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From The Athenæum. portrayed ;” and the inscription is a compliThe Phantom Bouquet : a Popular Treatise on ment, however oddly worded. the Art of Skeletonizing Leaves and Seed The art of what we may call Leaf-bleaching

Vessels, and adapting them to Embellish the has been traditionally known in Europe and Home of Taste. By Edward Parrish. Asia for many centuries, but seems to have (Philadelphia, Lippincott & Co. ; London reached Philadelphia, in America, only just Bennett.)

| before the civil war. This American druggist Mr. Edward PARRISH is an eminent drug writes about it in the enthusiastic strain of cook. His writings on drug cookery, or the Scottish editor whose descriptions of the pharmaceutical chemistry, have gained him British metropolis provoked his readers to say the esteem of the brethren of his craft in " he seemed to have discovered London." Europe as well as in America. When they To this circumstance we owe this little book learn, therefore, that he has been recreating the first, as far as we know, ever devoted himself from the fatigues of graver labors, if to an art producing very pretty and instrucnot more useful pursuits, by writing in a high- tive results, and well worthy the attention flown style a brochure on a “ Phantom Bou- of ladies. Skeleton leaves have, for the first quet,” they will receive the information with time, a little book all about themselves. some amusement. They will smile all the Some years ago, Mr. Parrish was attracted more when they learn that the book is obvi- by a beautiful vase of prepared leaves and ously misnamed. Opticians can make phan- seed-vessels, displaying the delicate veinings tom bouquets; and now that scientific spectres of these plant structures, and of such brilare doing the business of poetical and dra- liant whiteness as to suggest the idea of permatic ghosts upon the stage, spectral flowers fectly bleached artificial lace-work or exquimay soon be seen adorning theatres and draw-site carvings in ivory. Mr. Parrish is so ing-rooms with their ethereal and startling little of a physiological botanist, that he calls beauty. It is the optician, and not the the cellular tissue, the seat of the marvels of botanist, who can make phantom bouquets. cell life, the parenchyma, which becomes the But leaves and not flowers, fibres and not germ and the pollen, “the grosser partiphantoms, are the themes of this publication cles":of Mr. Parrish, of Philadelphia. He is nearer "This elegant parlor ornament was brought the mark when he compares the art of prepar- by returning travellers as a novel and choice ing leaves to something like what Sydney Smith trophy of their Transatlantic wandering; fancied he would like doing to himself, when he none could be procured in America, and no wished to lay aside his too cumbrous flesh dur- one to whom the perplexed admirer could ing the intense heat of the dog-days, and sit in appea

appeal was able to give a clue to the process

by which such surprising beauty and perfechis bones. By phantom bouquets are meant

tion of details could be evolved from struc* skeleton leaves," --- long and familiarly Itures which generally rank among the least known in Europe, as exhibited at horticultu- admired expansions of the tissue of the plant. ral shows in shop-windows, and used as draw. That the novelty of this spectacle then constiing-room ornaments and educational applian- tuted one of its chief attractions need not be ces. Mr. Parrish is as unfortunate in his

inata in his denied. Yet the phantom case, now that second name for the art in question, calling it

hundreds of pier-tables and étagères in city

and country are garnished with its airy forms, “ skeletonizing”—a term which includes

and its photographic miniature, under the not merely the gratification of the whim of well-chosen motto of Beautiful in Death.' is Sydney Smith, but the pursuit in which the displayed in almost every stereoscope, still most memorable feat was performed by the delights with a perennial charm, creating a ants in the Hartz Forest : they prepared the desire among all amateurs in matters of taste, skeleton of the deer which enabled Oken to to add an ornament so chaste to their houseperceive that the skull is only a developed hold treasures." vertebra. After calling its subject by such Leaf-bleaching bas been known traditionover-fine and over-dismal names-skeletoniz- ally from time immemorial in Europe and ing and phantom-making-Mr. Parrish affec- Asia by the families in which botanical tastes tionately inscribes his book to his wife, as have been hereditary. It is not, as Mr. Par" a pioneer and proficient in the art herein rish calls it a lost art revived ; and it has nei

ther been forgotten nor restored. In Great of observation in young people, and cause Britain and on the continent of Europe, as them to notice the differences of leaves, serwell as in the United or Disunited States, rated or entire, ovate, accuminate, cordate, among the quaint old curiosities to be found or irregular. Observers of leaves, we may in the houses of retired sea captains and East add, will see greater marvels than this book India traders, Chinese pictures are often to promises them. They may witness the metbe found, sometimes of considerable beauty amorphoses of the leaves, which are quite as and ingenuity, exhibiting flowers, fruit, shells, wonderful and beautiful as the metamorbirds or insects painted in bright colors on phoses of the insects, and much less known. veritable skeleton leaves. The process is to The egg, grub, and fly in the circle of insect be found described in old books published in life are not more interesting to watch, as London in the seventeenth century. Itappears forms passing into each other, than are the to have been introduced into England from seed, leaf, petal, sepal, stamen or pistil, cell, Italy, probably in the Elizabethan age, when and pollen, watched as changes of form in the the Italian mind had so much influence upon phases of plant life. Prof. Schleiden and other the English mind. In 1645, at the time of botanists who have never mastered Goethe's the civil war, Marcus Aurelius Severinus, theory and Geoffroy St. Hilaire's explanation Professor of Anatomy and Surgery at Naples, of monstrosities, have sneered at the discovpublished a figure of a skeleton leaf. Fred- ery of the poet-botanist; but any observer erick Ruysch, naturalist, published an ac- of the leaves of the wild strawberry may count of the process of fermentation, by which easily convince himself that scientific accuheat and moisture could be employed to loosen racy is not on the side, on this occasion, of the pulpy from the fibrous parts of the leaf. certain mere botanists. This fact, so long known in Europe, was cir- Not merely in summer, but nearly all the culated as a secret in Philadelphia in 1860! year round, may leaves be gathered for Secrets do not fly so very fast after all. bleaching. Leaves already prepared are

- The leaf is the plant,” say the disciples sometimes found in winter and early spring, of Goethe ; and there is as much truth in the Leaves macerate best when gathered or picked proposition as can be compressed into a say- mature, perfect, unblemished, and fresh. The ing. There are air and water, stem and leaves of suckers are large, but not strong. flower, leaves. Botanists divide the tissues of A list of forty plants whose leaves, and twenty plants into vascular and cellular; and in skel- more whose seed-vessels, reward bleaching, eton leaves the cellular tissue is removed and is appended to this essay. Among the hardy the vascular retained. The vascular tissue deciduous plants and shrubs are ma ples, popbranches through the cellular by what used lars, lindens, magnolias, tulip poplars, wil. to be called nerves, and are now called veins. lows, beech, ash, hickory, chestnut, horse Mr. Parrish, after certain European theorists, chestnut, elm, Kentucky coffee-tree, pear, calls the leaf the type of the tree, in the sense quince, apricot, andromeda, deutzia, spiræa, that the leaf-veins correspond exactly to the sassafras, althæa, pomegranate, rose-acacia, branches of the trunks in their angles and rose, medlar, wild cherry, sugar-berry, witch curves. The skeleton leaf is its tree, leafless, hazel, Fraxinella dictamnus, Gardenia florin miniature. Prior to comparing the leaf- ida, Laurestina franciscea, Erythrina cristiless tree with the skeleton leaf, the tree ought galla, Virgilia lutea, white fringe-tree. to be seen in the “gloaming;” just as Sir Among the evergreens are holly, mahonea, Walter Scott said that, to be seen to advan- barberry, mountain laurel, box, butcher's tage, Melrose Abbey must be seen by moon- broom, Olea fragrans, Camellia japonica, light. No doubt it is well to compare the caoutchouc; and among the vines and creepleaf-pattern with the tree-pattern ; and there ers are ivy, begonia, witsaria, Dutchman's is some ground in reality for these fanciful pipe, greenbriars, and wild yam. The scedcorrespondences. The length of the stalk vessels, modified leaves, and calyxes, success and of the trunk are relative to each other fully macerated or found naturally prepared, shooting up or sitting low; as, for example, are thorn-apple, poppy, mallows, nicandra, in the poplar and chestnut, beech and oak. physalis, henbane, monkshood, wild sage, Leaf-bleaching, however fanciful these resem- safflower, canterbury bells, toad dax, skullblances may be deemed, must promote habits cap, figwort, French tomato, wild hydrangea, THIRD SERIES. LIVING AGE.

1053

hydrangea, bladder senna, bladder nut, ptelia, pass into the earth from which they sprang false pennyroyal.

by a slow but sure decay. The oak-leaves, Leaf-macerating is very simple. Mr. Par- as would be supposed, longest resist this rish cannot, however, be recommended as a

destiny. Even those that have fallen into

yonder stream have not matted themselves into safe guide in the process, for his advice is the

the slimy mass, except by mixing with other too vague and his methods are too rough. and less hardy leaves ; and here if the exNothing can be more misleading than to say i plorer will search closely, he may occasiona single vessel will suffice for many similar ally find almost perfectly skeletonized oakleaves of different kinds ; for the leaf-bleach-| leaves. How came they so ? Look, proviers who succeed best in this country say den

est in this conntry say dent Nature has found a way to make them, a separate vessel is necessary for every sep

| intractable as they are, to subserve a purpose

in her wise economy. Thousands of curious arate leaf. A few leaves of the same plant little animals called caddice bugs [sic] who are all which ought to be in a single ves- envelop themselves in a tubular little cocoon sel. The leaf-bleacher, in fact, who foels all [sic] of pebbles and sand, are daintily mastithe difficulties of his art will not, whilst he cating the soft parts of these, leaving all the is but a beginner, simultaneously attempt to veinings as perfect as the most captious skelmacerate and bleach a great variety of dif- etodizer could desire. It is true that after ferent kinds of leaves, but will make the

the the rough usage of the running stream upon

its pebbled bottom and the thick matrix of leaves of each species his separate care and

twigs, chestnut-burs, acorns, and the like, study. Each species requires special treat-, very few perfect specimens remain, but then, ment, either as regards maceration, bleach- my friend, here is a hint for us. Change ing, manipulation or time. Beautiful skele- these adverse conditions ; colonize, by the aid ton leaves of the Camellia japonica, for of an exploring kettle, a few hundred cadinstance, are obtained by boiling them with dices with their moveable tents [sic] to your

own sheltered veranda ; give them a shallow soap.

dish with a bed of sand in the bottom and a The tannin in oak-leaves enables them to

constant trickle of fresh water to resemble resist the ordinary process of maceration in a their native stream: then supply them with vessel of water in which evaporation is pro- their favorite leaf, and they will clean it for moted by solar or artificial heat. Oak-leaves you to perfection. This has been done sucare prepared in England by a process repu- cessfully, and it can be done again." diated in Philadelphia, by mixing dilute mu- The insect in question is, no doubt, the riatic acid with the macerating water. Beau- larva of a species of Phryganea, or caddis-fly, tiful and ready prepared oak-leares are found called by anglers cad-bait and water-moth. in the fresh water streams of America. And They may be seen flying over the surface of the they are prepared by very singular artists ! water about sundown. The species serviceBut we shall allow Mr. Parrish to describe able in Philadelphia in preparing oak-leaves this curious observation in his own way and may not be identical with the species found words :

abundantly in water-cress beds in French 66 It yet remains to notice in connection and English streams. But no one desirous with oak-leaves, what cannot fail to excite of repeating and testing the experiment can the liveliest pleasure in every naturalist who fail of being rewarded for his pains. The delights to seek the woods and streams on English type of the species (Phrygenea Granchill autumn days, though all the fragrant dis), if it does not feed upon the parenchyma epigeas, the delicate bloodroots, the pale

of oak-leaves, certainly fecds upon cresses. spring beauties, the modest quaker ladies,'i and all their lovely spring companions have

Me And no more curious animal can be watched 80 long departed as to diffuse almost a feel- / in a tank! His pharmaceutical repute coning of sadness in visiting the now desolate sidered, it is astonishing that Mr. Parrish slopes they rendered so inviting. Let our should have called this insect a bug, and its amateur note what becomes of the leaves that, tubular abdominial case, or sheath, a cocoon having performed their alotted part in the or tent. Entomology, we fear, is not much growth of the forest and ceased to be fer

cultivated in Philadelphia. The species commented by the life-sustaining sap, have yielded to the blast and now thickly strew the ground,

mon in Europe may be seen taking the fine awakening, as stirred by the wind or the foot white threadlike spongioles of the floating of the pedestrian, the familiar rustle of the water-cress, and twining them in rings around autumnal woods. These are all destined to its body and then glueing the shells of plan

orbes and other young or tiny mollusks to the Saying nothing about a flash which is not tube of rings!

seen, we suspect that the volatile flowers Mr. Parish mentions some electrical obser- mount by specific gravity, because cold air is rations made upon skeleton leaves and flowers admitted at the bottom of the shade by the in glass cases which deserve quotation, al-shaking which follows the dusting. But the though mistakenly stated :

statement respecting the handkerchief and “ In a model phantom-case, arranged by a the fern-leaves is worth testing. medical friend, himself a model naturalist, For bleaching the leaves, solutions of chlo

bumble that he knows no more,' a delicate ride of soda and chloride of lime are used, fern rising to the summit trembles with elec- and some succeed best in the one and some in tric vibrations on every touch of a silk hand

the other solution. Mr. Parish gives up kerchief to the glass, while a little tuft of hydrangea flowers, loosed from its moorings,

flowers and the leaves of herbs as hopeless, rises to the top like a balloon whenever the but many of them may be dried and preunseen electric flash is wakened even by dust-served in very fine and very dry sand. ing the surface of the shade.”

WHAT DID JAMES WATT KNOW OF PHOTOG- On the back of one of the prints was found an RAPHY? - There have recently come to light inscription in the handwriting of James Watt, some pictures executed by James Watt which were identifying it as his production. From the great undoubtedly produced by the agency of light, scientific interest attached to this discovery, and and probably at a date long before the commence the care and skill with which it is being investiment of the present century. Yet some of these gated, there can be little doubt that all the parare so exquisite in color and sharpness, that per- ticulars will eventually be found out. There will sons who have made photography their especial then be need for our neighbors to produce very study found it difficult to decide, on mere exam- convincing proofs of the independent re-discovery ination of individual specimens, that they had of the art by Daguerre, as there is a great mysnot been produced by the brush. The marvel tery about his early experiments, and evidence becomes still greater when it is considered that has already been obtained that these newly-found modern photographs on paper, especially on photographs were originally exported to France, coarse and common paper like these newly-dis- whence they have now, by a strange chance, covered pictures, turn yellow and fade in a few come back to the Patent Museum at South Ken. years. There has not yet been found any ex- sington.-Lancet. planation of the process by which the pictures were produced, but there is intrinsic evidence that the material employed differed altogether MESSRS. JENNINGS of Cheapside have now on from any now ordinarily used. The detailed de- view Mr. Barker's picture, “ T'he Secret of Engscription and the history of the discovery will land's Greatness," founded on the alleged reply not be made public until the investigations now of her majesty to the envoy of the African prince, being industriously pursued have been completed. who presented her some costly presents, and in The specimens already found comprise some pic- return desired to know the secret of England's tures on metal resembling the early daguerreo- greatness. Handing the envoy a copy of the Bitypes and a number of large prints on paper. ble, her majesty said: “ Tell the prince, your The date of the metal pictures can be approxi- master, that this is the secret of England's greatmately fixed, since one of them represents Watt's ness.” In the painting, the Ethopian envoy house at Soho as it appeared prior to certain characteristically and richly clad, is kneeling bealterations made about 1791. The paper pic- fore the queen, by whom the prince consort is tures are mostly copies of figure-compositions by standing. On the right hand are Lord PalmerAngelina Kauffman ; differing, however, from ston and Earl Russell, the latter then John Rusthe originals in having the figures reversed. sell; and behind the queen is the Duchess of One of these pictures, printed on a sheet of Wellington. The grouping is artistically arwater-lined foolscap paper of very coarse texture, ranged, and the costumes are most elaborately was exhibited at the last meeting of the London finished. Photographic Society, in order that the experts present might decide whether it had been produced by the agency of light. The general con- In the course of the current year 1863, one clusion arrived at was that it was undoubtedly bookselling-house in Germany, it is said, attains an untouched photograph. Whatever the mate- the two hundredth year of its existence, and rial employed, it had evidently been laid on the four others may celebrate their hundredth ansurface of the paper like a sensitive varnish. Iniversary.

From The Reader. l implements. They do not manufacture any A NATION OF PIGMIES.

ropes or cloth as do most barbarous tribes Adventures and Researches among the Anda- living among fibre-yielding plants, their bowman Islanders. By Frederic J. Mouat, strings, the Rev. Mr. Parish informs us, being M.D. (Hurst and Blackett.)

the aërial roots of epiphytical orchids. In the Bay of Bengal, on the very high-| The Andaman Islands have been known road of commerce, is a group of islands thickly for more than one thousand years; but so covered with impenetrable jungle, and swarm- hostile are their diminutive inhabitants that ing with leeches in the rainy, and ticks in it is not safe to land on their inhospitathe dry season. Except a species of pig, ble shores, except with a well-armed escort. until recently unknown to science, there are The sight of strangers puts them into a perno wild animals that offer any molestation to fect fury, and they generally receive visitors man; but to make up for this deficiency, the with gestures of unmistakable dislike, and human inhabitants are amongst the most say-copious showers of well-aimed and barbed age and hostile that voyagers have ever en-arrows. Towards the end of last century the countered. They may truly be termed a Indian government established a convict setnation of pigmies, being on an average only tlement in this group; but the mortality four feet five inches high, and weighing from amongst the prisoners and their keepers and seventy to seventy-five pounds; but they are the hostility of the natives were so great that well proportioned, and display an agility and the settlement had to be given up. Durnimbleness truly wonderful. Their skin is ing the late Indian mutiny, Lord Canning dark, though not black as that of the negro, thought it desirable to revive the scheme, and and their faces decidedly ugly. They go en- despatched an expedition, under Dr. Mouat, tirely naked, shave off the hair of their head to explore the islands once more, and endeavor with pieces of bamboo or brokon bottle, and to discover, if possible, the cause of the alarmfurther increase their unsightly appearance ing mortality that had led to the abandonby daubing themselves all over with a mix- ment of the first convict colony. This task ture of red ochre and oil, or covering their was ably accomplished, and Old Harbor recpersons towards nightfall with a thick coat-ommended as the most suitable place for ing of soft mud, to serve as a protection a settlement—the laying-dry of extensive against the mosquitoes, with which, in addi- swamps, by shutting out the tide, being rection to the leeches and ticks, they seem to be ommended as the best remedy for the untormented the whole year round. They are healthiness of the climate. excellent swimmers, taking to the water al- ! From the natives Dr. Mouat's party met most before they can walk; and they rely with the usual reception, and in several inupon the sea for the principal supply of their stances it became necessary to return their food-turtles, oysters, and fish. They do shower of spears and arrows by a discharge of not cultivate anything, and avail themselves fire-arms. Attempts to reconcile them by merely of such herbs, roots, and fruit as are such trinkets and presents as are generally growing wild in their islands. Their houses acceptable to savages proved ineffectual. are of the most primitive description, con- Even when the presents had been deposited sisting of a few sticks put in the ground and on the beach, and every white man returned covered with the gigantic leaves of fan-palms to the boats, the Andaman islanders could -their migratory habits not being favorable scarcely muster sufficient confidence to pick to the formation of good houses or decent-them up. It was most ludicrous to see some sized villages. But they devote much pa- bold native advance with cautious step, and, tience and time to the building of canoes. like a fowl, first picking up one thing, then As they have not iron tools, the felling of giving furtive glances all round, and hastily a large forest tree with stone implemente, picking up another, until the whole had scooping out the trunk and attaching to it been gathered up, and the courageous man an outrigger to prevent the canoe from cap- was able to take to his heels. It has been sizing when at sea, is an extremely slow and supposed that these islanders have occatedious process. Their bows and arrows, in sionally been kidnapped ; and that may partly the handling of which they are very expert, account for their extreme hostility and timidhave to be manufactured by the same rude ity; but they could have been captured only

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