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ent state of mind was well expressed the liberty which at present exists. That neiother day by one of those admirable weekly ther party will get the extreme result at cartoons with which we are supplied by which they aim, may be predicted with great Punch. Most of our readers know, better confidence ; but it is also clear that their than we can tell them, how the International controversy, end how it will—especially if it Derby was won by the good horse British ends in the modified victory of the party of Constitution, ridden by that rather heavy movement, as such controversies usually doweight National Debt, and how France, Aus- can hardly excite any great popular feeling. tria, Prussia, Rome, and the United and Con- It must go off into a question of criticism, federate States were so completely beaten as verbal, historical, and scientific, which cannot to be worth placing. Universal congrat- not be condensed into any such short popular ulation and a general chuckle and hand-shak- issue as is required in order to make a coning are very pleasant, and, if they could last siderable stir in the world. The nation at indefinitely, would leave little or nothing to large will never interest itself passionately in be desired. That they should so last is not an inquiry whether the fact that the last to be expected, unless, indeed, the world has chapter of Deuteronomy was not written by not only changed its mind, but got a new Moses proves or not that Moses was not the constitution to live under-a theory which author of the bulk of the Pentateuch. does not seem very probable. It is, however, In the event of the coming struggle, whena singular question where we shall next break ever it comes, being a political one, there are out-whence will come the storm which is not wanting some signs of the direction which at present hushed in a repose which, accord- it is likely to take. There are indications ing to all rules, ought to be described as that the old Socialist doctrines which have grim. From the nature of the English peo- played so vigorous a part in France, and ple, it may be inferred with confidence that which were supposed to have been very
efit will be either religious or political, or both. fectually laid in what can scarcely be called Some persons may suppose—and there are a metaphorical Red Sea, have changed their many symptoms which at first sight might skin, and are making considerable progress favor the suggestion—that we are on the in certain classes of the population, and unbrink of a great religious controversy. It der more reasonable forms than they have may be true-it probably is true that such hitherto worn. Take a mixture of physical a controversy will occur, and that it has al- science and philanthropic sentiment instead ready begun; but there is every reason to of a religion-associate people in Trades' believe that, whatever may be the importance Unions and Co-operative Stores -- adopt of the results ultimately produced, the con- Comte's moral and social doctrines, purified troversy itself will be quiet to the last de- from the grotesque absurdities which he chose gree. If the liberal party in the Church of to affix to them in his later years—and you England carried their point to the very ut- may make up as respectable an image to bow most, they would produce nothing but gen- down to as is usually worshipped by a popueral liberty of speculation. They would con- lar party. Signs that such a process is going vert the Church of England into an endowed on are not wanting. They may come to anyprofession, with formularies, but without a thing or nothing. At present, they are cercreed, and they would secure the right of the tainly sufficiently well marked to justify a clergy to controvert on the Monday doctrines transient curiosity; but, should they ultiimplied by the prayers which, in the discharge mately prove large enough to shelter all the of their official duty, they read in church on fowls of heaven, they would not make so the Sunday. If, on the other hand, they are much difference in the end as one would at utterly defeated or driven out of the Church, first be inclined to suppose. In the meanthe only result will be the restriction of the time, let us cultivate our cabbages.
From The Athenaeum. logically reversed. Partisanship! DissenHistory of England during the Reign of George sions ! Do they not exist among the young
the Third. By John George Phillimore. students of ancient history? We can say, Vol. I. (Virtue Brothers & Co).
for our own parts, that we have seen furious The first of the British-born Georges is fights between the respective supporters of likely to have justice rendered him at last. Heetor and Achilles, and have ourselves bled If he have not, it will not be for want of in- for the beautiful Helen, of whose cause we quiry or for lack of sifting evidence. The have since become ashamed. testimony is conflicting enough, because of We rejoice, therefore, at the development its abundance and because the witnesses are which is being given to modern, that is, to many, and a little more like advocates than recent history, with the details of which our witnesses. Nevertheless, we shall be able ancestors of two removes little troubled themto pronounce a true verdict at last, the bear- selves, or learnt it so blunderingly as to rob ing of which undoubtedly will be that George it of all charm. The truth is, that the Histhe Third was neither so peerless as “the tory of England during the reign of George king's friends” would have him to be, nor the Third looks, in the books and papers of quite such an ogre as he was painted by his that period, as heavy as the portrait of that adversaries.
monarch himself, dull as his smile and pert It is strange that we should be so ignorant as his cockade. Yet what a reign it was of late events, and of the actors in them. The for the rise and the ruin of empires, for fact is, that our sires and grandsires knew bloody battles, for marvellous duellos on the nothing of contemporary history except its sea, for dazzling oratory, for sweeping changes gossip, and we ourselves, perhaps, think over the face of the world, for glory, corrupchiefly of George the Third as the good old tion and calamity, in all of which our counman with a sempiternal smile and a large try had a part, and sometimes a suffering and cockade, a dozen and more children, and a humiliating part! We all know this much. wife whose sole personal beauty was in her What we want further to know is,—why there
Under our new lights, this homely came this much; how the results were obGeorge begins to come before us in heroic di- tained ; and what were the hidden springs by mensions, for good or for evil, as interesting which these great effects were arrived at. Mr. as the conqueror himself.
Phillimore is the new witness who comes to That we require such revelations of the dispel obscurity on many of these points, and recent past should be a profitable lesson to us who modestly says that he will be content if in the actual present. Young people should he be found like the torch-bearer who does learn the contemporary history in which they not so much enlighten himself as the path live and of which they are a part. Vicks of those who follow him. burg is as important as Saguntum ; to follow Mr. Phillimore, it must be understood, Forey from the coast to Puebla (and learn does not write his history with rose-water. why he went) is as exciting as accompanying To stern views he gives strong language. Cortez ; and to know something of the his- He is a Royalist, and he abhors a king who tory and the sayings and the doings of those is not, in his turn, a Royalist too, and a loywho
govern and of those who would like to alist to boot. He would be ashamed to paint govern us, is, at least, as important for our George the Third in any other colors than youth of either sex as to learn the constitu- those which represent him as coarse, illiberal, tion of the Roman legislature.
and—the word must be said, though Mr. We have heard objections made to this on Phillimore employs many dainty phrases to the ground that such instruction would lead express the same terrible thing-a liar! We to partisanship. Why, so it ought, if by shall have to look upon George the Third's partisanship be meant that a young fellow children as a rude, graceless, ill-nurtured set should be able to entertain an opinion of his of boys and girls ; and on George the Third's own, and have spirit to support it. It would mother as something which cannot be exbreed dissensions among boys, we hear some pressed in plain phrase, but which Mr. Philone say. We hope it would, if by that we limore expresses by asking, “Would any are to understand discussions and an obsti- court-chaplain venture to say that his mother nate sticking to an opinion till it can be was spotless ? ' After this query, it is need
less to say that the Princess-Dowager of the Third, are admirable for the lucidity in
This skill, indeed, is manifest in all parts Mr. Phillimore has not undertaken a disa- of the book, and as one sample of it, we greeable task without very excellent reasons, give Mr. Phillimore's character-portrait of and for this smashing of the old idols at St. George the Third himself; if " the wen and James's, Carlton House, Buckingham Palace, the wrinkles” be there, the good points are Windsor, and Kew, he pleads his justification put“ i’ the sun
also : in these words :-". Yielding to no one in
“ The object of George the Third was to loyal and dutiful attachment to her majesty, make his will as absolute in England as that -an attachment founded, not upon the ser- of any German prince was over the_boors vile notions which her family was placed and servile nobles in his dominions. Everyupon the throne of England expressly to de- thing was to be drawn to his personal favor stroy, but on the solid ground of gratitude and inclination : ministers were not to look for the happiness which my country has en-Commons to the people--every tie of social
to the House of Commons, nor the House of joyed under her mild and constitutional rule, affection and public trust was to be dissolved -I have not hesitated to point out the crimes -parties were to be broken up-the great and errors of her kindred.”
families were to be stripped, not only of the We confess that it seems at first sight influence derived from the abilities and virstrange that because a lady is supposed to tues of their representatives, but of that have secured to you a certain amount of hap- free country. Nothing was to stand be
which property must always command in a piness, you are therefore to expose her wicked old grandfather, and assure all the world of Rockinghams, Grenvilles, Bedfords, Saviles,
tween the crown and the populace. The the worthlessness of her whole kith and kin. were to be reduced, so far as political auWould Mr. Phillimore have refrained from thority was concerned, to the condition to pillorying this family, unclean in his eyes, which the nobles of Castile had been brought of their successor had inherited only their by Ximenes, and the French aristocracy by vices ? Mr. Phillimore, despite some exag. The smile and favor of the sovereign were in
the third monarch of the house of Bourbon. gerated and some unquestionably mistaken the eighteenth century to be the sole object views, has rendered excellent service to his- to which an English gentleman, however antory; but we think he should have left her cient his lineage, however great his possesmajesty's name out of the matter altogether. sions, however splendid his abilities, however He had better grounds to go upon than those numerous his titles to the love and veneration he assigns. It is not because he sits com- of his countrymen, should aspire. They were fortably under the olive-tree with the lady, to stand in lieu of all other qualifications : that he can find just reasons for abusing her with them Bute, or Sandwich, or Barrington kinsman who cut down the oak. Even in the omnipotent; without them Pitt, Grenville,
-a minion, a knave, a parasite--were to be French proverb we are told that if you dine Rockingham, Savile — probity, knowledge, with a man whose father was hanged, you station, genius-were to be ciphers. The will do well not to make so much as an al- king was to interfere directly and personally lusion to a rope.
in all the affairs of government, from the But, to come more immediately to the vol- highest to the lowest and most minute deume before us, let us state that all the pre- minister to the appointment of an architect.
tail of office—from the choice of a prime liminary pages tend to show that if George Even Louis the Fourteenth, in the height of the Third was but an indifferent king, he his power, had been kept somewhat in check succeeded to a worse than indifferent system, by the dread of public opinion, and of the with which he did his best, according to his sneers of a keen-eyed and sarcastic race; nature and his training. The preliminary but in England, where duller men, rolling chapters, and those devoted to the history
without respite in the mire of practical life, of Ireland and of India, although they travel looked only to what they could see, and
were hardened against wit and opinion, and a little beyond the limits in which an histo- touch, and count,-to the letter of the law, rian might keep himself who professes to and the distribution of wealth and power, write an account of the reign of George the sovereign, if he could once emancipate
himself from the control of the aristocracy of temperance was to the last hour of his -I use the word in its widest sense—if he rational life a public blessing. Though, could succeed in reconciliating the ends of treading in the steps of his race, he was an arbitrary power to the forms of a free con- unkind father, he was a faithful husband. stitution, had no such restraint to appre- The English pardoned much when they saw hend. He would have no more to fear from the virtues they most appreciate on the gibes and epigrams than Amurath or Au- throne.” rungzebe. But let me not be unjust. If George the Third had quite succeeded in this
In the portrait of George the Third's object, England would have had no reason to mother, on the contrary, there is little of dread a repetition of the injuries she bore pleasant light at all; the whole figure is in under the Tudors, and did not bear under sombre shade. She is described as “a corthe Stuarts: men's lives and properties, the rupted and dissembling woman, bent on honor of their wives and daughters, so far as the monarch was concerned, would have been who combined with her son's tutors to ex
power and greedy of money," and a mother safe. He would have been able at the end of his reign, like the Jewish prophet, to asperate the defects in that son's charachave called on those whom he had ruled to ter :witness whose ox or whose ass he had taken, or whom he had defrauded—and he would been early and carefully taught the lesson
" It is evident that George the Third had have obeyed the law. He would neither which had proved fatal to the house of Stuhave exacted a hundred pullets from a great lady, as the price of an interview with her art, and which at one time was on the point husband, like King John ; nor have flung court, his governor, a courtier, but not with
of being destructive to himself. Lord Harmembers of Parliament into prison for their out a sense of honor, resigned rather than votes and speeches, like Charles the First; witness what he found himself unable to nor have murdered them by bills of attainder, like Henry the Eighth. George the Third prevent.'. When Lord Harcourt was asked would not have imitated the debauchery of by the minister to assign the cause of his Augustus of Saxony, nor have allowed a
resignation, he replied that the reason was courtezan to choose his ministers and gen: himself,' clearly pointing out the mother as
too delicate to mention to any but the king erals, like Louis the Fifteenth ; nor would the cause of the evil that he complained of. he have run about the streets of his capital That mother, the princess dowager, was, in beating respectable women with his came, the opinion of all, high and low, of the best like the father of Frederick the Great. The informed contemporary writers, as well as of earnings of the laborer and the tradesman the populace, before and after her husband's would not have been squandered on harlots and men as infamous as harlots, but (and in she sacrificed, if some writers are to be be
death, the mistress of Lord Bute. To him no very lavish measure) on parasites, hypocrites, and dunces. He would have contented lieved, at least one rival. To him she cerhimself with exacting strict and absolute sub- tainly sacrificed her reputation, and, what mission to his wishes in Church and State. she valued more, her wealth. In order to He would have been satisfied if he could strengthen her ascendency over her eldest have excluded every glimmering of light son, whom she despised, she excluded him from the moral horizon of England ; if he as much as possible from all society, while could have guarded himself against the dan
she carefully instilled into his mind the arger of admitting to his councils any man of bitrary notions which were exemplified in greater abilities than his own; if he could the petty courts of Germany, and which Have disposed of every place of importance her paramour. These were the seeds sown,
in speculation the cherished maxims of in the kingdom to a series of beings like which fell on a most congenial soil, and soon Lord Bute and Lord Sidmouth, and have brought this island to be the Goshen of sprang up into a bitter harvest." lords of the bed-chamber and maids of honor
Darker still is a family group, with a whole a flat, monotonous level of Germam servi- House of Lords in the gloomy background :tude and repose. If he suffocated all political speculation, he would have promoted agricul George the Second, from wise and benevture. If to inquire into the nature and des- olent motives, had been anxious to see his tiny of the soul would have been perilous, in- heir married before his death, and with that vestigations into irrational matter, into acids view had proposed the hand of a Princess of and alkilis, and the habits of molluscæ, topics Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, a beautiful and in no way likely to cherish any love of in- highly-accomplished lady, to his grandson. dependence, would have been secure, and The princess dowager, however, true to her perhaps encouraged. The example he gave system, and determined that her son should
have no wife but of her choosing, interfered from George the Third, whose schemes-
Mr. Phillimore supports much of what he
by references to Bubb
and of obtaining a just and hon- a half. There is not much harm done by orable peace. In this state it was delivered this proceeding; but we do not know how to his colleagues, and it was not till after an the case may be with quotations which we are argument of three hours with Lord Bute that unable to verify at all. Mr. Pitt succeeded in changing the words 80 We will add here, that there is too much far as not to cast a direct censure on his pol- of a sneering tone throughout the volume, icy. Mr. Pitt must have been destitute of all penetration if he had not discovered the and an epigrammatic smartness without the spirit and complexion of the new reign. He epigrammatic point, which may be said to went to Newcastle, and urged him to make mar many a fair precedent. Speaking of the common cause against the favorite. New- last century, the author says,—" In those castle impatient to shake off the yoke of Pitt's days it was usual for a clergyman of the imposing genius, with his usual baseness and English Church, even if he were a dean or a pusillanimous cunning, refused to take this course; and thus George the Third was al- canon, to believe in the inspiration of the most enabled to establish royal power at once
Old and New Testaments." The inference on the ruins of English honor and prosperity. is, that deans and canons entertain no such Newcastle, indeed, affected a wish to retire belief now; and as future deans and canons from public life; but a few words, of course, are among the teachers of our youth, Mr.