practical English is never passed :).

The first step is to complete or increase one's command of the language of daily intercourse. It is necessary in itself, and at the same time the means to much other knowledge: a stay in England becomes really useful only when the student can talk naturally with his equals in education, and when he can observe things for himself without troubling those who can have no real interest in them. Details of pronunciation and idiom will be observed (and noted down at night !), but as a rule it will be better not to discuss them with one's acquaintances : the less of “shop" there is the greater the chance that the relations to English people one meets are or become more or less natural. English people are very polite to foreigners, as a rule; but this should not lead the student to believe that he is welcome for that reason. Interest in foreigners as such is very common in Holland, there is little of it in England.

Although a stay in England is absolutely necessary, much can also be

*) In the end nothing came of it, the Minister of Education declaring that Holland was too poor a country to spend the enormous sum of f 6000, i. e. £ 500 yearly on the training of its masters of French, German, and English.

?) Mulo is the name for higher elementary education.

3) This is not so bad as it seems; it is really true also of native English students, though in a less important way.

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