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you than

years without

his own.

measure of faith and love granted them, more present and for the future, this troubles me or less share."

more than I can say. My sympathies, my Maurice returned to Le Cayla in the summer towards any other member of our family, I

inclinations, carry me more towards you than of 1837, and passed six months there. This have the misfortune to be fonder of meeting entirely restored the union between of anything else in the world, and my heart him and his family. “ These six months had from of old built in you its happiness. with us," writes his sister, “ he ill, and find Youth gone and life declining, I looked foring himself so loved by us all, had entirely ward to quitting the scene with Maurice. re-attached him to us. Five

At any

time of life a great affection is a great seeing us had perhaps made him a little lose happiness; the spirit

comes to take refuge in sight of our affection for him ; having found

it entirely. O delight and joy which will

never be it again, he met it with all the strength of direction of God shall I find an issue for my

your sister's portion? Only in the He had so firmly renewed, before heart to love, as it has the notion of loving, he left us, all family ties, that nothing but as it has the power of loving.” death could bave broken them.” The separation in religious matters between the brother

From such complainings, in which there is and sister gradually diminished, and before undoubtedly something morbid, -complainMaurice died it had ceased. I have elsewhere ings which she herself blamed, to which she spoken of Maurice's religious feeling and its seldom gave way, but which, in presenting character. It is probable that his divergence her character, it is not just to put wholly out from bis sister in this sphere of religion was

of sight,-she was called by the news of an never so wide as she feared, and that his re

alarming return of her brother's illness. For union with her was never so complete as she some days the entries in her journal show her hoped. “ His errors were passed,” she says, agony of apprehension.

“He coughs, he “his illusions were cleared away ; by the coughs still! Those words keep echoing forcall of his nature, by original disposition, he ever in my ears, and pursue me wherever I had come back to sentiments of order. I go; I cannot look at the leaves on the trees knew all, I followed each of his steps ; out without thinking that the winter will come, of the fiery sphere of the passions (which held and that then the consumptive die.” Then him but a little moment) I saw him pass into she went to him and brought him back by the sphere of the Christian life. It was a

slow stages to Le Cayla, dying. He died on beautiful soul, the soul of Maurice." But the 19th of July, 1839. the illness which had caused his return to

Thenceforward the energy of life ebbed in Le Cayla reappeared after he got back to her; but the main chords of her being, the Paris in the winter of 1837–8. Again he chord of affection, the chord of religious longseemed to recover ; and his marriage with a ing, the chord of intelligence, the chord of young reole lady, Malle. Caroline de Ger- sorrow, gave, so long as they answered to the vain, took place in the autumn of 1838. At touch at all, a deeper and finer sound than the end of September in that year, Mdlle. de ever. Always she saw before her “ that beGuérin had joined her brother in Paris ; she loved pale face ; 66 that beautiful head, was present at his marriage, and stayed with with all its different expressions, smiling, him and his wife for some months afterwards. speaking, suffering, dying,” regarded her alHer journal recommences in April, 1839; ways :zealously as she had promoted her brother's

66 I have seen his coffin in the same room, marriage, cordial as were her relations with in the same spot where I remember seeing, her sister-in-law, it is evident that a sense of when I was a very little girl, his cradle, when loss, of loneliness, invades her, and sometimes I was brought home from Gaillac, where I weighs her down. She writes in her journal was then staying, for his christening. This on the 4th of May :

christening was a grand one, full of rejoicing,

more than that of any of the rest of us; spe“God knows when we shall see one another cially marked. I enjoyed myself greatly, and again! My own Maurice, must it be our lot went back to Gaillac next day, charmed with to live apart, to find that this marriage, which my new little brother. Two years afterwards I had so much share in bringing about, which I came home, and brought with me for him I hoped would keep us so much together, a frock of my own making. I dressed him leaves us more asunder than ever ? For the in the frock, and took him out with me along

66 Poor

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by the warren at the north of the house, and depths of her being, blew. She marks in her there he walked a few steps alone, his first journal the first of May, “ this return of the walking alone, and I ran with delight to tell loveliest month in the year,” only to keep up my mother the news: · Maurice, Maurice has the old habit : even the month of May can no begun to walk by himself! !--Recollections which, coming back to-day, break one's longer give her any pleasure: “ Tout est heart!"

changé-all is changed.She is crushed by The shortness and suffering of her brother's the tearless, dry misery, which bruises the

the misery which has nothing good in it, life filled her with an agony of pity.

heart like a hammer." beloved soul, you have had hardly any happiness here below; your life has been so short, “ I am dying to everything. I am dying your repose so rare. O God, uphold me, able suffering. Lie there, my poor journal

of a slow moral agony, a condition of unutterstablish

my heart in thy faith! Alas, I have be forgotten with all this world which is fadtoo little of this supporting me! How, we ing away from me. I will write here no have gazed at him and loved him and kissed more until I come to life again, until God rehim—his wife, and we, his sisters ; he lying awakens me out of this tomb in which my soul lifeless in his bed, his head on the pillow as lies buried. Maurice, my beloved ! it was if he were asleep! Then we followed him to not thus with me when I had you! The the churchyard, to the grave, to his last rest- thought of Maurice could revive me from the ing-place, and prayed over him, and wept world was enough for me.

most profound depression : to have him in the

With Maurice, over him; and we are here again, and I am to be buried alive would have not seemed dull writing to him again, as if he were staying to me. away from home, as if he were in Paris. My

And, as a burden to this funereal strain, the beloved one, can it be, shall we never see one old vide et néant of Bossuet, profound, solemn, another again on earth ?”

sterile :But in heaven ? --- and here, though love

6. So beautiful in the morning, and in the of the sister's longing sometimes inspired tor- evening, that! how the thought disenchants

one, and turns one from the world! I can turing inquietudes :

understand that Spanish grandee, who, after “ I am broken down with misery. I want lifting up the winding-sheet of a beautiful to see him. Every moment I pray to God to queen, threw himself into a cloister and begrant me this grace. Heaven, the world of came a great saint. I would have all my spirits, is it so far from us? Oh, depth, oh, friends at La Trappe, in the interest of their mystery of the other life which separates us ! eternal welfare. Not that in the world one I, who was so eagerly anxious about him, who cannot be saved, not that there are not in the wanted so to know all that happened to him, world duties to be discharged as sacred and -wherever he may be now, it is over! Í as beautiful as there are in the cloisters, follow him into the three abodes,

I stop wist

but ... fully in the place of bliss, I pass on to the place of suffering—to the gulf of fire. My God, my terwards her journal comes to an end. A few

And there she stops, and a day or two afGod, no! Not there let


brother be! not there! And he is not : his soul, the soul of fragments, a few letters carry us on a little Maurice, among the lost . horrible later, but after the 22d of August, 1845, fear, no! But in purgatory, where the soul there is nothing. To make known her is cleansed by suffering, where the failings of brother's genius to the world was the one the heart are expiated, the doubtings of the task she set herself after his death ; in 1840 spirit, the half-yieldings to evil? Perhaps came Madame Sand's noble trbute to him in my brother is there and suffers, and calls to us the Revue des deux Mondes; then followed amidst his anguish of repentance, as he used to call to us amidst his bodily suffering! projects of raising a yet more enduring mon• Help me, you who love me.' 'Yes beloved ument to his fame, by collecting and publishone, by prayer. I will


pray; prayer ing his scattered compositions : these projhas been such a power to me, and I will pray ects, I have already said were baffled ; Mülle. to the end. Prayer ! Oh! and prayer for the de Guérin's letter of the 22d of August, 1845, dead ! it is the dew of purgatory.”

relates to this disappointment. In silence, Often, alas, the gracious dew would not during nearly three years more, she faded fall : the air of her soul was parched: the away at Le Cayla. She died on the 31st of arid wind, which was somewhere in the May, 1848.

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M. Trébutien has accomplished the pious | This quality at last inexorably corrects the task in which Mülle. de Guérin was baffled, world's blunders, and fixes the world's ideals. and has established Maurice's fame ; by pub- It procures that the popular poet shall not lishing this journal he has established Eu- finally pass for a Pindar, nor the popular hisgénie's also, she was very different from her torian for a Tacitus, nor the popular preacher brother; but she too, like him, had that in for a Bossuet. To the circle of spirits her which preserves a reputation. Her soul marked by this rare quality, Maurice and has the same characteristic quality as his Eugénie de Guérin belong; they will take talent, distinction. Of this quality the their place in the sky which these inhabit, world is impatient; it chafes against it, rails and shine close to one another, lucida cidera. at it, insults it, hates it; it ends by receiving

MATTHEW ARNOLD. its influence, and by undergoing its law.


Down to posterity famous shall go :

And far below zero As Sung at the Meeting of the Royal Geographical So

Are Cæsar and Nero, ciety, May 25, 1863, when it was announced

Cries Roderick vich Murchison, ho, ieroe ! that the Nile was Settled."

-Punch. HAIL to the chiefs who in triumph advancing

Bring us as trophy the Head of the Nile ! THE SOURCE OF THE NILE.---To the Editor of Light from the African Mystery glancing The Times.—Sir : The lustre of Captain Speke’s Brightens the name of our Tight Little Isle.

brilliant achievement in settling once and forerer Honor to Speke and Grant,

the fact that the Lake Victoria Nyanza is the Each bold hierophant

source of the Nile will not, I am sure, be impaired Tells what the Ages have thirsted to know : by the disclosure of the strange fact to which I Loud at the R. G. S.

wish by your permission to direct the attention Sets out their great success

of geographers,—the fact, namely, that this great Roderick vich Murchison, ho, ieroe !

lake is correctly laid down in an Atlas, published

116 years ago, by the name of the Lake Zambre, Theirs was no summer trip, scaling a mountain, extending from the 4th to the 11th degree of s.

Making gilt picture-books, dear to the Trade; latitude, and being about 400 miles by 60 in Far in the desert-sand, seeking yon fountain,

breadth, while the accompanying letter press in Perilous tracks the brave travellers made.

a very curious detailed account of the district They are no Longbows,

distinctly states the fact that it is the source of Who, south of Calbongos

the Nile and of two other great rivers. And Galwen, discovered the source of the flow;

The work in question is The Complete System They need no rhyme-prater,

of Geography, by Emanuel Bowen, geographer Their Line's the Equator,

to his majesty, published in two vols., folio, in Says Roderick vich Murchison, ho, ieroe !

1747. The Lake Zambre (alias Victoria Nyanza) will be found in the two maps inserted at pages

384 and 480, and this remarkable paragraph at Nor, boys, alone of the Nile fountain brag we, Now of Ungoro the site we decide,

page 482 under the head of “ Congo proper”;Now we know all of Uganda and Kragwe, “ This kingdom is watered by several rivers, And how King Kamrasi must fatten his bride. the most considerable of which is the Zaire aboveStanford, of Charing Cross,

mentioned, otherwise called the great river of Swears by King Charles's horse,

Congo, which Dapper says springs from three Splendid addition his next map shall show: lakes. The first is called Zambre, out of which

«s Travelled by Grant and Speke,” the Nile issues ; the second Zaire, which forms Vainly he will not seek,

the rivers Lelunde and Coanze, and the third is Roderick vich Murchison, ho, ieroe !

a lake made by the Nile ; but the chief of all is

the Zambre, which is as it were the centre from Shout, buffers, shout for the African Highlands, which proceed all the rivers in this part of AfShout for Nyanza, the Lake on the Line !

rica." Nile, that now wanders through silent and shy The fact that the true source of the Nile was lands,

thus accurately defined more than a century ago Some day may roar like the Thames or the appears well worthy of record. Rhine.

I am, sir, your obedient servant, While the Moon's Mountains stand,

T. HERBERT NOYES, JR. Speke and Grant's gallant band

Paxhill, June 6.

From The Spectator. is 1,760 yards; the Scotch mile is one EngWEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

lish mile and two hundred and seventeen THERE is nothing more illustrative of the yards;, and the Irish mile is one English mile growth of the social life of England than the and four hundred and eighty yards. As to system of weights and measures now in use. the smaller standards of weight and length It is a huge tree, which has developed itself used in trade and commerce, they are almost in the open air, under sunshine, wind, and endlessly diversified. A grocer subdivides rain, untouched by the scissors of art, and his pounds by sixteen ; a goldsmith by twelve, unbiassed by scientific culture. Nearly all twenty, and twenty-four ; and an apothecary the sovereigns and parliaments of Great by twelve, eight, three, and twenty. Again, Britain, from the Conquest to the present a firkin of butter is fifty-six pounds, and a time, have tried to regulate and adjust this firkin of soap sixty-four pounds ; while a barmultiform produce of ages; but it ever es- rel of soap is two hundred and fifty six caped their grasp, rewarding all attempts to pounds, but a barrel of gunpowder only one create uniformity by shooting up in more hundred and twelve pounds. A sack of flour luxurious disorder. It was enacted in Magna is twenty stone, and a sack of coal fourteen Charta that, “ there shall be through our stone, or two hundred and twenty-four realm one weight and one measure," and the pounds. But the little matter as to what injunction was repeated by royal and legisla- the term “ stone” means is not at all settled, tive edicts innumerable, with the only ulti- for a stone of butcher's meat or fish is eight nate effect that there are now at least a hun- pounds, a stone of cheese sixteen pounds, a dred different weights and measures. Every stone of glass five pounds, and a stone of county, nay, every town and village in Eng- hemp thirty-two pounds. In sum total, there land, is happy in its particular standards of seem to be almost as many different weights weight, capacity, and length. Slight differ- and measures in this country as there are ence in the latitude and longitude of a place towns and villages and articles of commerce. will decide whether the measure called a It is the quintessence of individualism and bushel shall consist of one hundred and sixty- self-government-enough, probably, to sateight pounds, or seventy-three pounds, or isfy even Lord Stanley. eighty pounds, or seventy pounds, or sixty The history of the efforts made by succesthree pounds, or only sixty pounds. The sive governments, for the last six hundred most universal article of consumption, wheat, years and more, to bring order and uniformis sold by the bushel of eight gallons at Salt- ity into this state of things is as curious as ash, in Cornwall, and of twenty stones at amusing. In the long struggle of central Dundalk, in Leinster; it is sold, in towns authorities with the spirit of individualism, near to each other, by the load of five quar- the latter invariably ended by getting the ters, by the load of five bushels, and by the upper hand, and not only defeated the obload of three bushels ; by the load of four jects of the former, but turned them in the hundred and eighty-eight quarts at Stow- very opposite direction. Scores of parliamarket, in Suffolk, and of one hundred and mentary commissions deliberated on the vexed forty-four quarts at Ulverston, in Lancashire. question of weights and measures, and nearly It is quite doubtful whether a so-called hun- every one finished the business by adding a dredweight shall contain one hundred and few more to the multifarious standards altwenty pounds or one hundred and twelve ready existing, instead of subtracting therepounds. By custom, a hundredweight of from. The standards of measure and weight pork at Belfast is one hundred and twenty adopted by the people were always taken pounds ; while at Cork it is one hundred and either from some part of the human body, twelve pounds. The most popular of all such as the foot, the length of the arm,

and measurements, the bushel, is fluctuating from the span of the hand, or from some natural five quarters in some places to four hundred objects, such as a barleycorn, or other kind of and eighty-eight pounds in others, the quar- grain. But the early English sovereigns orter itself being an unsettled quantity, vary- dered the adoption of the yard, supposed to ing no less than from sixty pounds to four be founded upon the breadth of the chest of hundred and eighty. Nor is it even settled our burly Anglo-Saxon ancestors. The yard what is meant by a mile. The English mile continued till the reign of Henry VII., when

the ell, being a yard and a quarter, or forty- of learned men who should settle the matter. five inches, was introduced by the trading They appointed five, among them the famous Flemings and the merchants of the Hanse trio Lagrange, Condorcet, and Laplace, and Towns. Subsequently, however, Queen Eliz- their report was laid before the Legislature abeth brought the old English yard back to at the end of a few months. The unit of its post of honor, and had an imperial stan- length upon which they fixed was the tendard yard made of metal, and safely depos- millionth part of the quadrant, or fourth of ited in the Tower. After that, a series of the meridian of the earth, which measure parliamentary commissions began legislating they proposed to call a metre, deducing thereupon the subject, increasing a hundredfold from, upwards and downwards, on the decithe confusion. Every generation saw a new mal system, all other standards of length, standard springing up, based on the ever- weight, and capacity. The scheme was beauchanging size of barleycorns, or human feet tiful in theory, and irreproachable from the and hands, and the ever-changeable state of philosophical point of view; and though it human minds. Finally, by an Act passed in was well known that its practical execution 1841, the Legislature annihilated all preced- would be productive of many unwelcome ing legislations, abolished all natural stand-changes and much monetary embarrassment, ards of hands and feet and chest, and recom- the Assembly at once adopted it, postponing, mended reference to certain pieces of metal however, the operation of the law for some "enclosed in a case, hermetically sealed and years. Meanwhile, steps were taken to difembedded within the masonry of some public fuse information on the subject; an immense building, the place to be pointed out by a quantity of tables and books were issued at conspicuous inscription on the outside, and nominal prices for the instruction of the gennot to be disturbed without the sanction of eral public, and everything was done to prean Act of Parliament.” But the standard pare the people for the coming change in the pieces, and the masonry, and the conspicuous traffic of every-day life. A request had been inscription were never made; new parlia- previously sent to the English Government to mentary commissions took up the work of the co-operate in the great work, so as to bring old ones, changing it entirely; and so the about an international uniformity of weights thing has gone on till the present moment, and measures ; but the invitation was dethe last " select committee appointed to con- clined with thanks on this side of the Chansider the practicability of adopting a simple nel. The French people themselves did not and uniform system of weights and meas- seem to admire the metric system at all in

having been nominated as recently as the commencement, and it took a long time the month of May, 1862. The labors of this before it found favor, particularly with the youngest-born of select committees have been, lower classes. The law came into force on of course, severe ; and the evidence gathered the 1st of July, 1794; but so great was the in eighteen sittings was presented to the pub- resistance against it, even at the end of lic in the shape of a tremendous blue-book of eighteen years, that the Emperor Napoleon three hundred pages. It is about the fifteenth found it necessary to agree to a thorough blue-book of the kind issued, and in whatever change of the system at a moment when a else parliamentary commissions may have widely popular measure was required of him. been deficient, the literature of weights and on the 12th of February, 1812, bis majesty measures which they have produced certainly issued a decree which virtually superseded weighs and measures something by this time. the law of the Constituent Assembly, and

In France, too, the confusion in weights authorized in all retail transactions the use and measures was great before the Revolu- of the eighth, the sixteenth, and the fourth tion, but the Constituent Assembly of 1789 as divisors, and also the old standard of carried through a radical reform, as far as weights and measures which were still in use legislation was concerned, in the shortest throughout France. There were, therefore, possible time. The demand for uniformity now two systems of weights and measures being universally acknowledged, the Assem- legally established in France; and the two. bly, without further ado, resolved to apply a were used side by side for a quarter of a cenremedy, and for this purpose requested the tury, with the result that the philosophic Academy of Sciences to nominate a number metric system gradually got the upper hand,


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