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the possession of occult knowledge; they had | St. John the Baptist, and our efforts to dive their neophytes, and impiously parodied in into the secrets of futurity on All Saints' eve, their profane ceremonies, the primeval modes remain lasting and comparatively harmless reof offering homage, or invoking the Creator mains of Celtic or Teutonic Mythology, so all of the world. When spiritual and powerful attempts by means of witchcraft,* to recover qualities were imputed to matter, or those lost goods, to avert evil from ourselves, or ininfluences that produce modifications or flict it on our neighbors, are connected with changes therein, it was but a natural se- the gloomy rites paid to the representations quence that the heavenly agents, the angels, of evil in the operations of nature or their should become the genii, or good dæmons, or own passions, by the ancient seekers of inferintelligences, and that the memory of the evil nal aid. spirits should keep its hold on the popular Every sincere believer in the inspiration imagination, and their essences be perpetu- and authenticity of the Scriptures, will acated in those malignant beings represented knowledge that before, and at the period of, in surviving specimens of Etruscan art, in the Our Lord's appearance on the earth, the deEgyptian Typhon, in the Scandinavian Loki, mons were permitted to sensibly afflict the and the Wolf Fenris, and the world-encir- bodies of men.f Witness Job and the decling Serpent, and the Giants of Jotunheim. moniacs relieved by the Saviour. They likeand the Orcus or Pluto of Greece and Rome, wise exerted some influence over irrational and his grisly satellites, and triple-headed animals, the possession of the swine for indog, and the Incubi and Succubi, and the stance. fearful Larvæ, and the dread Parcæ, and the To those who cannot suppose or believe representatives of war, and of natural scourges that there is a spiritual essence capable of all and evils, and of man's own baleful passions. evil and incapable of good, and whom we des
The primeval knowledge possessed by man ignate by Satan or Devil, and who, if they of the subserviency of all the powers of pain granted his existence, cannot conceive how or evil to the great and good Creator, became he could open a communication with a huenfeebled and perverted, till they came at last man being, or how he could, by entering into to be looked on as influences whose powers such human being, set him distracted, or how did not depend for their continuance on the he could produce madness in an irrational pleasure or will of Heaven's Ruler or Rulers. herd of swine, and drive them to their deOsiris and Isis could not extinguish Typhon, struction,-to such, part of what is said or even deprive him of his evil privileges ; above will appear void of sense. the Giants, and Loki, and the Wolf, bade are to grant nothing but what we can underdefiance to the dwellers in Asgard, to whom stand, then there are no such things as dreams, man was dear; the Titans, the Furies, and muscular motion is not the result of intelthe Grisly King of Hell, paid no direct wor- lect acting on fine, soft, sensitive threads of ship to Zeus or Jupiter. So all these sinister nerves, and communicating messages through and baleful sub-divinities, gradually found them from the central seat of consciousness. incense burning to them, and sacrifices offered In fact, no animal functions were ever disin deprecation of their dread offices. These charged, for it is beyond human intellect to sacrifices were mostly the intestines of black conceive how the soul, undecaying and alanimals, and the hair and nails of human be- ways the same, is now ultimately united with ings; and the institution still survives, wher- the tissues of a certain body, and is found ever Fetish worship is kept up by the igno- after the lapse of some months, as intimately rant and lazy denizens of tropical countries, united with an entirely different set of nerves, or the benighted dwellers within the Arctic muscles, bones, etc. The former frame havcircle.
ing been entirely decomposed, and sunk into The Manichean belief in Arimanes the in- the earth, or flown into the air in minute dependent Evil Principle, over Ormuzd, the particles. Good Principle, could not obtain any decided
* Wissen to know ; hence also wit. victory, harmonizes well with this portion of + If any weight were to be given to the interpremythology. As our lighter and more grace- tation of some who pretend that demoniacs were ful fairy fictions, and resorting to holy wells, nature, all certainty as to the meaning of ordinary
merely relieved of some ailment incident to humun and our bonfires on the eves of May Day and speech would be at an end.
But if we
The children of Israel could not have abode success in individual speculations; witchso long among the idolatrous Egyptians with hazel twigs held upright by two forks would out having seen magic-rites practiced, and turn down when over concealed treasures ; or having been more or less influenced for the a candle, made with the fat of a dead man, worse by evil examples.
and held in a dead man's hand, would light So we find Moses forbidding such practices the selfish and unscrupulous seeker to conas the following: Divining by the motions cealed hoards; and the practitioners would of the clouds, or perhaps enchanting by the never omit the muttering of charms during eye, consulting the flights of birds, or the the operation. movements of terrestrial animals, enchanting Then, if the life of an undesirable indiby drugs or charmed forms of speech, unlaw- vidual was aimed at, there were powerful ful prying into the occult qualities of matter, charms devoting him to death ; and a waxen consulting familiar spirits or the souls of the image, set slowly to melt before the fire would departed.
involve his gradual decay; or pierced with The prohibition was not unneeded, as the knives or bodkins, would inflict sympathetic Woman of Endor is found invoking or pre- pangs on his sensitive frame. tending to invoke a spirit to give an answer Horace's Canidia was skilled in such mato the reckless King of Juda. She evidently nipulations, and the art was not lost in the was confident of producing in person some days of the wife of good Duke Humphrey familiar spirit or phantasm of her own con- (herself a professor), nor for a score of centrivance, and hence her surprise when the turies later. ghost of Samuel, or an angel in his likeness, However the charms still used by ignorant made his appearance.
and superstitious people may savor of ChrisIf evil spirits had prescience of coming tian faith somewhat abused, there can be no events before the reign of Christ was estab- doubt but modern incantations are the mere lished on earth, then it is scarcely to be relics of some that were spoken years before doubted that they imparted this gift to the the Christian era. Here is a charm, once priestesses who ministered at Delphi ; or popular in parts of Ireland, at all events. those who served Jupiter at Dodona, or in There are varieties of it to be found in Engthe Libyan Oasis. No means more effective land :could the devil have used to confirm the worship of the false deities, who were supposed 6. St. Peter sitting on a marble stone, our to communicate this foreknowledge. Saviour passing by, asked him what was the
If this were not in the power of the fiends, matter. • Oh, Lord, a tooth-ache!' Stand and if there be such a faculty incident to up, Peter, and follow me; and whoever keeps persons in a diseased state of nerve as clair- these words in memory of me, shall never be
troubled with a tooth-ache.' Amen." voyance, the priestesses were in this category,
the impostor priests, the hard-headed The next charm is worthy this one. magnetizers, throwing them into the state of have not heard it in Ireland :.lucid trance, got from them the information
CHARM FOR THE TOOTH-ACHE.
CHARM FOR CRAMP. they needed. Supposing that these means “ The devil is tying a knot in my leg, were not resorted to, they who were the de
Mark, Luke, and John, unloose it, I beg.
Crosses three we make to ease us, positaries of the learning of the times would
Two for the thieves, and one for Christ Jesus.” use drugs or fumes to produce a kindred ef
CHARM FOR EPILEPSY.-NO. 1. fect. Besides these, the only remaining the
“Caspar brings myrrh, Melchior incense, ory available is, that the agency
whoever carries these three ingenious agents were at work to procure all
names about with him, will, through Christ, sorts of informatien; and that juggling re- be free from the falling sickness.” plies, answers dictated by extensive knowl
While using No. 2, the operator takes the edge, and deep human penetration were
patient by the hand, and whispers in his ear, returned. To those whose object was their own aggran- cantation :
thus combining animal magnetism and indizement, different modes presented them
* These are the traditional names given to the selves according to circumstances ; sacrifices Magi that came to adore the infant Saviour. Their were offered to Mercury, or other deities, for relics are supposed to rest in Cologne.
“ I abjure thee by the sun, and the moon, favorite under the hands of the barber, and and the gospel of this day, that thou arise, his fair locks falling from the scissors. She and no more fall to the ground. In the hurries her maid to the shop of the artist in name,” etc., etc., etc.
hair, to secure some of the curly locks, and Among the peasantry in portions of Ire- when welcome darkness arrives, she brings land some fifty years since, the following out on a balcony open at both ends— prayer, slightly tinged with the character of
" Divers sorts of aromatics, tablets engraved à charm, would be repeated after lying down with unknown characters, nails wrenched to rest :
from ships wrecked on the ocean, limbs and “ Here I lay me down to sleep,
remnants of buried and unburied corpses, To God I give my soul to keep ;
noses and fingers, pieces of flesh of crucified Sleep now, sleep never,
criminals sticking to the iron nails, bloodTo God I give my soul forever.
stained daggers of assassins, and skulls, from Four corners on my bed,
which the teeth of wild beasts had ripped Four angels o’er them spread,
the scalp. All these things she arranged in Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John,
proper order; and then, after performing a God bless the bed that I lie on !
sacrifice, and pronouncing, an incantation When I'm asleep and cannot see, over the palpitating entrails of the victim, Wake, sweet Jesus, and comfort me.
she poured over them a libation of cows' Jesus within me, Jesus without me,
milk, mountain honey, and wine diluted Twelve Apostles round about me! God the Father bless me,
with spring water. Finally, she took the Illuminate and sanctify me,
hair, mixed with it much perfume, plaited This good night and for evermore.
it in several distinct locks, tied all the locks Amen." in a knot together, and threw them on the
live coals of a chafing dish to be consumed.” However objectionable the form here and there, it was repeated in good faith and with The next expected result would be the genuine piety.
hastening of the young man to her door; There is scarcely a variety of witchcraft but something had gone wrong in the preor sorcery witnessed or suspected in modern paration of the unholy rite. Photis, the times, which cannot be traced to anti-Chris- maid, prowling about the barber's chair, had tian times. The following instance is selected conveyed some of the Theban’s flowing ringfrom the “Golden Ass” of Lucius Apu- lets into her bosom, but the worthy barber
was on the watch. He seized and searched Pamphile, a married woman, is distin- her, recovered the stolen honors, and gave guished by her. want of fidelity to her hus- the roguish maid the key of the street. She band, Milo. She can control the elements, coming home in great fear of a beating, saw shake the stars in their sphere, raise the three goat-skin bags of wine resting on a spirits of the dead, and enthrall the divinities wall; some tufts of hair resembling the dethemselves. Being anxious for a dark night, sired ones in color, were soon detached from that she may execute a love spell, she threat- these skins and burned unsuspectingly by ens the sun himself with a misty veil if he Pamphile. Now comes the bizarre result of does not accelerate his chariot wheels down the sorcery. No sooner had the hair begun the western slope. She has seen her new to crackle than the wine-bags, with their
contents, roused to a factitious state of exist* This writer was born at Madaura, S.W. of Car- ence, and obeying the potent spell, rushed thage, in the
second century. While travelling to furiously towards Milo's house. Alexandria, for the purpose of study, he stayed at Occa (now Tripoli), at the house of a young friend ; Arrived there, they thundered at the door, and the mother of this youth, a rich widow, thought and the hero of the tale, a temporary visitor fit to endow him with her hand and her treasures. He was brought to trial by her family for the al- returning belated, saw what he supposed leged crime of having bewitched her, but was hon- were three bluff robbers striving to effect an orably acquitted. His apology on this occasion was entrance. He rushed on them, and his sword a favorite with succeeding scholars. His “Golden Ass” is a curious specimen of early romance.
was in their vitals before they could devise the translation of it into English by Sir George any effective plan of defence. He was taken Head, Longman and Co., 1851, the indelicate pas. up by the patrol, tried for the murder of the Heathen Society, written by a lleathen, such blem- three citizens, and exposed to public deriishes were certain to abound.
sion and laughter, as all but himself knew
what and who the sufferers were. Apuleius | he had been kicked by his own beasts, seized is supposed to have introduced this passage on by banditti, and begun to be hurried into his philosophic tale for the purpose of through all the strange adventures in the throwing ridicule on his own prosecutors work, including the original of the bandit for their treatment of himself, on the score and cavern-scene of Gil Blas. of his magic.
The higher and nobler portion of the sciPamphile, wondering at the ill-success of ence having been transmitted to the profesher charm, took an opportunity next night sors of the Cabbala, resulted, to the great to change herself into an owl, to fly away to surprise of the sage experimenters themselves, her love, as he would not, or perhaps could in valuable chemical discoveries, and a great not, come to her.
advance in our knowledge of astronomy. “ She first divested herself of all her
Canidia and Pamphile, and their sisters, left
garments, and then having unlocked a chest, to modern wizards and witches, nothing bettook from it several little boxes, and opened ter than skill in the concocting of poisons one which contained a certain ointment. and love philters, and charms to withdraw Rubbing this ointment a good while between the produce of cultivated fields, and of cattle, the palms of her hands, she anointed her from their rightful owners, and spells prowhole body, and then whispered many magic ducing lingering sickness and death, by meltwords to a lamp, as if she was talking to it; then she began to move her arms, first with ing wax effigies of the victims, and other dia
bolical means. tremulous jerks, and afterwards by a gentle undulating motion, till a glittering downy
There have been but few varieties in the surface overspread her body; feathers and rites of sorcery during three thousand years, strong quills burst forth presently, her nose the change of faith from Paganism to Chrisbecame a hard, crooked beak, her toes tianity having effected little worth notice. changed to curved talons, and Pamphile was It will be sufficient to quote the ceremonies no longer Pamphile, but it was an owl I saw of which the Lady Alice Kyteler, of Kilkenny, before me. And now, uttering a harsh, quer
son, ulous scream, leaping from the ground by
William Outlawe, and their accomlittle and little, in order to try her powers'; plices, were accused about the year 1300. and presently, poising herself aloft on her Ireland has had in her time a liberal quota pinions, she stretched forth her wings on of troubles, but certainly very few of them either side to their full extent, and flew proceeded from witch-finding and witch-burnaway.”
ing on a large scale – for this let us be duly Lucius, envying the witch her power, begs thankful! The Kilkenny cause célèbre was a of Photis to furnish him with a box of the very remarkable one, but we have no space ointment. She is at first unwilling, but to enter into its details, with the exception finally complying, she unfortunately hands of some of the alleged magic rites. Lady him a wrong one; and when he is swinging Alice was accused of having been seen sweephis arms in triumph, expecting to be on the ing the dust of the street * to the threshold wing in a moment, he finds his tender skin of her son, William, mumbling this charm hardening, his soles degenerating into horny the while,hoofs, his palms the same, his mouth becom
- To the house of William, my son, ing a muzzle, his ears lengthening, and his Hie all the wealth of Kilkenny town.” entire structure and nature metamorphosed
Herself and her friends were accused of reinto those of an ass. Photis is in despair for a moment, but recollecting herself, she bids manhood a poor brother, who by any means, magic
Homo Sum would not take pleasure in restoring to him be of courage. He has nothing to do or what you will, had gothimself converted into owl but to masticate the first rose he meets in the or ass. morning, and he will be as good a man as doings. A witch, desirous to transfer the produce
* There was much symbolism in all these devil's ever. Had he changed to a bird, a drink of of a farmer's lands to herself or another, would be water, in which a little anniseed and a few found on May morning skimming the dew off the laurel leaves had been steeped, would have grass of one of his meadows into a bowl. She would
draw the spancel of one of his cows, to take the milk restored him.* Alas ! before morning came, from his flock; she would draw the pot-rack, and
after awhile, removing the pot-lid, she would find * We give with some reluctance, formulas of sor- the pot filled with curds and whey, if the spell was cery, but have no hesitation in quoting this one at lucky; all the operations being accompanied by length, for who that can honestly quote Terence's charmed rhymes, chanted in a low, mysterious tone.
nouncing their faith in the Saviour for cer- ness of goat, or dog, or the old god Pan, retain periods, during which time they would ceived them; how he made inquiries as to not attend at Mass, say a prayer, nor dis- the amount of mischief each had done since charge any religious function whatever. They last reunion, and how he distributed rewards killed certain animals, and flung the torn por- or stripes, according to the greater or less tions about at cross-roads, thus offering them amount of evil wrought. as a sacrifice to Robin, Son of Artis, a devil After these reports were handed in, and of low degree. They mimicked the ceremony the needful labor finished, the amusement of excommunication against sundry parties grew fast and furious. When dancing was to whom they bore ill will. They sacrificed the order of the night, the fiend made music to the demons the intestines of cocks, mingled on a peculiar flageolet, sometimes using his with horrible worms, baleful herbs, nails and nose as a substitute; and when the orgies, hair of dead men, the clothes and portions of altogether unfit for description, came to an the bodies of unchristened children. They end, each jaded old girl and boy (for men boiled these and other such ingredients in the were also of the horrible society) were conskull of an executed criminai, over a fire of veyed by the same steeds to the place from oak sticks. They made magic powders and whence they came, and were scarcely able to magic candles from the hellish mixture, to leave their beds for a week. excite love in some, and procure lingering Early in the sixteenth century, trials for deaths for others.
witchcraft began in Scotland. The celebrated Lady Alice had held conferences with the case connected with the Munroes of Fowlis, said Robin Artisson in the shapes of a black occupied public attention from about 1577 to cat, a black dog, and a black man. She was the end of the century. known to have sacrificed to him nine red It is well known that when the Scottish cocks, and nine peacocks' eyes, at a stone Solomon was not hunting, cased in his padded bridge; and on more than one occasion to suit, or writing Latin polemics, or indecent have anointed a coulter, and performed long, songs, or unbending with his favorites, he airy journeys on it. So far her accusers. was gloating over the revelations made by Lady Alice, however, got in safety to Eng- the miserable, distracted creatures—in great land. William Outlawe, a man of influence, part the result of insidious questions put to submitted to imprisonment for a season ; and them by their torturers, or of the workings poor Petronilla de Meath was burnt. She of their own crazed intellects on the subjects had been flogged six times ; and it is proba- of past trials, and fireside conversations in ble that she confessed to being present at the city and country. One trial for sorcery came horrible rites above named, in company with too near to himself to be pleasant. Lady Alice, to escape a repetition of the de Lady Essex married very young, cared litgrading torture. She was the first real or tle for her lord, but much for young Carr, suspected witch burned in Ireland. We do James's minion. Doctor Forman and Mrs. not at this moment recollect another. Turner were employed by her to use their
In the reign of Philip Augustus, the Tem- knowledge of sorcery to put the Earl of Es plars were put on their defence in more than sex out of the way, and secure for herself the one kingdom, and accused of crimes too hor- affections of the Earl of Somerset-Carr. The rible even to be mentioned in this place, and husband obstinately continued to live; so a the suppression of the Order was the re- divorce was got on plausible grounds, and the sult. From the middle of the fifteenth cen- guilty pair were wedded. Sir Thomas Overtury, with little interruptions, there were in bury, who had been the most useful agent Germany and Belgium and France, a series in the commencement of the intrigue, some of searches for, and findings of, witches. how displeased the earl and countess, and was
Sabat meetings were the subjects into which committed to the Tower. He is supposed to the judges entered with the greatest zest. have been there poisoned, and Carr and his They were never weary of hearing how the lady were brought to trial.
very poor, old, demented creatures anointed twig, urgent reasons, exerted himself to get an acor broom, or tongs, and how they flew through quittal. Mrs. Turner was executed in her the air to the brocken, or any other conven- yellow ruff. Dr. Forman would also have ient dance-floor; how Old William, in like suffered only for having met with a sudden