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Q. What are we to believe concerning the birth of ous Saviour Christ?
A. In the fulness of that time, which was long before appointed in the eternal counsel of God, the holy Jesus, by the miraculous power of the Holy Ghost, was conceived and born of the Virgin Mary, who was of the house and lineage of David. The Saviour was born of a woman, and thus, though without sin, made subject to the law, that, by his obedience to the law, he might deliver us from its penalties; and he was born of the house and lineage of David, to denote his sitting upon that everlasting throne, of which the throne of David was a type, and ruling for evermore the true Israel of God, his obedient people.
Q. Did not the prophecies of the Old Testament predict the miraculous birth of the Messiah ?
A. The prophecies of the Old Testament foretold the miraculous birth of the Messiah. Jeremiah says, The Lord hath created a new thing upon the earth, a woman shall compass a man. Isaiah says, Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel."
Q. What were the circumstances of our Saviour's birth?
A. Christ was born at Bethlehem, according to the prediction of the prophet Micah ;' whither Joseph and Mary went, in obedience to the decree of Augustus, to be taxed. The concourse of people at Bethlehem was so great, that they could find no accommodation but a stable ;t where the blessed Virgin brought forth her first-born son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; dcing herself the offices of a pious and tender parent, whilst all the angels of God worshipped her holy child.'
Q. How was the birth of our Saviour published to the world ?
A. The birth of Christ was proclaimed by the administration of angels. As certain shepherds were keeping watch over their flocks by night, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them.” The splendour of the appearance confounded the humble shepherds; but the angel quickly dissipated the terror that seized them, with the tidings he brought of great joy to all people, addressing them in the joyful words, Unto you is born this day, in the city of David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord."
Jer. xxxi. 22.
Luke ii. 4. w Luke ii. 9.
h Isa. vii. 14.
i Mic. v. 2.
Q. How were the shepherds directed to find this new-born King ?
Å. Lest the shepherds should expect a prince, accompanied with outward pomp and magnificence, the angel describes the meanness and obscurity of his situation : This shall be a sign unto you; ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, and lying in a manger. The shepherds, without delay, went to Bethlehem, and finding the assurances of the angel verified, they published to the world both what they had seen and heard concerning the holy child Jesus.
Q. How was this joyful news of the birth of a Saviour received by the angels and the shepherds ?
A. The multitude of the heavenly host celebrated the birth of Christ in that devout hymn, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men;" and the shepherds, when they had found the real completion of what was told them by the angel, returned, glorifying and prais
Q. This hymn of the angels having been retained in the offices of the Church ever since the primitive times of Christianity, it will be proper to explain it.
A. In this hymn, the blessed angels excited one another to give glory and praise to God for his wonderful works towards the children of men. They celebrated the majesty and greatness of God, those exalted prerogatives of power, wisdom, and goodness, which appeared with the greatest lustre in the stupendous incarnation of the Son of God; and by proclaiming peace on earth, and good will towards men, they signified that Christ should take away the enmity between heaven and earth, and reconcile man to God.
Q. What may we learn from the circumstances attending our Saviour's birth?
A. The eternal Son of God, when he descended upon earth, chose a state of poverty, to teach us, that riches and honours are not valued in the sight of God, nor necessary to true felicity. His birth was, in the first instance, announced, not to the haughty Herod, or to the proud Pharisees and Scribes, who would have contemned the humility of his ap pearance, but to the simple and innocent shepherds of Beth Luke il, 10, 11,
o Luke ii. 12.
p Luke ii. 14.
9 Luke ii. 20
lehem. The important lesson is hereby taught us, that tione but the poor in spirit, none but those who cherish meekness and humility of temper, are prepared to receive the blessings of salvation
Q. At the time of our Saviour's birth, was there not a general expectation throughout the world, of the appearance of some great deliverer ?
A. At the time of our Saviour's birth, the expectation of the coming of the Messiah was universal among the Jews ; and a general expectation of the appearance of some great and powerful personage was cherished among the Gentiles. Suetonius, the famous historian, says, There was an ancient and general opinion, famous throughout all the eastern parts, that the fates had determined that there should come out of Judea those that should govern the world. These words seem to be a verbal translation of that prophecy in Micah, that out of Judah should come the Ruler. Tacitus, another historian, asserts,' that a great many were possessed with a persuasion, that it was contained in the ancient books of the priests, that, at that very time, the East should prevail, and that they who should govern the world were to come out of Judea. The phrase, that the East should prevail, refers to that title given the Messias by the prophet Zechariah," who calls him the man whose name is the East. For though we translate the Hebrew word, Branch, yet it signifies also, the East ; and may be rendered the one as well as the other.
Q. How was Christ qualified to make known the will of God to mankind ?
A. A principal office of our Saviour was to make known the will of God to mankind. He was eminently qualified for this office, by the dignity and excellency of his person; by the clearness and perfection of his doctrine and precepts ; by the brightness of his example; and by the encouragements of gracions assistances and glorious rewards, which he promises to all those who engage and persevere in his service.
Q. How was our Saviour qualified by the dignity of his person to reveal to us the will of God ?
A. He who lay in the bosom of the Father, and had the Spirit communicated to him without measure," in whom dust the fulness of the godhead bodily," must have possessed the most perfect knowledge of the divine will. We have, therefore, the greatest reason to put our trust and confidence in that method of attaining salvation which he has revealed; for it was the contrivance of infinite wisdom, it is the gift of infinite mercy, it is assured to the penitent and faithful, by infinite truth and power.
r Lib. viii. c. 4.
& Mic. v. 2.
t Lib. v. Hist.
Q. Wherein consists the perfection of our Saviour's doce trine and precepts ?
A. The doctrine of Christ sheds the most clear and giori. ous lustre on every subject connected with the spiritual welfare and happiness of man. His Gospel conveys to us just and exalted views of the nature of God, of the perfection of his attributes, of the spirituality of his worship, of the means of access to the throne of his mercy, of the eternal destiny of man: on all these momentous and important subjects, reason conveyed only faint and uncertain knowledge. The precepts of Christ shed new and striking light on all the important duties which we owe to God, our neighbour, and ourselves: they are calculated, by their purity and perfection, to raise our nature to the highest improvement of which it is capable. To prevent our falling into sinful actions, our Saviour lays a restraint upon our thoughts, which influence our conduct, and commands us to govern our senses, which give birth to our thoughts :* to obviate all those evils which proceed from an inordinate desire of riches, he insists on that admirable temper of mind distinguished in his Gospel by poverty of spirit," which teaches us to be humble and contented in every condition : to keep us at a distance from the temptations of lying and detrac
a tion, he has forbidden all idle words, that the care to avoid them may secure us from falling into those greater faults: to hinder the fatal effects of anger and revenge, he has commanded us to love our enemies," and to do good to them who do evil to us : to facilitate the practice of the virtue of patience, so necessary in this vale of tears, he has manifested to us the treasures that are hid in adversity, and the advantage of being persecuted for his sake : assuring us, that what the world calls misfortune and calamity, often proves the instruments of our happiness, both in this life and the next blessed are they that mourn, blessed are they that are perse. cuted :' and to make us quiet and easy in our own minds. and mild and gentle in our conduct to others, he requires 118 to have a quick sense of our own weaknesses and defects, and readily to condescend to the lowest offices, for the good of our neighbours.
Matt. xii. 36.
I Matt. v. 28.
y Matt. v. 3.
Q. Wherein appears the excellence of our Saviour's example ?
À. Our Saviour has set us, in his life, a bright and perfect example of all the virtues which he requires us to cultivate. To impress on us the duties of piety and devotion, he frequently retired, and spent whole nights in prayer;" from worldly occurrences he always sought to raise matter for spiritual thoughts; and he conformed not only to divine institutions, but to human appointments, that tended to promote religion. To teach us humility, the King of glory condescended to the poverty of a stable : this Wisdorn of the Father became dumb, and was reduced to the simplicity of an infant. To teach us the duty of universal benevolence, the whole course of his life was employed in doing good. To engage us to suppress all ambitious desires, he refused the offer of the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them; and when the people would have made him a king, he silently withdrew, and they knew not where to find him." To impress on us the duty of obedience to government, he sheerfully paid tribute, though he was free from any such obligation, and was forced to work a miracle to perform it. To excite us to live above the world, he chose to have no part nor share in the possessions of it, the Son of man not having where to lay his head ;j and though he denied himself in the lawful pleasures and satisfactions of life, yet he was perfectly contented in his mean condition. To teach us in all our sufferings to be resigned to the will of God, in his bitter agony and death he renounced the strong inclination of nature to life, he overcame the aversion of nature to suffering, and cheerfully submitted to the appointment of his Father. To teach us that we should not value the judgment of the world so highly as to permit a regard to it to lead us to trangress the laws of God, he made himself of no reputation;' and, in order to do good to mankind, was contented to be esteemed one of the worst of men, to be in league with Beelzebub," an impostor, a friend and companion of publieans and sinners, and a seducer of the people." To teach us
c Matt. xi. 29.
d Matt. xiv. 23; Luke vi. 12 f Acts. x. 38.
g Matt. iv. 8, &c. i Mati. xvii. 24, 25, &c. j Matt. viii. 20. 1 Phil. 7.
m Luke xl. 15.
e John X. 22. h John vi. 15. k Mat'. xxvi. 39. n Matt. xi. 19.