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filled with admiration and glowing with affec- considers that governing men, the golden tion, a king in the temper of whose govern- souls, are but few and far between ; and that ment, like that of Nerva, things 80 seldom of these few, at least a moiety do not use allied as empire and liberty are intimately their strength for good; that a complex govmixed, co-exist together inseparably, and constitute one real essence ? What spectacle can ernment is, therefore, the one best adapted to be presented to the view so rare, so nearly the condition of humanity; and that truth divine, as a king possessed of absolute power, and justice will be elicited rather by the colneither usurped by fraud nor maintained by lision of opposing forces than by the uniform force, but the genuine effect of esteem, of confi- action of one. Such was probably the opindence, and affection, the free gift of Liberty, ion of Cicero. Such was certainly the opinwho finds her greatest security in this power, ion of that English statesman who most of and would desire no other if the prince on the throne could be what his people wish him to

all resembled Cicero-Edmund Burke. be-immortal? Of such, and of such a prince

The style in which Bolingbroke commended alone, it may be said with strict propriety and these views to the world, was accepted in his truth

own day as the finest production of the Eng"volentes

lish language. And after all the changes of Per populos dat jura, viamque affectat Olympo.' taste which a hundred years have witnessed,

it continues to 'command admiration. His “ Civil fury will have no place in this fault is, that he is too diffuse, and, as it were, draught; or if the monster is seen, he will be

too rapid. He writes like one addressing the seen as Virgil describes him,

House of Commons, when carried away by et centum vinctus ahenis his convictions. Few things that he has Post tergum nodis, fremit horridus ore cruento.' written would not be improved by condensa

tion. But, on the other hand, his sentences He must be seen, subdued, bound, chained, by themselves are often exquisitely finished ; and deprived entirely of his power to do hurt. In his place concord will appear, brooding

and his pages glitter with epigram. When peace and prosperity on the happy land ; joy he gives full play to his powers of sarcasm he sitting in every face, content in


tears an antagonist to pieces as if he were a people unoppressed, undisturbed, una- breaking him on the wheel. And he somelarmed; busy to improve their private prop- times, though rarely, rises to a strain of erty and the public stock ; fleets covering the grave and earnest eloquence, in which he is ocean, bringing home wealth by the returns for the moment what he would have had the of industry ; carrying assistance or terror world believe him always. As, however, it abroad by the direction of wisdom, and asserting triumphantly the right and the honor was the object of this essay to determine the of Great Britain, as far as waters roll and as position of Bolingbroke, not in English litwinds can waft them.'

erature, but in English politics, we cannot

enlarge on this topic, or give quotations in Set against this is the theory that the less support of our opinion. we trust to individuals the better; and that We have sketched the Statesman. At some the best form of government is that which other time, probably, we may recur to the works the most like an automaton ; which | Author.

The old Orders seem dying out in Germany, “ PICTURES from Pennsylvanian Life," being but new ones appear to spring up in their stead. poetry and prose in the Pennsylvanian idioma Thus, we find à ladies'* establishment on the kind of mixed German and English—are forthRhine, where, according to the advertisement, coming in Philadelphia. We notice special 66 special attention is paid to French conversa- chapters entitled respectively, “Birth-announce tion,” existing under the “direction” of “the ments,”! “ Marriage-announcements,” “ Allerlei Sisters of Christian Love, Daughters of the most vom Krieg, beim Dräfte [?]; “ Von den BatBlessed Virgin Mary of the Immaculate Concep- tles,' 56 Vom Hehmkomme,” “ Speaches in tion," etc.

Prosa," etc.--Reader; 8 Aug.

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From Macmillan's Magazine. tions of those who crossed his path in daily THE STORY OF SCHILLER'S REMAINS.


In the early summer of 1805, Schwabe left BY ANDREW HAMILTON.

Weimar on business. Returning on SaturOWING to his long illness and that of his day, the 11th of May, between three and wife, Schiller's finances were brought to the four in the afternoon, his first errand, before lowest ebb. Unable for mental toil, but de- he had seen or spoken to any one, was to pending on that toil for daily bread, the visit his betrothed. She met him in the source of supplies was stopped for him, while passage, not looking quite so cheerful as he expenditure had increased. At the time of expected. The reason was soon told. his death he left bis widow and children al- Schiller was dead. For two days already he most penniless.

had lain a corpse : and that night he was to Penniless, and for the moment, at least- be buried. even in the Muses' favored city of Weimar-1 On putting further questions, Schwabe almost friendless, too. The duke and duchess stood aghast at what he learned. There was were absent; Goethe lay ills even Schiller's to be no public funeral; there was scarcely brother-in-law Wolzogen was away from even to be a decent private one. The cirhome. Frau von Wolzogen was with her sis- cumstances of the Schiller family were such ter, but seems to have been equally ill-fitted that every arrangement, connected with the to bcar a sbare of the load that had fallen interment, had been planned at the least pos so heavily on the shoulders of the two poor sible cost. No friend seemed to have thought women. Heinrich Voss was the only friend of interfering. The funeral was to take place admitted to the sick-room; and, when all immediately after midnight, and in the utmost was over, it was he who went to the joiner's, stillness; there was to be no display, no reand-knowing the need of economy-or-ligious rite, and no convoy of friends. Beardered "a plain deal coffin." It cost ten ers had been hired to carry the remains to shillings of our money.

the churchyard, and no one else was to atThe house in which Schiller spent his last tend. years—its lowly roof is familiar to many who At that time, in Weimar, the tradesmen's have stopped at Weimar-was, at that time, guilds possessed, in rotation, the singular a sort of appendage to a larger house with privilege of conducting funerals, receiving for which it was connected by a garden " no their services payment that varied with the bigger than a tea-tray.” But the poet was rank of the deceased. When Schiller died, much in the garden : and, whenever any of it happened to be the turn of the guild of the inmates of the adjoining house passed tailors; and the tailors accordingly were to that way, he was sure to say some kind carry him to his grave. words to them over the railing. One of the The young clerk's blood boiled at what he daughters was at the time engaged to be was told ; regret, veneration, and anger were married. Her betrothed, Carl Lebercht hard at work in him. He felt that all this Schwabe, had in his student days in Jena, could not go on ; but to prevent it was diffibeen one of an enthusiastic band of Schiller's cult. There were but eight bours left; and admirers, who used on summer afternoons to the arrangements, such as they were, had march over in parties of ten or a dozen to already all been made. witness the performance of a new tragedy in However he went straight to the house of the Weimar theatre - marching back to death and requested an interview with Frau Jena overnight. Having finished his stud- von Schiller. She, very naturally, declined ies and returned to his native town, where to see him. He then sent up his name a be got an appointment to some clerkship, second time, begging urgently that he might Schwabe found in the house, or rather in the be permitted to speak with her, and adding back-court, of his future parents-in-law, fa- that he had come about the funeral of her vorable opportunities of making the poet's husband. To which Frau von Schiller personal acquaintance. Schiller's manner through the servant, replied, " That she was was always dignified and reserved, but abun- too greatly overwhelmed by her loss to be dantly mild ; and he was above all things able to see or speak to any one ; as for the capable of tracing his mark deep in the affec- funeral of her blessed husband, Mr. Schwabe

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must apply to the Reverend Oberconsistorial- | In the utter silence of the hour, deep sobs rath Günther, who had kindly undertaken were heard from the room adjoining that to see done, what was necessary; whatever in which the dead body was laid. For the the Herr Oberconsistorialrath should direct two poor women who mourned there, the days to be done she would approve of.” With were far enough gone by when they used to this message Schwabe hastened to Günther, sit in Rudolstadt and fancy themselves enand told him he had but half an hour before chanted princesses waiting for the knight arrived in Weimar and heard of the terrible who was to come and set them free, till one loss they had all sustained ; his blood had winter. forenoon two horsemen in mantles boiled at the thought that Schiller should be were actually seen riding up the street their borne to his grave by hirelings ; he was sure future husbands ! that throughout Germany the hearts of all The coffin was carried down stairs and who had revered their national poet would placed on the shoulders of the friends in waitbeat indignant at the news ; he was equally ing. No one else was to be seen before the sure that in Weimar itself there was not one house or in the streets. It was a moonlight of those who had known and loved the de- night in May, but clouds were up. Unbroken parted who would not willingly render him silence and stillness lay all around. Occasionthe last office of affection ; finally, he had ally pausing to change bearers or to rest, the been directed to bis Hochwürden by Frau von procession moved through the sleeping city Schiller herself. At first Günther shook his to the churchyard of St. James. Having arhead and said, “ It was too late ; everything rived there they placed their burden on the was arranged; the bearers were already or ground at the door of the so-called Kassendered.” Schwabe's manner was doubtless gewölbe, where the gravedigger and his assishurried and excited, not fitted to inspire con tant took it up. fidence; but one refusal did not daunt him. The Kassengewölbe was a public vault beHe offered to become responsible for the pay- longing to the province of Weimar, in which ment of the bearers, recapitulating his argu- it was usual to inter persons of the higher ments with greater urgency. At length the classes, who possessed no burying-ground of Herr Oberconsistorialrath inquired who the their own, the fee demanded each time being gentlemen were that had agreed to bear the a louis d'or. As Schiller had died withoub coffin. Schwabe was obliged to acknowledge securing a resting-place for himself and his that he could not at that moment mention a family, there could have been no more natusingle name ; but he was ready to guarantee ral arrangement than to carry his remains to his Hochwürden that in an hour or two he this vault. It was a grim old building, should bring him the list. On this his Hoch- standing against the wall of the churchyard, würden consented to countermand the tailors. with a steep narrow roof, and no opening of

There was now some hard work to be done, any kind but the doorway which was filled and Schwabe rushed from house to house, up with a grating. The interior was a obtaining a ready ascent from all whom he gloomy space of about fourteen feet either found at home. But some were out; on way. In the centre was a trap-door which which he sent round a circular, begging those gave access to a hollow space beneath. who would come to place a mark against their As the gravediggers raised the coffin, the

He requested them to meet at his clouds suddenly parted, and the moon shed lodgings “ at half-past twelve o'clock that her light on what was earthly of Schiller. night; a light would be placed in the win- They carried him in-they opened the trapdow to guide those who were not acquainted door-and let him down by ropes into the with the house ; they would be kind enough darkness. Then they closed the vault and the to be dressed in black, but mourning-hats, outer grating. Nothing was spoken or sung, crapes, and mantles he had already pro- The mourners were dispersing, when their

Late in the evening he placed the attention was attracted by a tall figure in a list in Günther's hands. Several appeared to mantle at some distance in the graveyard sobwhom he had not applied ; in all upwards of bing loudly. No one knew who he was ; twenty.

and for many years it remained curiously Between midnight and one in the morning, wrapped in mystery, giving rise to strange the little band proceeded to Schiller's house. conjectures. But eventually it turned out to




have been Schiller's brother-in-law, Wolzo-sorrow. On the Sunday afternoon, at the gen, who, having hurried home on hearing of o'clock, was held, in presence of a crowded the death, had arrived after the procession was congregation, the usual burial-service in already on its way to the churchyard. church. A part of Mozart's Requiem was

Thus—we cannot say “rested'?—but thus performed, and an oration was delivered by were at least put out of sight for many years Superintendent Vogt. the remains of Schiller. The dust of stran- Twenty-one years elapsed, and much had gers had gone before him to the vault, and changed in Weimar. Amongst other things the dust of strangers followed him. The our young friend Carl Schwabe had, in the custom was to let down a coffin till it found year 1820, risen to be Bürgermeister, and was bottom on something, and then to leave it ; now a Paterfamilias and a man of much conoccasionally a little packing was done in the sideration in his native city. A leal-hearted way of pushing the older inmates into the Herr Bürgermeister, who, in the midst of corners. When travellers came to Weimar many weighty civic affairs, could take a look and asked to see Schiller's grave, they were backwards now and then to the springtime of taken to the Jakobskirchof and shown the his own life and the summer of German song, grim Kassengewölbe. Louis, afterwards King when all within himself and in the Fatherof Bavaria, was there in 1814; he wanted to land had seemed so full of wonder and promsee the coffin, and was told it could no longer ise. Did he and his wife sometimes talk of be distinguished from the rest.

the days of their wooing under the poet's eye, Even at the time, these strangely “ maimed in the little garden? How much he had rites " made much noise in Germany. The buried that night when he helped to carry newspapers raised a shriek, and much indig-Schiller to the tomb! nation was poured out on Weimar. And it In the year 1826, Carl Schwabe being is difficult altogether to acquit the town. Mayor of Weimar, we must take another Yet we cannot accuse it of indifference, for it look at the Kassengewölbe. It seems that is known that Schiller was personally more the bodies of those whose surviving friends beloved than any of his contemporaries, and paid a louis d'or for the privilege of committhat, during the days which followed his ting them to the protection of that weatherdeath, each man spoke softly to his neigh- beaten structure were by no means buried in bor. Surely in higher quarters the zeal and hope of a blessed resurrection. It was the energy were lacking which, at the last mo- custom of Landschaftscollegium, or provincial ment, prompted a young man of no great board under whose jurisdiction this institustanding to take on his own shoulders the tion was placed, to clear out the Kassengeburden of redeeming his country from a wölbe from time to time-whenever it was great reproach. It has been said that re- found to be inconveniently crowded-and by spect for the wishes of the widow, who de- this means to make way for other deceased sired that“ everything might be done as qui- persons and other louis d'or. On such occaetly as possible," restrained action. Alas! sions—when the Landschaftscollegium gave Frau von Schiller's desires on this head were the order “aufzuräumen," it was the usage dictated, as far as she was concerned, by stern to dig a hole in a corner of the churchyard necessity. The truth seems to be that then, |--then to bring up en masse the contents of as now, Schiller's countrymen lacked a cap- the Kassengewölbe-coffins, whether entire tain-somebody to take the initiative. The or in fragments, bones, skulls, and tattered constituted leaders of Weimar society were graveclothes-and finally to shovel the whole out of the way, and in their absence the heap into the aforesaid pit. Overhaulings of worthy citizens were as helpless as sheep this sort did not take place at stated intervals, without either shepherd or collie. The court but when it chanced to be convenient; and was away from home; and Goethe lay so ill they were hardly fair towards the latest occuthat for some days no one ventured to men- pants, who certainly did not get the value of tion Schiller's name in his bearing. It is their money. believed that his friend lay already under- In March, 1826, Schwabe was dismayed at ground before Goethe knew that he was dead. hearing that the Landschaftscollegiuin had

The theatre was closed till after the fu- decreed a speedy “clearing out of the neral; and this was the only sign of public Gewölbe. His old prompt way of acting bad

not left him ; he went at once to his friend inscriptions, but even the metal plates crumWeyland, the president of the said Collegium. bled away on being fingered, and their in“ Friend Weyland,” he said, “ let not the scriptions were utterly effaced. Damp had dust of Schiller be tossed up in the face of reigned absolute in the Kassengewölbe. Two heaven and flung into that hideous hole! plates only were found with legible characLet me at least have a permit to search the ters, and these were foreign to the purpose. vault; if we find Schiller's coffin, it shall be The utter and unexpected chaos seems to reinterred in a fitting manner in the New have disconcerted the most sanguine. There Cemetery.” The president made no difficulty. was no apparent chance of success; and, In 1826 all men would have been glad to when Coudray proposed that they should undo the ignominy of 1805, and a Herr Bür- close proceedings for that day, and defer a germeister was a different sort of person to more searching investigation till another time, deal with from the young clerk whom his he met with a ready assent. Probably every Hochwürden the Oberconsistorialrath Gün- one but the mayor looked on the matter as ther could bully at leisure. Weyland made hopeless. They reascended the ladder and out a formal order to admit the Mayor of shut up the vault. Weimar, and any gentlemen he might bring Meanwhile the strange proceedings in the with bim, to inspect the Kassengewölbe. Kassengewölbe began to be noised abroad.

Schwabe invited several persons who had The churchyard was a thoroughfare, and known the poet, and amongst others the man many passengers had observed that someRudolph who had been Schiller's servant at thing odd was going on.

There were persons the time of his death. On March 13th, living in Weimar whose near relatives lay in at four o'clock in the afternoon, the party the Gewölbe ; and, though neither they nor met at the churchyard, the sexton and his the public at large had any objection to offer assistants having received orders to be pres- to the general “ clearing out,” they did ent with keys, ladders, etc. The vault was raise very strong objections to this mode of formally opened; but, before any one entered anticipating it. So many pungent things beit, Rudolph and another stated that the coffin gan to be said about violating the tomb, disof the deceased Hofrath von Schiller must be turbing the repose of the departed, etc., that one of the longest in the place. After this the Bürgermeister perceived the necessity of the secretary of the Landschaftscollegium was going more warily to work in future. requested to read aloud, from the records of solved to time his next visit at an hour when the said board, the names of such persons as few persons would be likely to cross the had been interred shortly before and after the churchyard at that season. Accordingly, two year 1805. It was done : on which the grave- days later, he returned to the Kassengewölbe digger, Herr Bielke, remarked that the cof- at seven in the morning, accompanied only fins no longer stood in the order in which by Coudray and the churchyard officials. they had originally been placed, but had Their first task was to raise out of the been much moved at recent burials. The vault altogether six coffins, which it was ladder was then adjusted, and Schwabe, Cou- found would bear removal. By various dray the architect, and the gravedigger were tokens it was proved that none of these could the first to descend. Some others were asked be that which they sought. There were sevto draw near, that they might assist in recog- eral others which could not be removed, but nizing the coffin.

which held together so long as they were left The first glance brought their hopes very standing; all the rest were in the direst conlow. The tenants of the vault were found fusion. Two hours and a half were spent in 6 all over, under, and alongside of each subjecting the ghastly heap to a thorough but

One coffin of unusual length having uitless search ; not a trace of any kind rebeen descried underneath the rest, an attempt warded their trouble. No conclusion but one was made to reach it by listing out of the could stare Schwabe and Coudray in the face way those that were above ; but the processes their quest was in vain; the remains of of the tomb were found to have made greater Schiller must be left to oblivion.

Again the advances than met the eye. Hardly anything Gewölbe was closed, and those who had diswould bear removal, but fell to pieces at the turbed its quiet returned disappointed to their first touch. Scarch was made for plates with homes. Yet, that very afternoon, Schwabe

He re


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