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Phillimore does not look for better things, that their writings were not based on a mere we fear, from their hands.
mercantile speculation! as if “ The Vicar of
Wakefield" " Great improvements in machinery, enor
were not written with a view to mous shops, and the most intense study of the money it was to produce and the rent it entomology, are quite consistent with the de- was to pay. “Our greatest writers,” he cay of all public spirit, and entire apathy to says, “ were boyond the mob"; as if Milton the motives that animated the men who gave were not more the possession of the middle England her rank among the nations ; nor classes, in all times, than of any other. We will incessant and boisterous panegyrics on do not know why he says, “ Cicero, in our ourselves, and on the worst and coarsest parts of the national character, which are as dis- days, would have been a baron (not of the gusting to men of refinement as they are cap-exchequer) and Tacitus a baronet ;" for it tivating to the herd of readers, avert any one is one of the commonest remarks that to litcalamity we have to apprehend, or remedy erary men are awarded the smallest measure one single evil under which we suffer. We of honors. One merit the older writers cermay do well to recollect the passage in which tainly had—sincerity; they affected neither Plutarch describes the Athenian pilots. • They gave great names to their ships--they had it not: but even an affectation of it, in
religion, nor modesty, nor decency, if they called them Minerva, Neptune, Apollo—but they were cast away like other men.' Nor, a book which is to go among readers who if those entrusted with the education of youth know nothing of the author, is better than a among us (I am making, I know, an extrav- violation-if we only have the old wit with agant supposition) were more ignorant of the it. All modern novelists are leather and pruart of writing than they are, and have been, nella to Mr. Phillimore, in which he is a litwith few exceptions indeed, for the last forty tle wrong; but Fielding he accounts as the years, would that, in my opinion, at all jus- Rubens of novelists,” and in that he is abuntify such a tone of exultation, or in any way improve the future prospects of the country. dantly right-a Rubens without a school. I have lost all the blood in my body,' says
But when Mr. Phillimore contrasts the GeorDr. Sangrado's dying patient, and yet do gian dramatists with the older brethren of the not feel the better for it. If, instead of giving craft, we find him, in one sense, sadly astray. up their time to read, and servilely to repeat, He finds "overflowing wit and command of what the Germans have written about the classics, they studied the classics themselves language" in Etherege, the dullest of common-if they read Livy instead of Niebuhr, and place talkers of any of the fraternity. Of WyDemosthenes instead of Boeckh, if instead cherley he makes too little, of Congreve far too of cramming their pupils for examinations, much; and he sees in Sheridan an imitator bringing every mind to the same dead, tutor's of the latter, where we see a close imitator level, and so in nine cases out of ten stunting even of the incidente in Wycherley’s comedies, the intellectual growth of the unhappy boys though Sheridan was incessantly praising the and Virgil and Cicero and Euripides as they wit of Congreve, and even his indecency, prowere read by Milton and Dryden, by Addison testing that he would rather go without both and Barrow, and Atterbury and Fox-Eng-than have them separated. But Sheridan who land might hope to shake off the sleepy drench studied Wycherley so closely, had very good which, where gain or physical exertion are reasons for drawing popular attention to Connot concerned, has so long benumbed her faculties. Then, instead of the authors of Tract greve. As to“ Congreve’s wit,” it is a cant
term in the mouths of many who never read Ninety, and the History of the British Beetle,
a line of him, and who are none the worse for and Biographies of Fox-hunters and Railway Contractors, men might arise in England who it. When Congreve was received for a wit, would recall the days when the Tale of a Tub, he was not censured for his indecency ; but and the Vision of Mirza, and the Idea of a opinions have changed as to what is witty Patriot King, delighted the readers of Mil- and decent. The preface to one of the wittiton and Dryden and Shakspeare, and added est of his comedies, « The Double Dealer,” splendor to a literature already glorious.”
emphatically asserts its cleanliness, but you When treating of a bygone literature, and may read it through without being dazzled comparing it with the present, Mr. Philli- by more than a few sparkles, and
cannot more advances some singular ideas, not un- read half a page without falling upon allumixed with much truth. He traces much of sions that are disgusting. the excellence of the old authors to the fact We do not think so ill of modern English
literature as Mr. Phillimore does ; even the brutality, she added đulness and gloom even men who search after the “ British Beetle" to the English court. The marriage was and write about it are witnesses to a healthy precipitated to prevent George the Third state of society, agents in promoting useful from again soliciting the hand of a lady of a knowledge, and practical missionaries in de- blest and most beautiful of his subjects, who,
sweet and generous temper, one of the noveloping the glory that resides in the meanest by a lot the reverse of that which attended of the works of God.
the royal bride, became the mother of a disNevertheless, we do not mean to say that tinguished, high-minded, and intellectual race Queen Charlotte was justified in preferring -especially illustrious for two highly gifted · Polly Honeycombe” to “ The Double Deal- men, in whose destiny it was, both by the er," for the reading of her daughters ; though pen and the sword, by the qualities which fit Miss Burney, who read the former aloud to heroic courage and commanding genius, to
men to lead in war and to rule in peace, by them, was probably charmed with the mission exalt the fame and extend the dominion of assigned to her by a mistress, who is thus their proud but not very grateful country.” delineated by the unsparing pencil of Mr. Phillimore. The time referred to is before
Grateful! What is gratitude? Mr. Phillithe royal marriage, when
more presents the public with this portrait
of Queen Charlotte, because of his comfort “ The king gave a proof of his blind deference under the mild constitutional sway of Queen to his mother's wishes, which took all men Victoria. It would have been but justice if by surprise. While every thought was oc- he had added whatever little there may
have cupied by the negotiation, the Privy Council been of bright and good in the older queen’s was suddenly summoned to hear the king announce his intended marriage with the Prin- character. In a dissolute age, she set a virċess Charlotte of Mecklenburgh-Strelitz, tuous example, and a similar course reflects which soon afterwards took place. Colonel the greatest lustre on the crown of her grandGræme, a notorious Jacobite agent, had been daughter, one of a race of whom Mr. Phillisent to different states in Germany, to dis- more is pleased to say, that it is the reverse cover among the little states of that enslaved of that of which Lady Sarah Lennox was country some, princess whose appearance, the mother,—the “ reverse of distinguished, disposition, and understanding would be to the mother of her future husband a complete high-minded, and intellectual.” guarantee against any dread of the loss of her Notwithstanding the drawbacks which we ascendency. For this purpose a better choice have indicated, this volume gives promise of could hardly have been made. The new a work which will deserve to be read. If queen was chaste; but if to watch over the there be a little too much of assertion, there education of her children and to promote is no want of argument; and if there be extheir happiness be any part of a woman's duty, she has little claims to the praises that aggeration of expression and sentiment, in have been so lavishly bestowed upon her as
an exactly opposite direction to that taken the model of domestic virtue. Her religion by Mr. Massey—another historian of whom was displayed in the scrupulous observance we had occasion to speak recently—there is of the external forms. Repulsive in her as- no suspicion aroused that the censurer is expect, grovelling in her instincts, sordid in her ercising his right in any but an honest spirit. habits ; steeped from the cradle in the stupid In intention, the book is good ; in execution, pride which was the atmosphere of her stolid and most insignificant race , inexorably severe very good ; unpleasant, perhaps, to the bigots to those who yielded to temptations from of all parties, but acceptable to every man which she was protected, not more by her who may be glad to know what an honest situation and the vigilance of those around thinker and a rough but able writer has to her, than by the extreme homeliness of her say about the times of George the Third. person ; bigoted, avaricious, unamiable to
From The Reader. things were sure to be seen.
And strange THE BIBLE AND AMERICAN SLAVERY. things are seen in America. By the side of Does the Bible Sanction American Slavery? By the Great Salt Lake is a community basing Goldwin Smith. (Oxford and London :
itself upon polygamy. In the Southern States John Henry and James Parker.)
is a community basing itself upon slavery. This noble essay is expanded from a lec- to the Bible as its sanction; and each of
Each of these communities confidently appeals ture which was delivered at the Manchester them, in virtue of that warrant, declares its Athenæum. There is no place in which one peculiar institution to be universal and diwould more desire that sound principles re- vine. The plea of the slave-owner is accepted. specting American slavery should be unfolded Perhaps, if the Mormonite were equally an than in Manchester. There is no person object of political interest to a large party,
his whom one should more wish to expound
plea might be accepted also.. them than an Oxford Professor. But might one to determine whether the slave-owner's
“It is important in more ways than not the combination have been reasonably plea is true. The character of the Bible is dreaded ? Would not some recent experi- threatened ; and so is the character of the ence have warranted the apprehension that English law and nation. The Times says scholastical sophistries might be used to that slavery is only wrong as luxury is wrong, strengthen and deepen mercantile sophistries : and that the Bible enjoins the slave at the that the selfishness of trade might have been present day to return to his master. If so, supplied with plausible apologies from the slave from his master directly his feet touch
the law of England, which takes away the seat of learning and religion? Thank God! English soil, is a robber's law. If such fears have been altogether confuted in great Act of Emancipation, of which we speak this instance. Mr. Goldwin Smith has put so proudly, was a robber's act; for, though forth no scholastical sophistries; he has a partial compensation for their loss was turned a manly, graceful, un pedantical schol- granted to the West Indian slave-owners, arship to its true service that of exposing they were forced to give up their slaves nodelusions, of vindicating freedom and truth toriously against their will." That his essay is written in pure masterly The argumentum ad hominem, “ You de English need not be said. That it shows ten- fend slavery as a divine institution; are you fold more acquaintance with Scripture in its ready to defend polygamy ?!" might be used letter and its spirit, a far more reverent ap- by many writers to throw discredit upon the preciation of the Old as well as the New Tes- Hebrew institutions generally. Mr. Goldwin tament, than the writings of professed di- Smith appeals to it for a directly opposite vines, learned and popular-that it exhibits purpose. He recognizes in the tolerance of a political wisdom very rare in the speeches slavery, of polygamy, and of many other inof distinguished statesmen-ought to be said. stitutions, the sign of a Divine Teacher who Into the space of a few
be was educating his creatures to a knowledge easily read through in half an hour, the of what was good for them, not "putting reader will find thoughts and information human society at once in a state of perfection compressed which may confirm the convictions without further effort, political, social, or inand scatter the fallacies that have been grow-tellectual, on the part of man.” The Mosaic ing in him for years. He may have to part " code of laws takes the rude institutions of with some favorite notions, which are current a primitive nation, including slavery, as they in South Carolina, and which the Times and stand, not changing society by miracle, which, the Saturday Review have adapted to the Eng-as has been said before, seems to have been no lish market. It may a little compensate this part of the purposes of God. But, while it loss that he will receive fresh light on the takes these institutions as they stand, it does history of nations, a defence of the Bible not perpetuate them, but reforms them, mitifrom the heaviest charge that has ever been gates them, and lays on them restrictions brought against it, fresh proofs that good has tending to their gradual abolition. Much triumphed over evil, fresh encouragements, less does it introduce any barbarous instituto believe that it will.
tion or custom for the first time" The opening of the essay is a specimen of and 6). the style in which it is written :
The author illustrates this doctrine by the " When a New World was peopled, strange cases of the Avenger of Blood, the Cities of
Refuge, the authority of the Parents in put “ So much respecting the nature of bondting their Children to death, of Polygamy, age in the patriarchal state. It seems to of Wars, of the Power of the Monarch, of bear little resemblance to the condition of the the Order of Priests, before he comes to the gangs of negro chattels who are driven out
under the lash of an overseer to plant cotton case of slavery. In every one of these in- in America, and who are slaves to the tyranstances he compares the provisions of the He- nical cruelty and lust of the white members of brew code with those of other ancient nations their owner's family, as well to the avarice in a farmore advanced stage of civilization, and of their owner.
When we find a negro
standshows how consistently it accepted contempo-ing in the same relation to his master, and to raneous forms of society, how consistently it his master's son, in which Eliezer stood to
Abraham and Isaac, and when we find in neprovided remedies against their abuses and
gro slavery the other characteristics of bondabominations, how it prepared the way
age as it existed in the tents of Abraham and nobler and freer life.
his descendants, we may begin to think that After this careful and vigorous induction the term • Patriarchal ''is true as applied to the author advances with cruel deliberation the slavery of Virginia and Carolina." and calmness to a comparison of the maxims
We can indulge ourselves only in one exof Moses, the lawgiver of the Jews some fif- tract from the Third Section, the most elabteen centuries before the Christian era, with orate and complete part of the essay :those of Judge Ruffin of North Carolina in the nineteenth century after it. He does not
“In one thing, however, the American
slave-owner and the Hebrew lawgiver are enter upon this contrast till he has spoken of
agreed. Both think, and with good reason, the patriarchal times, noticing, by the way, that slavery and 'free labor cannot well exist that famous piece of religious ethnology,
the together. The Hebrew lawgiver therefore argument from the Curse on Canaan. Con- takes measures to diminish slavery in his descension is a great quality, and no fallacies country. The American slave-owner proare too old for refutation : but we should poses to put an end to the freedom of labor
all over the world. scarcely have forgiven Mr. Smith for wasting
" There is one thing more to be mentioned. precious time on this one if these golden sen- Decisive experience has shown that slavery tences had not convinced us that he was right. cannot hold its ground without a Fugitive They kill many foes at once.
Slave Law. Now the law of Moses says,
• Thou shalt not deliver unto his master the “ To all arguments of this kind there is, in servant which is escaped from his master unto the first place, a very simple answer, which thee : He shall dwell with thee, even among has already been given, in effect, to those you, in that place which he shall choose in who thought it their duty as Christians one of thy gates, where it liketh him best : to fulfil inspired prophecy by denying civil thou shalt not oppress him.' Southern therights to the Jews. Man is not charged with ologians try to get rid of the apparent immothe fulfilment of inspired prophecy, which, rality of this passage by maintaining that it whatever he may do, will certainly fulfil it- relates only to slaves who have fled from a self; but he is charged with the performance foreign country. It is difficult to see any of his duty to his neighbor. It is not in- ground for this gloss, more especially as even cumbent upon him to preserve Divine Fore- in heathen Greece the right of asylum in cerknowledge from disappointment; but it is tain temples was allowed, alone of religious incumbent upon him to preserve his own soul privileges, to the slave. But suppose
it were from injustice, cruelty, and lust. If the so, the law would in effect enjoin the Hebrews prophecy had meant that the negroes should to risk a quarrel, and perhaps a war,
with a always be slaves, it would have been defeated foreign country rather than give up fugitive already; for a great part of the negroes in slaves—a singular mode of impressing the Africa have never become slaves, and those sanctity and beneficence of slavery on their in the English and French colonies, besides minds. a good many in America itself, have ceased to be so."
The Fourth Section, on the New Testament,
though very admirable, is not quite so satisWe wish our space allowed us to quote an factory to us as those which have preceded it. exquisitely beautiful passage on the relations Mr. Goldwin Smith has understated his case of Abraham with his servant. We must give in respect to St. Paul. But the argument the conclusion of the argument from the early from the Epistle to Philemon is beautifully history:
This article is a long one for so short as taught them, what impulses to good they book. It is far too short to convey our im- have received from it. Those of us who pression of the value of the book. A concio have longed for some clear statement of their ad populum by an accomplished scholar free own profoundest and most earnest convictions from the slightest exaggeration, the slightest respecting slavery, unmixed with any Northappeal to vulgar feelings, deserves all the ern partialities, and for a vindication of the honor that can be given it. Those of us who Bible, such as no mere controversialist has have sometimes spoken harshly of the writer made, or is ever likely to make, will thank for what have seemed his harsh judgments of the Professor of Modern History of Oxford other men, must be eager to make him for giving us both at once. F. D. M. amends by confessing what this essay has
THE PRINCE OF WALES having expressed a wish I could tolerate, even in comic license, a rhyme to be present at the Eton Speeches, and the 4th like stanza and plans are.
In Eton, if anyof June having fallen this year on the Ascot Cup where in England, the sacredness of the sound R day, the delivery of the speeches was postponed should be respected. to the next day. Accordingly, yesterday week was held as the gala day of Henry the Sixth's College. The Prince and Princess of Wales reached the Quadrangle at 12 o'clock, which, tian papyrus, suggests that the method of pre
The Paper Trade Review, speaking of Egyplong before that hour, was completely filled with distinguished visitors, just as the dense, heavy stem of the plant into its concentric layers, as
paring the paper was by separating the succulent rain was pouring down in torrents. Again and again the old walls rang with the cheers of the many as twenty being got from a single stem. young Etonians--some of them, perhaps, the
When separated, these were probably spread out
flat, and subjected to some pressure, then exposed prince's future ministers, statesmen, and warriors. The opening speech, a poetical address in to the action of the sun's rays, and, last of all, the heroic couplet, composed by Lord Francis brought to a hard and even surface, by rubbing Herrey, son of the Marquis of Bristol, in honor with a smooth shell, or piece of ivory. The of the visit of their royal highnesses, was deliv- this way, were sure to be limited in size. On an
single sheets, so to speak, of paper obtained in ered in admirable style by the young author. Other recitations followed, according to custom; six inches in breadth ; but they could be gummed
average they might be eighteen inches long, and and, at the close of the programme, the prince together piece by piece when required, until and princess visited the College Chapel ; after which they and the other guests were entertained large sheets were formed, on which important by the proyost, Dr. Goodford, at his resides.ce. and voluminous records could be engrossed. The We observe, by the by, that Lord Francis Her- largest sheet of this kind in this country is in the vey's address, from which the newspapers gave feet long, and one foot wide. The quantity of
British Museum, measuring some eight or nine extracts, has been published entire in the first these sheets produced must have been very connumber of a new Eton-School Magazine just pub-siderable. The trade became a lucrative one ; lished under the name of Etonensia. The num- and at Rome the consumption of papyrus was ber contains, besides, a few short prize essays and poetical pieces by the young hopes of Eton- very great, with a supply seldom equal to the
demand. the most interesting article, perhaps, being a brief essay on Arthur Hallam, dear to Eton as an old Etonian, and as a contributor, in his Eton days, to a former school magazine called The
POSTAGE-STAMPS were, according to the MonEion Miscellany. Most of the pieces show at iteur, in use as early as two hundred years ago. least a very nice feeling ; but we should not This paper quotes å postal regulation of 1653, have expected from a young Etonian, even in according to which letters þcaring the inscription fun, such a cockney rhyme as the following, Post paye shall be carried free of expense from which appears in one of the poetical pieces :
one end of the town to the other, and announcing
that franking stamps are to be had at certain “ Oh, aid us, kind muse, to a stanza,
places, at a sou a piece, etc.
The death of Edward Vogel, the African travWe hope Dr. Goodford will ruthlessly root out, eller, has been, we hear, confirmed by evidence in Eton, that style of pronouncing English which which places it beyond a doubt.