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pamphlets are generally sold in sealed covers, that a succession of unfortunate strokes will and for very high prices; the titles of two of empty his purse, and thus be will be prethem head this article.
cluded by lack of funds from attaining those J. II. B., the author of one of the pam- results which J. H. B. proclaims to be within phlets, is very exacting in the qualifications the reach of every qualified practitoner of his which must be possessed by the gamester who system. can reasonably hope for success. He must be “ A Retired Attorney” professes to have cool, calculating, prudent; must never lose discovered a more practicable way than that his temper, and must never despair. He must chalked out by J. H. B. for becoming enplay a well-considered game, a game which riched by gaming. The gamester who emprovides for every emergency, and is suited braces the attorney's system need not bring for coping with unexpected mishaps. It is to the practice of it either extraordinary clovonly on condition of his being so qualified, erness or uncommon self-command. Accordand being master of such a game, that he ing to him it is an exceedingly easy thing to “ ceases to be a gamester and becomes a spec- acquire wealth by frequenting a gaming-room. ulator.” Hence, to purchase J. H. B.'s To ensure success, however, it is indispensa pamphlet may avail little; to master his sys- ble to avoid being excessively impatient and tem may be time thrown away, seeing that precipitate. In other words, while showing only a chosen few can use that system with how money can be made, he expresses disapeffect. But something more than brilliant proval of making it too rapidly. No one neod personal qualities are requisite: " An isolated hope to do more than augment his capital player whose means are limited cannot gain fiftyfold within the period of six months. real and lasting advantages in spite of all the He agrees with J. H. B. in this, that the prudence, skill, and strategy he may possess player who follows a system ceases to be a and manifest ; sooner or later he must suc- gamester and becomes a speculator. From cumb.” To sadden the prospect still more, the frequency with which this is insisted on, J.H. B. emphatically assures his readers that it would seem as if the highest object of huthe greatest illusion they can entertain, the man ambition were to acquire the character one which will certainly endanger their repose and title of speculator! How success is to be and their purses, is for them to suppose that attained, the retired attorney does not clearly without funds to start with they will be other explain. No prophet of a sporting newspaper than losers in the end. "With a few florins, could be more oracular than he is. The or even a few hundreds of florins, and the reader who fails to comprehend his system is best of all possible systems, there is nothing informed that “there are certain modificato gain, and everything to fear from games tions essential to its success, which can be of chance." The minimum with wbich they given orally, but not in writing, because recan begin is seven hundred, and the maxi- quiring too lengthy explanations.” In demum four thousand florins. By acting on fault of containing lucid explanations the his advice in the employment of these sums, pamphlet closes with an unmistakable appeal: they will be increased tenfold in the twin- " Let all gamesters come to me, make a comkling of an eye. What, then, is the pith of mon purse, follow my system, and one day the his system? It is simply to do in a compli- remark of Napoleon will be verified; the cated manner what others have done to their gaming banks will be conquered by calculacost in a simpler manner : increase the stake tion.'” Between J. H. B. and the retired after every loss, and diminish it after every attorney there is this difference ; the latter is gain. Thus, if three florins are staked and the greater quack of the two. lost, four must be staked the next time ; if The Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, with the four are lost, then five must be staked, whose consent the gaming-house was estab and so on. On the other hand, if three flor- lished in his capital, who profits by the ruin ins are staked and an equal number won, two of the visitors to the rooms, and whose minare withdrawn, the remainder being staked; ister supervises the company's affairs, can if the result of the next stroke be in favor of neither believe in the dictum ascribed to Nathe player, he again withdraws two, and, in poleon the First, nor in the possibility of a fact, continues to do so after every successful gamester growing rich, since every inhabitant stroke. The danger, nay, the certainty is, of Homburg is forbidden, under very heavy
penalties, from entering the gaming-house facilities granted them for indulging in disand engaging in play.
creditable and reprehensible gambling. The Of late years there has been a general out- lottery system, as generally practised throughcry throughout Germany against the gaming- out Germany, amounts to a public encouragehouses. Their suppression has been vehe- ment of avarice and indolence, because that mently demanded in the interests alike of system renders it possible to acquire by chance public morality and sound policy. This ex- and without exertion the wealth which should pression of public feeling resulted in the con- be the sure if tardy recompense of study and sideration of the question by the Federal honorable industry alone. Diet. The Diet called upon the Governments There is hardly a German State in which of the different States of Germany to say what lotteries are not legalized. In Austria a large they were prepared to do with a view to put- portion of the revenue is derived from the ting a period to the public cncouragement of proceeds of the State lottery. If an English gaming. The Government of the Grand company call for capital wherewith to conDuchy of Baden replied that it intended clos- struct a railway, it is readily subscribed, on ing the Baden establishment even before the the public being assured of receiving a fair termination of the contract. On the other rate of interest in return. On the other hand, hand, the Nassau Government maintained it is customary for a German railway comthat it was impossible to abolish the gaming- pany, to offer money prizes as well as prombanks of Wiesbaden and Eins, the proprie- ise dividends to those who subscribe forshares. tors of which had constructed the thermal States in which public opinion has little inestablishments there, in 1807 and 1810, and fluence are not more cursed with lotteries had kept them in repair ever since at their than States wherein public opinion reigns suown cost. It promised, however, not to grant preme. Nowhere is the fondness for lotteries any new concessions in future. The Govern- more apparent, and the passion for gambling ment of Mecklenburg-Schwerin offered to more recklessly gratified, than in the free suppress the Dobberan gaming-house in the cities of Hamburg and Frankfurt. event of the Governments of the other States If German gaming-houses and lotteries suppressing those within their jurisdictions. were injurious to Germans only, we should The Government of Waldeck refused to sup- deplore their existence, but should refrain press the gaming-houses at Pyrmont and from condemning the conduct of those who Wildungen, the concessions for which were sanction and conduct them. Their banefal in force till 1873 and 1905, unless public influence, however, extends to England also. gaming should be prohibited throughout the Thousands of Englishmen visit Germany every Confederation, a measure to which it would summer, and lose their money in the gamingagree. The Government of Hesse-Homburg rooms at Homburg or Baden, Wiesbaden or denied to the Diet the right to entertain the Ems. Throughoďt the entire year, lotteryquestion at all, until it should have abolished tickets find as ready a sale in England as in the public lotteries authorized within the ter- Germany. Hence, to suppress these lotteries ritories of the Confederation.
and gaming-houses would be to render an inWe heartily disapprove the conduct of the estimable service to both countries. Hesse-Homburg Government in the matter In England, both public lotteries and gamof gaming, yet we admit that it did well in | ing-houses have been suppressed by Act of returning the foregoing answer to the Federal Parliament. If gaming be sometimes pracDiet. So long as gaming-houses shall remain tised in this country, it is not because the law open in certain German towns, these towns is weak or leniently enforced. The difficulwill continue to be the scenes of irreparable ties put in the way of keeping a gamingruin to thousands, will be the favorite haunts house are almost insuperable; the penalties of the depraved, and the opprobrium of the being very severe, and the police being armed enlightened. But they will not stand alone. with ample powers. It is hard to understand For wherever lotteries shall receive, as they why visitors to Newmarket should there find now do, open sanction from the State author- opportunities for gaming which they cannot ities, and shall be freely employed by them have elsewhere ; why the forbidden games of for the purposes of raising revenue and bor- hazard, rouge-et-noir, and roulette should be rowing money, all classes will have improper | played there with impunity. Perhaps this is allowed on the principle of its being fair to of Queen Elizabeth first employed it as a afford those who have won money by betting, medium through which to tax the people inan opportunity of losing it at play.
directly. In 1567, proposals were issued Public lotteries, though as illegal as gam- for a very rich lottery general, without any ing-houses, are by no means so rare. They blankes, contayning a great number of good are called by the more euphonious and un- prizes, as well of redy-money as of plate and meaning names of Art-Unions. The prizes certain sorts of merchandize, having been are pictures or statues in place of coin. The valued and prized by the queen's most exprofessed objects of Art-Unions are noble and cellent majesties' order, to the extent that praiseworthy; they are to encourage the Fine such commodities as may chance to arise Arts, and to convert England into a nation thereof after the charges borne may be conof followers and admirers of art. This is a verted towards the reparations of the havens most ingenious disguise under which to prac- and strength of the realme, and towards such tice gambling. For very similar reasons bet- other good workes. The number of lotts ting on horses is practised, and prize-fights shall be four hundred thousand, and no are commended. It is argued that were bet-more; and every lott shall be the sum of ten ting prohibited, horse-racing would cease, shillings sterling, and no more.” The drawand that were there no racing, the breed of ing began at the west door of St. Paul's horses would deteriorate. We are told that Cathedral, on the 11th of January, 1569, and had we no prize-lights, a muscular Christian was continued without intermission till the would become as great a rarity as the Moa. 6th of May following. Forty-five years afterNow, it may delight two men to pound each wards, “ King James, in special favor for the other into jelly, and others may delight in present plantation of English colonies in Virwitnessing the performance; but it would be ginia, granted a lottery, to be held at the as absurd to maintain that Englishmen owe west end of St. Paul's; whereof one Thomas their pluck and muscle to prize-fights, as that Sharplys, a tailor of London, had the chief the ancient Romans were made magnanimous prize, which was four thousand crowns in by gladiatorial combats, and that the Span-fair plate." * During succeeding reigns, both iards had been rendered courageous by bull- public and private lotteries were common and fights. Even more ridiculous and contrary to popular. In the reign of Queen Anne, howfact is it to maintain that art has been encour-ever, they were suppressed on the ground of aged by Art-Unions, or that they are any- being public nuisances. They were revived thing better than disguised lotteries, and and licensed in 1778. From that time till as such ought to be prohibited. If a sub- 1825, a lottery bill was passed every session. bcriber to an Art-Union draw a prize, he can | The gross ycarly income received by the Govimmediately convert it into money. If the crnment from lotteries was seven hundred and holder of a lottery ticket draw a prize, he can fifty thousand pounds. A treasury minute, buy a picture or statue with it. The distinc-dated the 18th of October, 1827, closed all tion between the two cases is impalpable to the public lottery offices, and this kind of ordinary minds ; but that some do perceive gambling, first introduced and sanctioned by a distinction is evinced by their eagerly sub- the ministers of Queen Elizabeth, has been scribing to Art-Unions, and holding lotteries stigmatized as illegal, and we hope termiin abhorrence. In like manner and with nated forever, by an Actof Parliament passed equal consistency, those who consider it pol- in the reign of Queen Victoria. lution to enter an ordinary theatre and wit. The attempt recently made to abolish beerness a regular play, crowd to an “entertain-drinking on Sundays, however ridiculous and ment” given in a hall or gallery, and blameworthy, was admirably timed and likely consisting of plays on a reduced scale, all the to prove successful, when compared with the parts being filled by one actor and actress. efforts made by the legislators of the 18th
Those who value an abuse in proportion to century, to effect the suppression of gaming. its antiquity, will regret that Parliament Act after Act was passed, yet the evil waxed should ever have interfered with so venerable daily more formidable and intolerable. That an institution as the lottery. It was in full the provisions of these Acts were stringent operation a century before the National enough will be understood from the following Debt was dreamt of. The astute ministers * Gentlemen's Magazine. Vol. 85, p. 341.
specimens. Thus, an Act passed in 1739| Lady Ossory," I was diverted last night at made it illegal to play such games as ace of Lady Lucan's. The moment I entered she hearts, faro, basset, and hazard. The keep- set me down to whist with Lady Bute, and ers of houses or other places for gaming pur- who do you think were the other partners ? poses were to forfeit two hundred pounds on the Archbishopess of Canterbury and Mr. conviction, and those who played, fifty pounds Gibbon.” Be it remembered, this took place each. A justice of the peace refusing to con- five years after the publication of the volume vict, forleited ten pounds for each offence. of the “ Decline and Fall of the Roman EmAnother Act, containing still more stringent pire.” Now, we take credit to ourselves for provisions, was passed in 1749, in which tolerance, because in our day the Test Act roulette, or roly-poly, was included among has been repealed, and because Roman Caththe forbidden games. These and other Acts olics are no longer persecuted on account of proved wholly ineffectual, because those who their religion. But are we really 80 tolerant sanctioned, were the foremost in breaking as those of our forefathers whom we are acthem. They were never enforced against customed to revile? For instance, what would persons of quality, who were the principal | the Record and Excter llall say, were they to offenders. Moreover, a special clause in these learn that Bishop Colenso and the ArchbishActs exempted the royal palaces from their opess of York bad been partners at whist? operation. Now, the royal palaces were Would it not be predicted that, before a week nothing better than huge gaming-houses, and clapsed, the world would certainly come to the sovereign was the greatest gamester in an end? the kingdom. The truth is, gaming was the The rage for gaming was at its height fashionable vice, and a vice must cease to be toward the close of the eighteenth century. fashionable before men will cease to practise Prior to the first French Revolution, not more it. Till then, they regard it as a virtue. than four or five gaming-tables were in oper
Horace Walpole has put on record numeration ; but at a subsequent period, upwards ous specimens of the reckless and ruinous of thirty houses were open every night. kind of gaming in which his contemporaries This was done in defiance of the law. Ser. indulged. In 1770, he tells Sir Ilorace Mann, eral members of the aristocracy kept saro-ta“ the gaming at Almack's, which has taken bles at their own houses. Lady Buckingthe pas of White's, is worthy the decline of bamsbire, Lady Spencer, and Lady Mount our empire, or commonwealth, which you Edgcumbe, bad an unenviable notoriety for please. The young men of the age lose five, so doing. They were christened - Faro's ten, fifteen thousand pounds in an evening Daughters.” Referring to them, Lord Kenthere. Lord Stavordale, not twenty-one, lost yon said on the 9th of May, 1796, - They eleven thousand there last Tuesday, but re- think they are too great for the law; I wish covered it by one great hand at hazard : he they could be punished. If any prosecutions swore a great oath, . Now, if I had been play-of this sort are fairly brought before me, and ing decp, I might have won millions!'” In the parties are justly convicted, whatever be a letter to the Ilon. S. A. Conway, dated 1781, their rank or station in the country-though he relates that his nephew, Lord Cholmonde- they should be the first ladies in the landley, the banker à la mode, has been demol- they shall certainly exbibit themselves on the ished. He and his associate, Sir Willoughby pillory.” At the beginning of March, 1797, Ashton, went early the other night to an information was laid against Lady BuckBrookes's, before Charles Fox and Fitzpat- inghamshire, Lady E. Luttrell, and some rick, who keep a bank there, were come ; other ladies and gentlemen of rank, for keepbut they soon arrived, attacked their rivals, ing faro-tables in their houses; and on the broke their bank, and won about four thou- 11th of that month they were convicted of sand pounds. There,' said Fox, .so should the offence, but Lord Kenyon seems to have all usurpers be served.' He did still better; forgotten his former threat, and he only subfor he sent for his tradesmen, and paid as far jected them to rather severe fines. as the money would go.”
Another circumstance mentioned by Wal-|* Massey's “ History of England.” Vol. ii. p. pole is even more extraordinary than the fore- +England under the house of Hanover." By going feats at play. In 1781, he informed Thomas Wright. Vol. ii. p. 332.
Either in conséquence of these proceedings, desperate enough, yet it was practised in a or for some undisclosed reason, ladies of rank desultory manner, being followed for no special henceforth ceased to lay themselves open to end, and according to no fxed principles. It censure for their passionate addietion to play. has now become a science. T... nake”' a book Instead of inviting a small number of guests on the Derby is an accomplishment requiring to pass the evening in card-playing, ladiestenfold the labor to acquire that had to be of fashion began to invite a large number of expended in learning all the games of chance guests to pass the night in dancing, or doing which were formerly in vogue. In fact gamnothing.
bling on the turf has partially superseded The abandonment of play on the part of gaming with cards and dice. Faro-tables the ladies was followed by a similar move on have long ago disappeared from fashionable the part of the gentlemen. The latter agreed drawing-rooing. Crockford's is a thing of to respect the laws which many of them had the past. Yet the votary of gaming need not helped to frame. Clubs such as White's, lament: if he but subscribe to Tattersall's, Brookes's, and Boodle's, which were origi- he will there find opportunities for gambling nally instituted to evade the law against such as were never enjoyed by the frequenters public gaming-houses, were transformed into of Crockford's. clubs for social enjoyment and political pur- In addition to the increased fondness for poses. The games of wbist, chess, and bil. borse-racing, another cause has largely conliards came to be recognized as the only games tributed to lessen the habit of gaming by at wbich gentlemen should play; all others, superseding the necessity for indulging it. and especially all games of chance, being This cause is the vast devlopment of joint voted vulgar and improper.
stock undertakings, and which has been folIf gniming first declined because frowned lowed by increased facilities for speculating on hy fashion, its decline was accelerated by in shares. Men wbo were formerly attracted a taste arising for other kinds of excitement. to the gaming-table in the hope of growing Horse-racing had always been a national past-rich more rapidly than by steadily following time; but betting upon horses did not become their business or profession, now crowd to a national passion till about the earlier por- the Stock Exchange, and speculate there in tion of the ninetcenth century. It is true shares and stocks. The business of a stockthat, long before then, men of fashion found broker would be very restricted if he made in hetting a pleasure which nothing else purchases for investors only. One-h:1f, if coulil yield. They were accustomed to in- not three-fourths, of the business transacted dulge their tastes for it on all possible occa- on the Stock Exchange is purely speculative; sions. Thus it once happened that a man in other words, is simple gambling An Act having fallen down in a fit bofore the window was passed in the reign of George II., “ To of a club, heary bets were made whether or prevent the infamous practice of stock-jobnot he was dead ; and those who had backed bing;” but its provisions were systematically the latter opinion with a bet, strongly ob- disregarded, and rery recently it has been jected to his being bled, lest he might recover, repealed. Thus time bargains may now be and they shonld lose their money, Ilorace entered into with impunity, which means Walpolo records a bet of 89 remarkable a that a speculator may buy what he cannot character, t'at we have great difficulty in pay for, with the view of selling what he has crediting Lis statement. When informing purchased before the arrival of the day apSir II. Mann, in 1774, of the manners of the pointed for payment. If the price obtained young men of that time, he says: “One of by the sale exceed that originally paid, he them las committed a murder, and intends pockets the difference; but if the price obto repeat it. He betted fifteen hundred tained be less than what was frst paid, he pounds that a man could live twelve hours hands the difference to his broker. Thus the under water ; hired a desperate fellow, sunk suppression of all games of chance bas merely him in a sisip, by way of experiment, and resulted in giving an augmented impetus to both ship and man have not appeared since, the Game of Speculation. Another ship and man are to be tried for tbeir Shall we conclude, then, that in the matter lives, instead of Air. Llake, the assassin." of gawing we are more enlightened and less Although the betting of the last century was open to censure than our forosatsers? This