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to believe that the last action of the brain ner playground ; that every
individual object may be a supreme resumption of its own im- there present used to start up before me with pressions. The concentration of a whole life all the distinctness of actual vision, and to in a single moment or two is indeed marvel- an extent of detail which no effort of memory
but the sense of time seems to have could accomplish without this assistance; and very
little to do with the actual duration of that nothing but the visible objects of the scene time. The idea of eternity, or of the lapse presented themselves on these occasions." of infinite ages is often experienced in the As the flavor died away, the vision would course of a dream which can only have lasted fade from the mental sight, but would be ina very short period. This is especially the stantly renewed by tasting the herb once case with opium-eaters; but it will occur more. It is easy to refer the explanation of even to those who never indulge in that per- such facts to mere association of ideas. ilous narcotic. Moslem writers affirm that An unhealthy or depressed bodily condithe miraculous journey of Mahomet from tion has doubtless much to do with mystical Mecca to Jerusalem, and thence through the impressions. To the man who goes to bed whole of the seven heavens, was performed early and rises early, the time of sunrise is in so infinitesimal a fraction of time that the invigorating and inspiriting; but to him who prophet, on awaking from his trance, was has been up all night, especially when purable to arrest the fall of a water-jar which suing intellectual work, the return of light the angel Gabriel had knocked over with is often peculiarly mournful, oppressive, and his wing in the act of their departure. An- spectral. It is the true ghost season far other Oriental legend tells of an infidel ca- more than midnight; and especially so in the liph, who, doubting the truth of this rela- hushed and empty thoroughfares of a great tion, was directed by a certain conjurer to city, with its vast circles of suspended life. plunge his head in a bucket of water, and The empty street, stretching before you in withdraw it with the greatest speed possible. dim perspective, is a phantom land at such He did so, and in that momentary interval moments; the familiar holds strange interhad a dream or vision of a long life abound-course with the unfamiliar, and is weirdly ing in vicissitudes and extraordinary inci- suggestive. We have known an instance of dents. These, of course, are fables ; but a man who, returning home early one sumthey are based upon psychological mysteries mer morning from a night of mental labor, such as are known to exist.
was oppressed by an intense and preternatHardly less wonderful is the connection be- ural sense of a hundred years in advance ; tween particular odors and specific recollec- that is to say, by some singular, unbidden tions or trains of ideas. Thousands have felt trick of the mind, he seemed to contemplate this, and it is one of the most beautiful in the existing time-himself and all-as somestances of what may be called the magic of thing that had passed for a century. Fatigue memory. Hazlitt used to refer to a remark was the cause of this; but the fancy opens a made by Mr. Fearn, a metaphysical writer strange glimpse into the vague and shadowy of his time, to the effect that certain associa- regions of morbid experience. tions of ideas always brought back to him, The most astounding and solemn feeling with the vividness of an actual impression on of this nature is the impression, amounting the sensorium, the smell of a baker's shop in at the moment to conviction, that we have Bassora. This is just the reverse of the or- lived before in some remote age, and that all dinary experience; but we can readily in the circumstances and accessories now surderstand it. The late Mr. P. G. Patmore, rounding us, even to the most minute and inwho records this circumstance in his work enti- significant, surrounded us at that former tled “ My Friends and Acquaintance,” avers period. Lord Lindsay, in his Letters from that, in his own case, tastes were even more the East, describes this feeling with a literal powerful than smells in producing similar ef- exactness which will be at once recognized fects. “I could never taste green mustard by all who have ever undergone it. He says: and cress,” he writes, “ without its calling “We saw the river Kadisha, like a silver up to my mind, as if by magic, the whole thread, descending from Lebanon. The whole scene of my first school-days, when I used to scene bore that strange and shadowy resemgrow it in my little bit of garden in the in-blance to the wondrous landscape delineated
in Kubla Khan that one so often feels in ac- ity;" and the opinion is one which runs tual life, when the whole scene around you through the whole philosophy and religion appears to be reacting after a long interval ; of the world, especially of the Eastern races. your friend seated in the same juxtaposition, The Brahmins and Buddhists teach that the the subjects of conversation the same, and soul has already passed through many preshifting with the same • dream-like ease' vious conditions, and will pass through many that you remember at some remote and in- more ere it attains the blissful state of abdefinite period of pre-existence. You always solute repose and personal non-existence reknow what will come next, and sit spell- sulting from its re-absorption into the Deity, bound, as it were, in a sort of calm espec- from whom it emanated. The more philotancy.” It would have been more correct to sophical among the ancient Greeks held the say that we seem to know what will come same view. Pythagoras professed to have a next, for it is certainly doubtful whether we distinct recollection of his former lives; and really know it. But the effect on the mind Plato said that the knowledge which we seem is that of an absolute foreknowledge, so that to acquire for the first time is only the recolwhen anything is said, it appears to be pre- lection of what the soul knew before its subcisely what was anticipated. The feeling is, mersion in matter, and its assumption of the in truth, as Lord Lindsay admirably expresses human form. Some of the Hellenic philosoit, one of " calm expectancy," and, apart phers contended that the endless repetition from the sense of strangeness, is rather sooth- of the same mode of existence, though at vast ing and agreeable than unpleasant. This, intervals of time, is an absolute necessity, however, is supposing that it be not pro- because, there being only a certain number longed. When it continues to haunt the of things in the universe, there can only be a mind, it becomes horribly oppressive, and is certain number of combinations, and, when a clear sign that cerebral disorder has set in. those are exhausted, the same course must Sir Walter Scott was thus troubled towards begin over again. After this theory, the apthe latter end of his life, when he was over- parent recollection of what is passing around worked and harassed by difficulties.
be no delusion, but a genuine, though states in his diary for February, 1828, that abnormal, exercise of the memory. he was afflicted one day at dinner-time by a A wonderful instance of apparent recollecsense of pre-existence so strong as to resem- tion of a previous life is related of himself by ble a mirage or a calenture; and he adds : William Hone, the author of the Everyday “ There was a vile sense of want of reality in Book. He says that one day he had to make all I did and said.” The mind was evidently a call in a part of London which was quite overtasked, and, had it been less strong, might unknown to him. He was shown into a room have broken down altogether.
to wait, and, on looking round, remarked, to Tennyson, in one of his carlier volumes, his astonishment, that every object appeared has a sonnet, in which he describes this sin- familiar. It then occurred to him that there gular mental condition with the finely or- was a very peculiar knot in the shutter; and ganized apprehension of a poet :
he determined to test the reality of the im" As when with downcast eyes we muse and brood, pression by examining into the fact. He And ebb into a former life, or seem
therefore turned back the shutter, and found To lapse far back in a confused dream
the knot. Previously to this, he had been a To states of mystical similitude ;
materialist; but the incident impressed him If one but speaks, or hems, or stirs his chair, Ever the wonder waxeth more and more,
with the belief that there must be something' So that we say, 'All this hath been before,
beyond matter, and he finally became a memAll this hath been, I know not when or where : " ber of a religious sect. So, friend, when first I looked upon your face, The reduplication of this world is another Our thought gave answer, each to each, so true, strange speculation that has from time to Opposéd mirrors, each reflecting each,Although I knew not in what time or place,
time appeared on the intellectual horizon. Methought that I had often met with you,
Pythagoras and various ancient writers afAnd each had lived in the other’s mind and firmed that there was a globe resembling our speech.”
earth, and called Antichthon, which was conWordsworth refers to the belief in pre-ex- stantly moving round the sun, though always istence in his magnificent “ Ode on Immortal- invisible to us, because invariably on the op
He us may
posite side of the solar orb to ourselves. A a living reality. At the very moment that few years ago, we came across a singular book thou art reading this volume, thy namesake professing to give an account of the Neo- too is reading these very words in the same Christian religion, which is shortly to sup- book, published there by another mysterious plant the older form; and we there discov- Man like me, even by my very Self, existing ered this old tradition of Antichthon repro- there under the same form. Thy living porduced on a larger and still more amazing trait there is now thinking of thee with the scale. The anonymous writer says that the same stupid levity, or with the same awful whole solar system is repeated at a distance impression
- in the same manner, whatever from us in space so enormous that, “ to ex- it is -- as thou art thinking of him.” The press it with ordinary arithmetical figures, writer gives us no reason for believing this the writing would occupy a line twenty miles wild and spectral dream : we are simply to long." He goes on to say, that “ the earth take it on faith. It is certainly a bewilderof that distant system has a surface divided, ing idea. as ours is, into five parts, called Europe, Asia, The same author adopts the old opinion Africa, America, and Oceania. There is also that the soul of man is embodied several times a Rome, a London, a Paris, a New York, a in different individualities. Thus, Napoleon Pekin ; all the cities, towns, and villages, in- the Third has been Lycurgus, Aristotle, St. habited by us here below. The very houses Paul, Odin, Haroun-al-Raschid, Roger Baare made after the same architectural pattern, con, Mahomet. (the Turkish Sultan who took and of the same size as ours : so are the ani- Constantinople), Descartes, William the mals, the trees, the stones. In that remote Third of England, Robespierre, etc. — altoworld there is a man of my name, of my age, gether a very illustrious line. Our own queen with my moral and intellectual character, was formerly Andromache, Hector's wife. with my own physical features. The other And the conductor of this journal has almen there resemble also on all points my fel- ready appeared on the stage of the world as low-men here below. There is, indeed, some Nahum, Seleucus Nicator, Catullus, Theoexceedingly small difference between them dorus Duca, Boleslaus, Edward the Third of and us, which the All-seeing Deity can per- are the fancies of a single mind, and cannot
England, and Rembrandt. These, however, ceive ; but they resemble us more perfectly claim the serious investigation due to imthan the reflected image in the looking-glass pressions, however vague, which are comresembles our face. And, although our re- mon to a considerable proportion of the huflected image is a vain appearance, they are man race.
The Life of William Chillingworth, Author |ligion,” and founder, along with others, of the of “ The Religion of Protestants,” etc. By P. Latitudinarian School in the English Church, Des Maizeaux. Edited, with Notes and Illustra- used to act as a kind of informer to his godfather tions, by the late James Nichols, Editor of “ Ful- Laud, telling him what went on in the Univerler's Church History,” etc. (Tegg. Pp. 364.) sity, and getting his fellow-collegians into scrapes.
- This is a republication of the “Life of Chil- It is the part of real biography to investigate lingworth” originally published by Des Maiz- such stories and such seeming inconsistencies and eaux in 1725, but with additional notes. The wrinkles of character ; but in Des Maizeaux Life is by no means such a Life of Chillingworth there is nothing of this nothing but introductory as there might be-giving very little of the ex- eulogy of Chilingworth's strong intellect and ternal facts and circumstances of Chillingworth’s noble character ; and then a skeleton of his life, life, but very large accounts of his opinions, etc., with masses of appended extracts about him and with extracts from his writings, and from the from him, jumbled in such a way as to make writings of other controversialists. Still, in its rather confused reading to those who are not kind, it is full and painstaking, and may be use- already Chillingworth-bitten. Yet Chillingworth ful. Neither Des Maizeaux nor his editor seems was a truly remarkable man, a clear account of to have been aware of certain rather ugly anec- whom might be most readable and valuable in dotes respecting Chillingworth at that time of the present state of English theological and his life when he was living at Oxford, after his ecclesiastical opinion. The early history of “ Tolreturn from his abberration into the Roman eration” in this country_nay, the very exposiCatholic Church - anecdotes which, if true, tion of Toleration-might be associated with his would make out that this “ great reasoner in re biography.-Reader.
From The Spectator. question, of which they were only too glad MR. GOLDWIN SMITH ON JEWISH to become the spokesmen. And we fear it is SLAVERY.*
impossible to deny that they were in the main Tuis volume asks one of the most pertinent right in their view. The country has changed, questions which has been put to the British or rather, we should say,
and midpublic in these last few years.
We are hear- dle classes have changed their faith as to ing strange things about the great volume, slavery; and Mr. Carlyle's doctrines “ on which has been the strong meat of this Brit- the nigger question ” are at once those of ish nation for these last three hundred years, such dissimilar journals as the Times, the in the strength of which our fathers, genera- Saturday Review, and the Daily Telegraph. tion after generation of them, with much It was high time that every man who held faithful and honest toil laboring to this end, the old English faith strongly, and could get have achieved for us the place we hold in the a fair chance of a hearing, should speak out. world. A time has come when the attention Many have done so ; none, we must say, more of learned and serious men is—as we hold, by ably or more righteously than Mr. Goldwin the direct leading of the Spirit of Truth— Smith in the little book now before us. He irresistibly drawn to the question of inspira- meets the question fairly in the face at the tion, and to the critical consideration of the outset. If it be so, he says, if slavery is only component parts of the sacred volume. Who wrong as luxury is wrong, if the Bible is on that really loves his Bible, and knows what all fours with the Fugitive Slave Law, then is in it (a curiously rare accomplishment, by
“ the law of England which takes away
the the way, this latter) will not heartily rejoice slave from his master directly his feet touch that it should be so? But behind these seri- English soil is a robber's law. The great ous inquirers come a motley crowd of all kinds, Act of Emancipation, of which we speak so some of them professing (like the Bishop of proudly, was a robber's act.” But is it so ? Manchester) the deepest reverence for the let- This is the question to which Mr. Goldwin ter, others professing reverence for neither Smith addresses himself.
His argument, letter nor spirit, for no person or thing in shortly stated, is, that the true spiritual life this or any other world, but all alike, whether of the world commenced in the Hebrew race, as champions or enemies, doing what in them under an earthly mould of national life similies to discredit the Bible, and to make it say lar, in all respects, political, social and literwhat it does not say, and responsible for that ary, to those of other nations. The Jewish which it repudiates. From such as these we nation, in short, was a nation, not a miracle." do hear, as above stated, from time to time, God's method of education is gradual. The strange things, but surely never stranger than code of laws provided by him for the Jews from the writer in the Times, who, while ad
" takes the rude institutions of a primitive vocating the cause of the Southern States, people including slavery, as they stand, not boldly claimed St. Paul as a supporter of the changing society by a miracle. But while it Fugitive Slave Law, and maintained that the takes these institutions as they stand, it does Bible enjoins the slave at the present day to not perpetuate, but reforms ther, and lays return to his master, and that slavery is only on them restrictions tending to their gradual wrong as luxury is wrong.
abolition-much less does it introduce any Now the Times is wise in its generation. barbarous institution or custom for the first True, it is the great representative journal of time.” This position Mr. Smith proceeds to the money-power, and, therefore, so far as it illustrate by other instances leaving slavery has any calculable bias on any subject, has on one side for the present. He shows that one against the laboring class all over the amongst all primitive nations we find such world. But, for all that, the conductors of customs as the avenger of blood, the right of the Times would never have come out in this asylum, polygamy, the exercise of a power of decided and somewhat startling line, if they life and death by parents over children; and had not thought that they perceived in this in each of these, and other instances, he points country a change of feeling upon the slavery out how the Mosaic code softens and raises * Does the Bible Sanction American Slavery? By
the customs, in use amongst the group of Goldwin Smith. Oxford and London : J. H. and Oriental nations to which the Jews belonged. Jas. Parker. 1863.
Even in the short space which he is able to
devote to this part of his argument, he makes | by preaching revolt against it, he yet shows good his point as to the method of the divine that they instilled principles which must ineducation, and establishes incidentally, not fallibly work its destruction, and set up a only that the Mosaic code was beneficent when society which has been its untiring enemy
from that day to this. His answer to the compared with any code not produced under stock case of Philemon and Onesimus is simthe influence of Christianity, but that “ the ply to transcribe the passage from St. Paul's religious system of the Jews was spiritual Epistle—and we know of no answer that can compared with that of the most refined and cul- be more perfect. The argument of this sectivated heathen nations.” Having thus shown tion is not so carefully elaborated as that that he is not inventing a principle for his par- should it be? We think Mr. Goldwin Smith
which relates to the Old Testament, as why ticular case, he then, in sections II. and III., turns to Hebrew slavery, which he treats of not be careful to argue with men who dare to
right again here in his method. We should in detail, showing what it was in patriarchal cite Him who taught that all men were brethtimes, in the tents of Abraham and Isaac, and ren, who came amongst men as a carpenter's what in later times, when the family had de- son who washed His disciples' feet, who said, veloped into a nation, and contrasting it step in the most solemn hour of His life, “Whosoby step with Greek, Roman, Anglo-Saxon ever will be chief among you let him be your slavery, and lastly, with the “ peculiar insti- servant," as a witness for a system which
as it exists in the United States. manhood, and deliberately proclaims and uses tution
denies a whole race of men every right of We were quite prepared for most of the con- them as personal chattels. No! argument is clusions at which Mr. Smith arrives. We thrown away here. It is better to put the knew that nowhere in the Old Testament is case and so leave it, as Mr. Smith has done. there a hint of any warranty for treating men
" Let the masters and slaves in America beas things and not as persons, but we confess come really fellow-Christians, let them bethat we did not know that the case was so share the same Christian education, let them
come in a true sense one Church, let them strong as it stands on the Old Testament read the same Bible, let them partake of the books. We have never met elsewhere with communion together, and it will then be seen the ultimate test put as Mr. Smith' has put whether the relation between fellow-Chrisit, and which, the moment it is put, we rec- tians is really compatible with the relation ognize as the true one. 66 What was the between master and slave." practical effect of the Mosaic legislation in
Mr. Smith's position gives this essay a the matter of slavery? Was the nation of special value. He is a well-known Oxford Moses a slave power?”
Let those who claim professor, and has a right to speak with au
thority; he is a layman, and therefore will the Bible as the sanction of the slave-owner not be thought to be justifying the Bible point to one single mark of a Slave State, 60- from professional motives. But the worth of cial, economical, or political, which they can the work itself, calm, brave, and able as it is, detect in the Hebrew commonwealth-let and coming out at so critical a moment in the them put their finger in the Hebrew annals history of the English controversy as to the on one slave insurrection, one servile war, author's name never been heard before. For
Bible, must have made a way for it had the let them show us signs amongst the chosen ourselves, we cannot help hoping that this people of a slave-market, of a Fugitive Slave essay will do more than any previous publiLaw, of a contempt for labor as degrading to cation to restore the tone of English society free men.
If they cannot do this, let them, on the slavery question. We are sure that at least, point to one other nation which it must in many cases (as the author hopes) has held slaves in large numbers, and in " help to relieve the distress caused by which any one of these signs has been want- doubts as to the morality of the Old Tesing: If they can do neither of these things tament on other points as well as on the we have a right to conclude, with Mr. Smith, question of slavery.' It is refreshing every that the Mosaic code, so far from fostering now and then to be able heartily and unreslavery, actually educated the most stiff-necked servedly to praise a book, especially if we and hard-hearted people of the Old World so have been often at issue with the author in as to deliver them, even before the Christian times past, as has been our own case with era, almost wholly from the curse of slave- respect to Mr. Goldwin Smith. That pleasowning
ure we can enjoy to-day We have only one In his fourth section Mr. Smith comes to single fault to find with that book, and that the New Testament. And here, while quite is, that it is too dear. To have done its work admitting that our Lord and his apostles did thoroughly, it should have been published for not directly assail the institution of slavery ls. instead of 2s. 6d.